99年9月號「差異政治:性別‧消費‧後國族想像」

2019-08-16

第三十九卷 第三期 總430 中華民國99年9月
Vol.39 No.2 September 2010

《中外文學》九月號推出「差異政治:性別‧消費‧後國族想像」專輯,由政大日文系黃錦容教授擔任專題編輯。本專輯收錄了四篇精彩論文:謝世宗探討1972-1982年幾部戰後台灣小說中的消費議題,指出小說傳達的男性國族意識,及其經濟論述上銘刻的性別次文本;吳懷晨援用法國思想家巴塔耶(Georges Bataille)的愛欲理論來解析李安的電影《色∣戒》和張愛玲的小說〈色,戒〉,認為愛欲(色)乃人類在禁忌(戒)之後特有的神聖內在經驗;曾秀萍主張施叔青的《行過洛津》透過小說主角許情在戲曲和生活中的性別操演,展現複雜的身分認同、性別流動與家國想像;陳筱筠則以香港作家西西的小說《飛氈》為例,批判香港長期被論述的傷痛、匱乏特質,並強調日常生活經驗發展出的獨特性。除了四篇專題論文,本期亦刊登資深文評家高全之先生的新作〈戰時上海張愛玲:分辨〈等〉的荊刺與梁木〉,其文對張愛玲短篇小說〈等〉的幾個中英文版本進行了詳細的考辨研究。

中外文學九月號目錄
Contents

專題論文
Special Issue Articles

謝世宗╱經濟殖民、大眾消費與進口現代性: 台灣殖民經濟小說及其性別次文本(1972-1982)

經濟殖民、大眾消費與進口現代性
台灣殖民經濟小說及其性別次文本(1972-1982)

謝世宗*

摘要
     在戰後台灣小說史的脈絡中,消費作為議題始於1970年代反帝、反殖民的論述,買與不買外國商品成了攸關國家生存的個人抉擇:當台灣成為國際加工廠,而無法自行研發品牌時,黃春明的後殖民小說打破了日本舶來品的美麗神話;陳映真華盛頓大樓系列小說描寫跨國公司如何以廣告行銷商品,改變消費行為,破壞地方文化;王禎和的《美人圖》(1981-82)批判了台灣人對美國名牌商品的拜物。這些小說一方面表達強烈的男性國族意識,對台灣依賴型經濟與現代性不足感到焦慮;另一方面在其經濟論述上銘刻了性別次文本,推崇陽性的生產,貶抑陰性的消費。

◎關鍵詞:經濟殖民,商品,消費,性別,現代性,台灣殖民經濟小說

★國立清華大學台灣文學研究所助理教授。

S.T. Elliott Shie╱Economic Colonization, Mass Consumption, and Imported Modernity: Taiwanese Colonial Economic Fiction and Its Gender Subtext (1972-1982)

Economic Colonization, Mass Consumption, and Imported Modernity
Taiwanese Colonial Economic Fiction and Its Gender Subtext (1972-1982)

S.T. Elliott Shie*

Abstract
     In the context of Taiwanese fiction, consumption did not become the subject of novelistic investigation until the 1970s when the sentiment of anti-imperialism rose and the understanding of Taiwan’s status as an economic colony started troubling the Taiwanese intellectuals. As a result, to buy or not to buy foreign goods became a question, not just of a personal choice or preference, but rather of national survival. Huang Chunming’s “Sayonara, Goodbye!” (1973) and “The Hat that Xiao Qi Always Wears” (1974) destruct the myth of logos, suggesting that imported goods from Japan are in fact inferior and deficient; Chen Yingzhen’s serial stories of Washington Manson describe how multinational corporations destroy local culture and traditional productvalue by their overwhelming commercials and fashionable commodities; Wang Zhenhe’s Portraits of Beauties (1981-82) criticizes the upper-middle classe’s fetishistic obsession with American luxury goods. On the one hand, these stories contain a male-oriented nationalism against commodity imperialism and express an unspoken anxiety about Taiwan’s economic dependency and belated modernity. On the other hand, the economic discourse upon which these stories are based is inscribed with gender differentiation, prioritizing production as masculine, but discrediting consumption as feminine.

◎Keywords: economic colonization, consumption, modernity, gender, Taiwanese fiction

★Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Literature, National Tsing Hua University.

吳懷晨╱非關索隱,非關自傳: 以巴塔耶的愛慾論觀電影《色∣戒》與小說〈色,戒〉

非關索隱,非關自傳
以巴塔耶的愛慾論觀電影《色∣戒》與小說〈色,戒〉

吳懷晨*

摘要
電影《色∣戒》問世後,有兩派學者由索隱與自傳的路線追問張愛玲原著小說〈色,戒〉的意義。一派學者考察著此故事證據與當年上海間諜圈中真實的刺殺案之間的關係,另一派學者則探問此則故事情節與張愛玲自身的感情身世有關。
但筆者試以法國思想家巴塔耶的愛慾論闡發論說《色∣戒》(電影)與〈色,戒〉(小說)的思想精義。巴塔耶認為,人類特有的「死亡禁忌」與「性禁忌」乃「神聖世界」與「世俗世界」之中介,通過了死亡與性禁忌,人類將由有秩序的俗世界之中「越界」(transgress)到聖世界。故愛慾(色)乃是人類在禁忌(戒)之後特有的神聖/神秘之內在經驗。最後,筆者將主張,李安《色∣戒》有其「色相」之一面,故內蘊「為世所戒」的思想,屬於東方式的世故與了然,從而超出了愛慾論的疆界。

◎關鍵詞:色戒,巴塔耶,愛慾論,禁忌,死亡,性,色相

★國立台北藝術大學共同學科助理教授。

Huai-Chen Wu╱Not the Puzzle-Out-Obscure-Meanings and Autobiographic Approach: “Lust∣Caution”, Interpreted by Bataille’s Theory of Eroticism

Not the Puzzle-Out-Obscure-Meanings and Autobiographic Approach
“Lust∣Caution”, Interpreted by Bataille’s Theory of Eroticism

Huai-Chen Wu*

Abstract
After the movie “Lust∣Caution” was released, two schools of scholars have tried to explain the significances of this film, one by the Puzzle-Out-Obscure-Meanings approach and the other by the autobiographic approach. One school of scholars investigate the relation between the story and the real assassination in Shanghai spy circles in 1943. Another school of scholars inquire into the relation between the plot of this film and Eileen Chang’s own love affairs.
     However, I will try to explain the aesthetic significance of “Lust∣Caution” by Bataille’s theory of Eroticism. Bataille believed that “death taboo” and “sex taboo” are the intermediaries between “sacred world” and “profane world”. Through taboos, human beings can transgress from profane to the sacred world, and eros (lust) is the sacred and mystical inner experience for human beings after transgressing taboos.

◎Keywords: “Lust∣Caution”, Bataille, eroticism, taboo, sex, death, material appearance

★ Assistant Professor, Department of General Education, Taipei National University of the Arts.

曾秀萍╱扮裝台灣: 《行過洛津》的跨性別飄浪與國族寓言

扮裝台灣
《行過洛津》的跨性別飄浪與國族寓言

曾秀萍*

摘要
本文認為作為施叔青「台灣三部曲」的第一部,《行過洛津》乃透過男扮女裝的乾旦許情在戲曲和生活中的性別操演,展現複雜的身分認同、性別流動與家國想像。在諸多線索中,我認為尤其須重視許情的跨性別處境與全書的敘事策略,方能更深刻理解其與國族寓言間的多重關係。本文一方面結合巴特勒的「性別操演論」和詹明信的「國族寓言說」,另一方面以中國戲曲展演和古典小說的敘事觀點介入,並對照台灣的國族處境與跨性別處境,為文本提供一個在地化的詮釋脈絡與分析途徑。
     文中指出《行過洛津》透過一種「擬說書」的敘事手法,一方面再現許情的「跨性別飄浪」──這種既特殊又艱難的自我認同、反思與處境;另一方面也輻射出多樣的底層社會與家國想像藍圖。而跨性別與台灣國族間不僅相互指涉,小說更從跨性別觀點批判主流國族論述的陽剛化傾向與生殖主義迷思。尤其可貴的是,在拆解各種本質化的疆界以寄託新的國族寓言之際,《行過洛津》也同樣重視個體在生存場域中,因各種越界實踐所遭遇的困境,而以情感連結作為弱勢者在飄浪情境裡一種安身的方式,並為個體與家國之間構築另一種認同的可能。本文認為《行過洛津》以許情的跨性別處境在不同時空、階段所產生的不同變化為喻,不僅再現了性別、身分越界與情感、認同流轉的可能與艱難,也為國族論述提供了多元的視角與關照。

◎關鍵詞:跨性別,台灣,國族寓言,離散,飄浪,敘事,擬說書,扮裝,國族論述

★國立政治大學中國文學系博士候選人。

Hsiu-ping Tseng╱Taiwan Cross-Dressed: Transgender Diaspora and National Allegory in Passing through Luo-chin

Taiwan Cross-Dressed
Transgender Diaspora and National Allegory in Passing through Luo-chin

Hsiu-ping Tseng*

Abstract

This article argues that Shu-ching Shih’s novel Passing through Luo-chin demonstrates a complexity of identities, fluid gender, and the national imaginary through the gender performativity of the protagonist, a male actor playing the part of woman during the Qing period. Attentive to the protagonist’s cross-dressing and the narrative strategy of the novel, this presentation analyzes the novel’s multiple relations with the national allegory. Inspired by Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity and Fredric Jameson’s discussion of national allegory, this presentation relates the novel to Chinese opera and Chinese classic fiction, situates it in Taiwan’s colonial history, and identifies its political metaphors of Taiwan.

Adopting the style of “storytelling” narrative tactics which I call “simulated storytelling” (ni-shuo-shu), Passing through Luo-chin not only successfully represents the protagonist’s “transgender diaspora”—a unique and difficult means of expressing self-identity, self-reflexivity, and self-positioning, but also reflects the diverse facets of working-class Taiwanese society and the national imaginary. With a critical view similar to that of transgender studies, the novel can also be read as a criticism of the preoccupation with heteronormative masculinity and the reproductivist family. Passing through Luo-chin suggests a certain connection of affect as an alternative way out for the socially marginalized characters to position themselves in the diaspora and redress their personal and national identities. In addition to delineating the possibilities and difficulties of gender- and identity-crossing and the fluidity of affect and identities, Passing through Luo-chin also provides multiple perspectives and reflexivity on the national imaginary.

◎Keywords: diaspora, transgender, cross-dressing, national allegory, Chinese opera, storytelling, narrative, Taiwan, Shu-ching Shih (Shi Shuqing)

★Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Chinese Literature, National Chengchi University.

陳筱筠╱觀看香港的方法: 論西西《飛氈》的地方意識與敘事策略

觀看香港的方法
論西西《飛氈》的地方意識與敘事策略

陳筱筠*

摘要
     過往談論香港的方式多強調香港的匱乏特質,及其借來的時間與空間,而既然是「借」,必然會有後續的「還」,香港的主體性因此總是消失湮沒在借╱還之間。然而敘事的方法有許多種,在各個社會的轉變時期與不同的歷史階段中,也會隨之調整敘事的策略與角度。香港作家西西出版於九七大限之前的小說《飛氈》,即替我們適切地展示,香港除了以受傷者的邏輯再現、或是強調香港本身具有的獨特性與特殊意義之外,還能如何被觀看?西西在書中透過日常性的市民生活經驗,以及最實際的地理邊界這個普遍性認知去省思香港在地與外部他方的比較,在地方疆界看似已不再重要且日漸模糊的全球化時代之下,西西反而回過頭來,從最根本且直接的地緣政治出發。換言之,香港在《飛氈》中被呈現與被關注的焦點不再是過往談論香港多半必定強調的匱缺與傷痛,而是傾向在地如何與文化他者進行對話,地方的想像如何在既定的疆界限制中進行潛在的能量釋放。

◎關鍵詞:西西,《飛氈》,敘事策略,日常生活,地理疆界

★國立成功大學台灣文學系博士生。

Siao-Yun Chen╱The Way of Representing Hong Kong: Examining the Local Consciousness and the Strategy of Narrative in Xi Xi’s Novel

The Way of Representing Hong Kong
Examining the Local Consciousness and the Strategy of Narrative in Xi Xi’s Novel

Siao-Yun Chen*

Abstract
     In the past, the way to discuss Hong Kong was always to emphasize its particularity of lack and ambiance of borrowed space and borrowed time. Since its time and space can be “borrowed”, the action of giving the borrowed time and space in return necessarily follows; thus, the subjectivity of Hong Kong always disappears between borrowing and giving in return. However, under the influence of various narrative approaches, the strategy of narrative and point of view tend to change during transitional periods and at the different historical phases in each society. The novel Flying Carpet presents Hong Kong proper. It was written by Xi Xi, a female writer in Hong Kong, and published before the handover in 1997. Furthermore, besides the perspective in which Hong Kong is represented through a logic of the wound and a form emphasizing the uniqueness and particularity of Hong Kong itself, it shows us how to view Hong Kong from other perspectives. Through the daily lives of common people and a universal cognition of the most practical boundary of geography, Xi Xi reflects the differences between locality of Hong Kong and exterior places. In the age of globalization that boundary no longer seems important as it had become blurry gradually; Xi Xi, however, returns to adopt the strategy of narrative in a direct and fundamental way of geographical politics. In other words, the way to represent Hong Kong and the focalization is no longer about the concept of lack and wound that was emphasized in earlier days, but a tendency to explore how the dialog proceeds between locality and the otherness of culture, and how the imagination of locality releases the potential energy in limited boundary.

◎Keywords: Xi Xi, Flying Carpet ,strategy of narrative, everyday life, boundary of geography

★Ph.D. Student, Department of Taiwanese Literature, National Cheng Kung University.

議題與討論
Notes and Discussions

  • 高全之╱戰時上海張愛玲:分辨〈等〉的荊刺與梁木
    Chuan C. Kao╱Eileen Chang in Wartime Shanghai: A Re-reading of “Wait”
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