99年3月號

2019-08-17

第三十九卷 第一期 總428 中華民國99年3月
Vol.39 No.1 March 2010

《中外文學》三月號收錄五篇精彩論文:林建光嘗試從災難的角度重新閱讀蔡明亮的電影《洞》,並以阿岡本(Giorgio Agamben)的「裸命」(bare life)與「例外狀態」(state of exception)概念來進行詮釋;陳國偉深入探究臺灣新世代推理小說家冷言的作品《上帝禁區》如何挪用日本推理作家島田莊司《占星術殺人魔法》中的身體錯位形式;陳惠齡試圖探勘九0年代以降臺灣鄉土小說於承續與衍異中的書寫新貌;雷強從奧地利哲學家毛特納(Fritz Mauthner)的《語言批判》觀點切入,探討貝克特(Samuel Beckett)小說三部曲中的「語言困境」問題;李順興則針對黑爾茲(N. Katherine Hayles)的媒體交換作用(intermediation)與波爾特及古魯森(Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin)的再媒體化(remediation)進行評論,提出形式交織(interformation)的可能性。

中外文學三月號目錄
Contents

林建光╱裸命與例外狀態:《洞》的災難想像

裸命與例外狀態
《洞》的災難想像

林建光*

摘要
二00九年八月八日台灣遭受到莫拉克颱風的嚴重侵襲。經歷兩天兩夜暴雨肆虐後的台灣盡是橋斷路跨、屋倒人亡的慘狀,許多地區也淪為死屍遊魂佔據的孤島鬼域,災情之慘重甚至超過五十年前的「八七水災」。風災過後兩、三天,各大平面、電子媒體紛紛用「八八水災」為這一天命名。才不過數天,「八八水災」幾乎已確定成為一個事件,一段難以抹滅的創傷記憶,與「二二八事件」、「八七水災」或「九二一地震」等歷史性災難齊名。是巧合,或是歷史總以永劫回歸的方式展現自我,我們無從得知,但「八八水災」對我們似乎並不那麼陌生。在蔡明亮一九九八年的電影《洞》裡,我們看到影片與實際發生的「八八水災」存在著某種詭異的類同關係。歷經水患風災肆虐過後,我們應更能理解過去的這部電影所隱藏的「現在」意義。本文因此嘗試從災難角度重新閱讀《洞》。
     論文分成四部份,第一部份從「八八水災」後的歷史視角解釋《洞》所呈現的兩種災難:水災與「台灣病毒」。文中強調電影的災難不應簡化為個人的幻想層次,而應理解為台灣後現代社會的常態與真實。第二部份探討《洞》的空間再現。《洞》所呈現的是一個詭異、既熟悉又古怪異常的空間,我將從阿岡本(Giorgio Agamben)關於「例外狀態」(state of exception)的概念詮釋如此的空間。第三部份處理「非人化」問題。《洞》出現了一些有趣的人變動物或昆蟲的情節,在這些場景中,人大多未能真正超越封閉主體的限制,反而陷入不生不死,不像人也不像動物的狀態,阿岡本的「裸命」(bare life)很適合描述此一特殊生命樣態。但《洞》絕非一部完全絕望的電影,除了負面意義外,「非人化」其實有其積極正面涵義。我認為電影的歌舞表演部份展現了人與環境、身體與物質連結組裝的衝動,「非人化」到極致反而促成「新人類」的產生,論文最後一部份我將討論電影如何在災難與廢墟中窺見救贖的可能。

◎關鍵詞:災難,例外狀態,裸命,即身性,離身性

★國立中興大學外國語文學系副教授。

Jian-guang Lin╱State of Exception and Bare Life: Imaging Disaster in The Hole

State of Exception and Bare Life
Imaging Disaster in The Hole

Jian-guang Lin*

Abstract

On August 8, 2009, Typhoon Morakot hit Taiwan, causing great damage to the island, especially the Southern Taiwan. A couple of days later, the term “August 8 flood disaster” began to be used to name this particular disaster. It reminded us of the “August 7 flood disaster” which occurred fifty years ago. In just a few days, the “August 8 flood disaster” almost becomes a historical event having the same weight as other natural or historical disasters, such as the “228 event,” “921 earthquake,” or “August 7 flood disaster.” The disaster, however, was strangely familiar to us. In Tsai Ming-liang’s 1998 film, The Hole, we found uncanny correspondences between fiction and reality, the past work and present situation. It seemed that the “real” and the “fictional” disaster cross-illuminated each other. This paper, therefore, attempts to reread The Hole in light of disaster.

     This paper is divided into four parts. The first part argues how the disaster in The Hole should be treated as a real, intrinsic part of Taiwan, rather than a mere fantasy. In the second part, I examine the peculiarity of the film’s spatial arrangement. In The Hole, the relation between the apartment building and the city at large is essentially a relation of ban, a relation in which inclusion and exclusion, inside and outside have become indistinguishable. The extraordinary state or space the characters live in can be well elucidated in terms of Giorgio Agamben’s notion of the “state of exception.” The third section is an exploration of the weird, enigmatic characters in the film. Inspired by both N. Katherine Hayles’s posthuman studies and Agamben’s biopolitical theory, I argue how these characters are living in a kind of “bare life.” In such a state, the distinction between humans and animals disappears. The Hole, however, is far from being a desperate film. In the final section, therefore, I attempt to bestow this “bare life” a certain potential for redemption. I would read the song and dance numbers not as fantasy but as allegory of the danger and pleasure of our posthuman present. Right in the scenes of catastrophe, we seem to see hope and redemption.

◎Keywords: disaster, state of exception, bare life, embodiment, disembodiment

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chung Hsing University.

陳國偉╱被翻譯的身體: 臺灣新世代推理小說中的身體錯位與文體秩序

被翻譯的身體
臺灣新世代推理小說中的身體錯位與文體秩序

陳國偉*

摘要
      推理小說作為一種外來的大眾文類,輸入臺灣所造成的重大影響,便是臺灣本土推理創作的發展,皆是以外來推理小說為典範,「翻譯」為在地的書寫形式。本論文試圖提出推理小說研究的新觀點,以「身體秩序」與「文體秩序」之間的敘寫對應關係作為論述概念,透過臺灣新世代推理作家冷言作品《上帝禁區》的討論,分析其所挪用的日本推理作家島田莊司(島田荘司)作品《占星術殺人魔法》(占星術殺人事件)中的身體錯位形式,如何呈現出推理小說美學本位的身體譯寫。並探討其作為一種大眾文學類型,在以日本為原典,透過「文化翻譯」的方式,轉化為在地書寫形式的過程中,如何因為「身體秩序」的敘事實踐,而完成推理小說「文體秩序」的需求。進而探討在這樣的譯寫策略下,翻譯者的能動性如何帶來這樣的選擇,致使身體形式所隱喻的國體與歷史被捨棄,以達到推理形式的「本格」譯寫,延續推理文類的古典(本格)美學。最後並透過推理小說在地譯寫過程中,翻譯所應生成的現代性意義,反思冷言在譯寫典範上的選擇及有意的組合,可能引發的內在衝突,以及對其意圖維護的「文體秩序」譯寫可能造成的根本性危機。

◎關鍵詞:推理小說,身體,文體,文化翻譯,現代性,島田莊司

★國立中興大學臺灣文學研究所助理教授。

Kuo Wei Chen╱Body Translated: Body-Displacement and Order of Literary Form in Mystery Novel of the New Generation in Taiwan

Body Translated
Body-Displacement and Order of Literary Form in Mystery Novel of the New Generation in Taiwan

Kuo Wei Chen*

Abstract
In earlier years, mystery literature was viewed as a literary genre introduced from non-native publishing market. However, since Japan imported detective genre into Taiwan, the so-called mystery literature of Taiwan has taken exotic detective novels as a role model, translating this mode of writing into our local writing style. This paper tries to uncover a corresponding relationship between “body-order” and “order of literary form” as my primary analytic concept. Drawing upon this new point of view of mystery novel research, this paper utilizes the novel God’s Forbidden Ground (上帝禁區) by Taiwan author Leng-yen (冷言) to analyze the form of body displacement and showcase how this mystery novel presents a linguistic aesthetic based on bodily ground from diverting Japanese author Souji Shimada’s Tokyo Zodiac Murders (占星術殺人魔法).
At the same time, I explore the novel as a type of popular literature, which stands for and borrows the original form from Japan, adopting the approach of cultural translation in the process of its localization. And, through the process, I investigate how it could satisfy the need of the literary order of mystery novels by narrating practice of body-order. I further inquire into how the agency of a translator could makes use of body form without regard of metaphors of nation and history, and how this process continues the classical aesthetic genre and meaning of modernity. Furthermore, the writing intention of Leng-yen might cause the inner conflict and fundamental crisis of the “order of literary form,” which is exactly what he has tried to preserve.

◎Keywords: mystery novels, physical body, literary form, cultural translation, modernity, Souji Shimada

★ Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Literature, National Chung Hsing University.

陳惠齡╱「鄉土」語境的衍異與增生 ──九0年代以降台灣鄉土小說的書寫新貌

「鄉土」語境的衍異與增生
──九0年代以降台灣鄉土小說的書寫新貌

陳惠齡*

摘要
由於解嚴的衝撞,因運文學生態丕變、藉文學解讀歷史的立場不斷挪移、作家創作素材的改換等等,鄉土書寫呈現了另一番的發展與變貌,論者因而名之為「新鄉土」或「後鄉土」,用以概括九0年代以降台灣鄉土小說的總體現象。從宏觀照徹而言,「代」是一個關乎時間分類的概念,從中分衍出「時代」與「世代」的觀念。「時變與創化」的流風所及,鄉土書寫的發展確然包括了新舊的「文學世代屬性」;就微觀考察而論,除了探討「世代性」外,也可沿用「班底」(鄉土作家群)概念,總攬作家類群所表現創作美學,而形塑獨特的文學景觀。循此,新/後鄉土小說的「新」與「後」,遂可指陳九0年代之「後」的鄉土小說及其展現的創作美學之「新」。
      九0年代以降所描寫「鄉土體驗」的文學意義,以及描寫「鄉土意義」的文學體驗,均可說明「鄉土」書寫與「鄉土」語境的嬗變攸關。本文的論述重點,在於探勘新/後鄉土於承續與衍異中的書寫新貌,因此,「鄉土」不僅將成為本論文的研究對象,也將作為一個新的理論視角,嵌入台灣文學史之中,藉資考察作家所含藏視野與策略的書寫現象。所採取的研究方法,也擬借鑑文學社會學,以此作為鄉土文學研究的觀察視域,以期在新/後鄉土的形成因素分析及其表現形態的概括中展開論述,形成對九○年代以降鄉土小說的觀察與解讀。而作為書寫者想像或經驗透視中的鄉土,也必然附著於文學地理景觀的「空間」意識,地方與空間相互交錯的定義,因而作為論述的線索與憑藉;再則既稱為「新」或「後」,即標誌了一種斷裂或一個階段的變化性書寫特質,當新/後鄉土書寫中反復出現「進步」與「異化」的時代議題時,現代美學中諸如頹廢、怪誕等概念,自也是重要的論述取徑。

◎關鍵詞:鄉土,鄉土小說,空間,地方,九○年代,台灣文學

★國立新竹教育大學中國語文系助理教授。

Chen Wei-Lin╱The Change and Proliferation of the Term “Nativism” —The New Appearance of Taiwanese Nativist Novels after the Nineties

The Change and Proliferation of the Term “Nativism”
—The New Appearance of Taiwanese Nativist Novels after the Nineties

Chen Wei-Lin*

Abstract
After the lifting of the Martial Law, and the corresponding transformation of literature environment, the constant transition of historical standpoint as interpreted by literature, and the change of writers’ writing materials, have resulted in the development and changes of native literature. Such a transformation is called “neo-navitism” or “post-navitism” to describe broadly the overall phenomenon of Taiwanese native literatures after the 90s.
     Both of the literature meanings of the writings describing “nativist experiences” and the literature experiences of writings describing “nativist meaning” after the 90s could explain that the transformation of the term “nativism” is relevant to the writings of “nativism.” This paper investigates the new appearance of neo-navitism/ post-navitism writing together with its succession and transformation. “Navitism” is not only the research subject of this thesis but also viewed as a viewpoint of the new theory, which is embedded into the history of Taiwanese native literature to explore writers’ field of vision and writing styles. This paper adopts the viewpoints from sociology of literature as research methods to explore the studies of navitist literature in order to discuss the analyses of formation factors and expression forms of neo-nativism and post-nativism, and form the observation and interpretation of navitist novels after the nineties. The nativism that writers had imagined and experienced would necessarily have been accompanied with the ideology of “space” from the geographical landscape of literature. In addition, the name of “neo” or “post” suggests that writing properties have undergone the change of a gap or a stage. When issues, such as “evolution” and “dissimilation,” are repeatedly seen in the writings of neo/post navitism, the concepts of modern aesthetics such as decadence and fantasticism could be important approaches for discussing the writings of navitist literature.

 

◎Keywords: Nativism, Nativist Novel, 90s, Taiwanese Literature

★Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese Language and Literature Studies, National Hsinchu University of Education.

雷翔╱「言無言」 ──論貝克特小說三部曲中的語言哲學思想

「言無言」 ──論貝克特小說三部曲中的語言哲學思想

雷翔*

摘要
      本文基於奧地利哲學家毛特納著作《語言批判》的主要觀點及其與維特根斯坦後期思想的關係,探究貝克特小說三部曲中所體現出的「語言困境」問題的根源。

◎關鍵詞:貝克特,毛特納,語言批判,隱喻,沉默

★南京大學文學院比較文學與世界文學專業碩士研究生候選人。

Lei Chiang╱Non-Words: Critique of Language in Beckett’s Trilogy

Non-Words: Critique of Language in Beckett’s Trilogy

Lei Chiang*

Abstract
     This paper focuses on an analysis of Beckett’s views of language during different phases of his writing career, and reveals the philosophical origin to changes in his life. In addition, by a close reading of Mauthner’s Beiträge zu einer Kritik der Sprache, which had a pivotal effect on the post-Tractarian Wittgenstein, it probes into the root of linguistic aporia in Beckett’s trilogy.

◎Keywords: Beckett,Mauthner, critique of language, metaphor, silence

★Master Candidate in Comparative Literature and World Literature, Nanjing University.

李順興╱數位文學的交織形式與程序性

數位文學的交織形式與程序性

李順興*

摘要
      本文對黑爾滋(N. Katherine Hayles)的媒體交互作用(intermediation)、波爾特及古魯森(Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin)的再媒體化(remediation)分別進行評論,之後提出形式交織(interformation),嘗試探索上述兩種媒體理論未能涵蓋的面向。媒體交互作用和再媒體化兩種理論皆以媒體作為比較研究的基礎,試圖解讀新舊媒體混合、融合、整合等各式結合的現象與意義,雖具說服力,但也有侷限,譬如說,黑爾滋及波爾特等的詮釋對象皆偏重媒體的再現(representation)形式,對媒體的模擬(simulation)形式則未深入剖析。再現為舊媒體的表現主力,模擬為新媒體的優勢,或大而化之,我們可將模擬與再現分別視為新舊媒體的核心表現形式(form of expression)。再現和模擬在數位作品中有著不同層次的結合現象,我們將這些不同的結合現象統稱為交織形式(interform)。本文的形式交織討論將避開新與舊、類比與數位的媒體比較研究,改以表現形式為焦點。另外,本文進一步將數位模擬細分為內在程序(inner procedure)和外在程序(outer procedure)兩款形式,並引例驗證數位作品的程序性(procedurality)。

◎關鍵詞:數位文學,媒體交互作用,再媒體化,形式交織,交織形式,模擬,程序性

★國立中興大學外國語文學系教授。

Shuen-shing Lee╱Interform and Procedurality in Digital Literature

Interform and Procedurality in Digital Literature

Shuen-shing Lee*

Abstract
     The paper explores interformation, or how representation and simulation interlace in digital literary works. Representation is the core form of expression for old media while simulation is primary in new media. Unraveling how these two means of expression intertwine in digital works is a task of digging deeper into a poetic dimension only lightly discussed in new media theories. This excavation steps away from comparative approaches to the issues of old and new media, of analog and digital media, domineeringly prevalent in new media theories such as N. Katherine Hayles’s “intermediation” and Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin’s “remediation.” Both of these theories, founded on the differentiation of medial properties, attempt to lay bare assorted ways that old and new media mix, combine, or integrate with each other in a work. Mostly focusing on forms of representation, their discussions shed little light on the understanding of forms of simulation in digital works. To address this deficiency, the paper places emphasis on the two forms of expression and their interforming, instead of on medial properties and their intermediating or remediating. The paper further categorizes forms of simulation into two types: inner procedure and outer procedure. Thereafter, works are cited and analyzed to exemplify the procedurality embedded in them.

◎Keywords: digital literature, intermediation, remediation, interformation, interform, simulation, procedurality

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chung Hsing University.

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