99年6月號

2019-08-17

第三十九卷 第二期 總429 中華民國99年6月
Vol.39 No.2 June 2010

《中外文學》六月號收錄五篇精彩論文:劉亮雅從歷史書寫和鄉土想像的角度閱讀施叔青的《行過洛津》,並以「對位」和「奇觀化」之概念進行詳盡剖析;徐詩思分析美國新英格蘭白人女作家愛兒珂特(Louisa May Alcott)的三篇反蓄奴故事,探討十九世紀白人家居女性的感性規訓計畫,及其種族歧視暨帝國主義面向;劉瑞琪以當代紐約攝影家海倫‧勒薇(Helen Levitt)的作品為個案,試圖由女性漫遊者的角度,探索現代街頭與地鐵攝影;阮秀莉針對九二一集集大地震後的文化生產(紀錄片、動畫、裝置藝術)進行文本分析,探索九二一地震事件在庶民日常生活中的顯形;黃士元則以班雅明專文〈歌德的《擇屬親合》〉中的理論基礎,探討歌德小說《擇屬親合》中的語言和神話問題。

中外文學六月號目錄
Contents

劉亮雅╱施叔青《行過洛津》中的歷史書寫與鄉土想像

施叔青《行過洛津》中的歷史書寫與鄉土想像

劉亮雅*

摘要
    本文試圖從歷史書寫與鄉土想像的角度閱讀施叔青的《行過洛津》。《行過洛津》以古城鹿港的興衰為背景,從漢人移民如何落地生根、與原住民相處開始,描寫兩三百年前清領時期鹿港不同階層、種族、性別的眾生相。《行過洛津》參雜大量史料,然而當許多歷史事跡、社會組織、文化形式、禮俗儀典早已被淡忘,甚至消失之際,旅居國外多年的施叔青究竟以什麼角度呈現兩三百年前的故鄉?本文認為《行過洛津》主要情節聚焦於孌童、纏足和閹割恐懼,似乎是藉由搭上九0年代以來性別議題熱潮來跨越時間的距離,但它產生了奇觀化的問題,同時它也銘刻了現在與過去的差異。由主要情節輻射出去的另一焦點,則是有關外來者與本地人、帝國與邊陲不同卻部分重疊的位置之描寫。這一部分則大致是以對位式書寫並置、對照兩種觀點,並呼應當今中國中心與台灣中心的角力和交涉。這兩個層面的歷史書寫有所重疊,且需放在小說將鄉土想像歷史化的視野來看。敘述者統攝洛津古今的視野構成本書核心的鄉土想像,在性別和國族議題之外,其聚焦於商港的興衰改寫了傳統鄉土小說以農漁村為主的意象。其對商業活動既認同又批判的態度隱含了對現代性的雙重視野,暗示現代性與台灣的複雜關係。

◎關鍵詞:《行過洛津》,歷史書寫,鄉土想像,性別政治

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Liang-ya Liou╱Historiography and Hsiang-tu Imagination in Shih Shu-ching’s Walking Through Lo-chin

Historiography and Hsiang-tu Imagination in Shih Shu-ching’s Walking Through Lo-chin

Liang-ya Liou*

Abstract
This article studies the historiography and tsiang-tu (or homeland) imagination in Shih Shu-ching’s novel Walking Through Lo-chin. Set in the port-city Lu-gang two or three hundred years ago when Han immigrants settled down and interacted with the natives (including aborigines), the novel gives a panorama of local life by portraying people from different classes, races and genders. While the novel blends in a lot of historical material, it begs the question as to the perspective of the author—who has lived abroad for many years—in portraying the historical past of her hometown, when a lot of historical facts, social organizations, cultural forms and rituals have either been forgotten or simply vanished. That the main plot focuses on pederasty, foot-binding and castration fears seems to tap deliberately into the immense popularity of gender issues in order to bridge the time gap, yet it also makes a spectacle of them, thus inscribing the difference between past and present.
     Another focus of the novel is the portrayal of the different but partially overlapping positions of visitors and natives, the metropolitan and the other. In what I call “contrapuntal historiography,” the juxtaposition and contrast of the two perspectives echoes the contestation and negotiation between China-centrism and Taiwan-centrism today. The two focuses of historiography should be put in the perspective of the historicizing of hsiang-tu imagination in the novel. The narrator’s vision of Lo-chin that encompasses its past and present constitutes the central hsiang-tu imagination of the novel. Apart from the issues of gender and national identity, the narrator focuses on the rise and fall of the port-city, a depiction that effectively rewrites the tradition of hsiang-tu imagination, given that traditional hsiang-tu fiction uses the village as its main image. The narrator’s ambivalent attitudes toward mercantile activities imply a double vision of modernity. By so doing, the novel suggests an intricate relationship between modernity and Taiwan.

◎Keywords: Walking Through Lo-chin, historiography, hsiang-tu imagination, sexual politics

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

徐詩思╱有色身體與感性規訓: 露易莎‧梅‧愛兒珂特反蓄奴書寫中的家帝國主義

有色身體與感性規訓
露易莎‧梅‧愛兒珂特反蓄奴書寫中的家帝國主義

徐詩思*

摘要
    本文分析美國新英格蘭白人女作家愛兒珂特的三篇反蓄奴故事,以之來探討十九世紀白人家居女性的感性規訓計畫,以及該計畫的種族歧視暨帝國主義之面向。以凱普冷的家帝國主義為主要立論基礎,筆者指出在阿爾科特的故事中,北方白人女性的感性力量是不可或缺的,不但可用以教化有色他者,形塑感性化的男性氣概,更可創建新的家國,讓有色男性及前衛白人女性在其中扮演要角。但阿爾科特筆下由踰越的「小婦人」統領的理想國度證明是問題重重的;她的混血男角不但無法擁有真正的有色身體,更面戴「迷人但危險」的曖昧西班牙面具,她的白人女角對主流國家論述則呈現出既反動又支持的矛盾態度。

◎關鍵詞:愛兒珂特,十九世紀美國文學與文化,反蓄奴書寫,家帝國主義,親密規訓,跨種族之愛,白人家居女性,感性主義與感官主義

★國立交通大學外國語文學系助理教授。

Shih-szu Hsu╱In the Shadow of Manifest Domesticity: Sentimentalized, Racialized Bodies in Louisa May Alcott’s Antislavery Narratives

In the Shadow of Manifest Domesticity
Sentimentalized, Racialized Bodies in Louisa May Alcott’s Antislavery Narratives

Shih-szu Hsu*

Abstract
     The present article discusses the white New England writer Louisa May Alcott’s three antislavery narratives in relation to the nineteenth-century sentimental disciplinary project of white womanhood and the racist, imperialist design embedded in this project. The main analysis builds upon Amy Kaplan’s thesis in “Manifest Domesticity,” which argues that gendered metaphors of domesticity could be used as a “civilizing” force to justify imperial relationships between the conqueror/discipliner and the conquered/ disciplined. Following Kaplan’s reasoning, the present article makes the case that in Alcott’s stories the sentimental power of northern white women plays an indispensable part in “civilizing” racialized others, in negotiating a different kind of sentimentalized, feminized manhood, and in imagining a new national household that accepts both the unorthodox white woman and the colored man as its legitimate members. Yet Alcott’s ideal of a color-blind, sentimentalized nation led by progressive “little women” is doomed to be problematic, not only because her mixed-race protagonists do not own “real” raced bodies and are ambivalently linked to “lovable yet dangerous” Spanishness, but also because her white heroines paradoxically oppose and affirm dominant national discourses at the same time.

◎Keywords: Louisa May Alcott, Nineteenth-Century U.S. Literatures and Cultures, Antislavery Narratives, Manifest Domesticity, Disciplinary Intimacy, Interracial Love, Domestic White Women, Sentimentalism and Sensationalism

★ Assistant Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University.

劉瑞琪╱海倫.勒薇的女性漫遊攝影

海倫.勒薇的女性漫遊攝影

劉瑞琪*

摘要
    本文是第一篇從女性漫遊者的角度,探索現代街頭與地鐵攝影的論文。從波特萊爾(Charles Baudelaire)以來,漫遊者(flâneur)一直被視為現代藝術家的典型,在藝術史與文學史中的相關研究汗牛充棟,從1980年代下半開始,女性主義學者才開始爭辯在現代時期是否有女性漫遊者(flâneuse)?伍爾芙(Janet Wolff)與波洛克(Griselda Pollock)以降的學者,一再地論辯出悲觀的結論。當筆者開始以海倫‧勒薇(Helen Levitt, 1913-2009)的具體個案,探尋女性漫遊者的活動蹤跡,豁然發現勒薇與公共空間的邂逅,確實激盪出與男性漫遊攝影家殊異的視象與歷史。勒薇從1930年代晚期迄今,一直是深受喜愛的街頭攝影家之一。藉由對照勒薇與影響她的布烈松(Henri Cartier-Bresson)、艾文斯(Walker Evans)的街頭與地鐵攝影,筆者發現,相對於這兩位男性漫遊者以保持距離、抽象、普遍的觀視來認識城市生活,勒薇表達了一種女性漫遊者對城市的獨特觀看方式:她仍然保持漫遊者的隱匿感,卻喜歡拍攝住家附近的地方性街頭,正如她自述「可以感受到人們感受到的」,因而比當時幾位男性街頭攝影家有「更多的同理心(empathy)」(Gopnik, 2001: 90),藉由隱匿地拍攝住家附近的地方性街頭,勒薇得以默默地感受人們對活動的熱衷,以及彼此之間的情感連繫,以同理心捕捉一種洋溢著社區性與親密感的公共空間。

◎關鍵詞:海倫‧勒薇,布烈松,艾文斯,街頭攝影,地鐵攝影,女性漫遊者,女性主義

★國立陽明大學人文與社會科學院院聘副教授。

Jui-Ch’i Liu╱Helen Levitt’s Photography of Female Flânerie

Helen Levitt’s Photography of Female Flânerie

Jui-Ch’i Liu*

Abstract
This article explores the street photographs and subway photographs taken by the flâneuse. Since Charles Baudelaire, the flâneur, or the idle stroller, has been regarded as the “ur-form” of the modern artist, writer and intellectual who anonymously wanders amid the flux and flow of the crowd in the city streets and arcades and keenly scrutinizes and studies the crowd—with aloof detachment. For about a century, the flânerie was treated as a white, bourgeois, artistic male privilege. Inthe late 1980s, feminist scholars began to debate the possibility of a female flânerie.
     Against their negative arguments, this paper presents a case study of Helen Levitt’s vision of female flânerie in the poor areas of the New York City. Comparing Levitt’s street and subway photographs with Henri Cartier-Bresson’s and Walker Evans’s similar works, I find that her photographs exhibit a special vision of a flâneuse, who tends to remain detached and yet to empathize with the people in theirenthusiastic activities and their intimate connectedness in their community-oriented lives in the street.

 

◎Keywords: Helen Levitt, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Walker Evans, street photography, subway photography, flâneuse, feminism

★Associate Professor, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Yang-Ming University.

阮秀莉╱事件與常民記憶: 九二一集集大地震在日常生活的顯形

事件與常民記憶
九二一集集大地震在日常生活的顯形

阮秀莉*

摘要
    本論文旨在呈現九二一地震事件在庶民日常生活中的顯形。日常生活蕪雜、無形無狀,如何看到鑲嵌在日常生活之流的九二一地震,本論文酌採李歐塔「小敘述」的斷裂概念與「事件」無以名之的概念,以及德‧瑟鐸對常民/日常生活的論點,針對九二一地震後兩部紀錄片、一個動畫和三個裝置作品進行文本分析,以之反思臺灣現行建立在西方科學與現代性思維之下的主流災難論述,朝向以日常生活為基底,看待與我們共存的地震台灣。

◎關鍵詞:九二一地震,紀錄片,創作,事件,小敘述,日常生活

★國立中興大學外國語文學系教授兼系主任。

Rose Hsiu-li Juan╱Event and Ordinary People’s Memory: Presenting 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Terms of Everyday Life

Event and Ordinary People’s Memory
Presenting 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Terms of Everyday Life

Rose Hsiu-li Juan*

Abstract
     The general purpose of this essay is to dissipate the typical master narrative of disasters as dominated by scientific and reconstruction discourse in the case of the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake from the perspective of common people’s everyday life. The challenge of presenting the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake in terms of the common people’s everyday life is that, sinceeveryday life is so prosaic and shapeless, it is difficult to filter and concretize the fragmentary experience of the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake as embedded in the flow of everyday life. The essay draws on Jean-François Lyotard’s concept of “small narrative” and “event,” and Michel de Certeau’s theorization about common people and everyday life to analyze some works created after the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake, including two documentaries, one animation and three exhibits.  These works reveal an alternative relationship with seismic Taiwan.

◎Keywords: 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake, documentary film, creative work, event, small narrative, everyday life

★Professor and Chair, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chung Hsing University.

黃士元╱歌德的小說《擇屬親合》中的語言和神話

歌德的小說《擇屬親合》中的語言和神話

黃士元*

摘要
    本文主要是從班雅明的評論專文〈歌德的《擇屬親合》〉中的理論基礎,來探討歌德的原著小說《擇屬親合》裡的語言和神話的問題。首先將從班雅明的語言哲學裡的命名和語言的關係,來討論小說人物對語言符號的任意性解讀,以及班雅明在他的評論裡所提的「命名貧乏」。同時在此基礎上本文將詮釋小說人物之間的愛情關係。延續著類似的語言問題,本文接著從小說情節裡對「擇屬親合」一詞的討論,來看科學的客觀與語言使用的不確定性之間的問題。主要重點為︰小說裡的人物不能將語言符號和其所指稱的事物直接完整地連結,他們只能以自己的觀點和熟悉的方式來理解所傳達的語言符號,而且在此情況下之,他們也無法完全認知語言符號所指稱的事物。最後,本文將依據班雅明在他的評論所論述的「神話性」,來詮釋分析上述小說所呈現的語言問題,同時也指出,這樣的語言問題是反映了一種人的普遍性命運。

◎關鍵詞:歌德,班雅明,小說,語言,神話,命運

★文藻外語學院德文系助理教授。

Shih Yen Huang╱Language and Myth in Goethe’s Novel Elective Affinities

Language and Myth in Goethe’s Novel Elective Affinities

Shih Yen Huang*

Abstract
The present article discusses problems of language and myth in Goethe’s novel Elective Affinities in light of Walter Benjamin’s essay, “Goethe’s Elective Affinities.” In particular, the argument turns on Benjamin’s reflections on the relationship between naming and language in his philosophy of language.
     First, the article examines the novel’s characters’ arbitrary readings and interpretations of linguistic signs, and then relates this to Benjamin’s concept of the “parsimony of name giving.” Second, it questions the general objectivity of science, which can be affected by uncertainties in people’s use of language. The problem can be put specifically as follows: The characters cannot connect the signifying linguistic signs with the signified objects directly and completely. They receive and understand linguistic signs only in light of their own perspective and what they already know. Under such circumstances, their cognition of the signified objects can never be complete. Third, it interprets these problems of language according to Benjamin’s concept of the “mythic” as discussed in his essay. Finally, it concludes that such problems of language reflect a “universal destiny” of the human being.

◎Keywords: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Walter Benjamin, Novel, Language, Myth, Destiny

★Assistant Professor, Department of German, Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages.

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