98年9月號

2019-08-19

第三十八卷 第三期 總426 中華民國98年9月
Vol.38 No.3 September 2009

《中外文學》九月號收錄七篇精彩論文:張小虹以「愛國主義」的國族情感政治出發,探討李安電影《色∣戒》中有關「愛」的「情感召喚」與「影像機制」之議題;莊宜文討論關錦鵬懷舊電影《胭脂扣》、《阮玲玉》與《長恨歌》中女性個體與城市歷史的指涉與對映;黃建宏以王家衛、彭浩翔、馬修‧巴尼(Matthew Barney)為例,再探德勒茲電影論,以及影像再現中的空間-政治問題;陳正芳探究大陸新時期小說的魔幻現實主義如何與「尋根」緊密相關,卻又迴避、淡化「歷史」課題;許維賢追溯「同志」語意在現代中國語境下的流變,論證中國當代同志小說如何在主流文壇中偷渡同性間「罔兩」情欲;張麗萍分析商晚筠小說如何透過同性之愛的題材,在馬來西亞父權思想下建構女性主體意識;劉育玲則探討台灣原住民口傳文學與作家文學間的對話與「對位」關係。

中外文學九月號目錄
Contents

張小虹╱愛的不可能任務: 《色∣戒》中的性-政治-歷史

愛的不可能任務
《色∣戒》中的性-政治-歷史

張小虹*

摘要
本文將以「愛國主義」的國族情感政治為出發,探討李安電影《色∣戒》一片中有關「愛」的「情感召喚」與「影像機制」,展開兩個中心議題的提問。第一組提問:愛國主義作為一種「影像再現」與愛國主義作為一種「影像機制」有何不同?如果《色∣戒》所鋪陳的不只是一個愛國學生殺漢奸的故事情節,那該片的鏡頭剪接與場景調度如何愛國、如何殺漢奸?第二組提問:「愛國」的「愛」與「愛人」的「愛」究竟是不是同一種「愛」、同一種「精神機制」?而「愛國」與「愛人」之間又可以有什麼樣的連結與悖反?而什麼又是國族之愛與浪漫之愛的弔詭依存?
針對以上的提問,全文將分別從「愛」的聲音召喚、「愛」的視覺縫合、「性」的身體政治與「歷史」的內在皺摺等四個方向,展開對《色∣戒》「愛國主義」的探討,以凸顯愛國乃為一種不斷重複加強、重複引述的「踐履行動」。而《色∣戒》作為一部至為獨特的「愛國片」,正在於它展現出一種至為獨特的「沒有國家的愛國主義」,從「情感政治」的角度回應當前「沒有民族主義的民族」或「沒有國家的世界主義」,同時鬆動愛國主義作為國家愛國主義的預設與當前「後國族」與「世界主義」的歐洲模式預設,以其歷史文化的殊異性與情感政治的幽微度,迂迴逃逸於當前「國族主義」、「穿國主義」、「離散論述」與「全球主義」的論述侷限。

◎關鍵詞:愛國主義,國族情感,踐履性,李安,《色∣戒》

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Hsiao-hung Chang╱The Mission Impossible of Love: Sex-Politics-History in Lust, Caution

The Mission Impossible of Love
Sex-Politics-History in Lust, Caution

Hsiao-hung Chang*

Abstract
This paper takes the affective politics of patriotism as a point of departure to explore the emotional interpellation and visual mechanism of love mapped out in Lust, Caution by Ang Lee. It elaborates upon two lines of enquiry: the first one focuses upon the possible difference between patriotism as “visual representation” and patriotism as “visual mechanism” by asking how the montage and mise-en-scène of the camera, in parallel to the actions of the characters in the plot, can also love the country and kill the national betrayer; the second one centers upon the paradoxical relationship between romantic love and love of country by asking whether they might share the same psychic mechanism of love as imaginary identification. Accordingly, the paper is divided into four parts to map out respectively the intersections of love as acoustic interpellation, love as visual suture, sex as body politics and history as internal folds. It highlights patriotism as a repetitive and iterative “performative act” and Lust, Caution as a film of “patriotism with the state,” endowed with a historically sensitive and affectively powerful “singularity” to challenge the “postnational” concepts of “nations without nationalism” and “cosmopolitanism without the nation-state” and to provide a new possibility to theorize beyond the current discoursive impasse of nationalism, transnationalism, diaspora and globalization.

◎Keywords: patriotism, national affect, performativity, Ang Lee, Lust, Caution

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

莊宜文╱城市與性別的雙重鏡像 ──關錦鵬懷舊電影與原文本的參差對位

城市與性別的雙重鏡像 ──關錦鵬懷舊電影與原文本的參差對位

莊宜文*

摘要
關錦鵬懷舊電影《胭脂扣》、《阮玲玉》、《長恨歌》都藉女性個體生命與情感起落,指涉城市歷史的變遷,並以海派╱張派小說或上海老電影為底本,加以轉化與變異。《胭脂扣》淒迷唯美的風格蓋過李碧華原著的諷喻意味,添加性別認同凌駕原文本的國族認同。《阮玲玉》淡化左翼電影的批判控訴,透過鏡像般的人物對映關係,將港滬今昔相映照。近作《長恨歌》削弱王安憶原著末了無產階級興起的意旨,在懷舊風貌下寓含香港觀點。三部電影的國族意識愈趨鮮明,並藉由深情典麗的舊時代女性,投射導演的陰柔性情與身份認同,呈現城市與性別的雙重鏡像。

◎關鍵詞:關錦鵬,《胭脂扣》,《阮玲玉》,《長恨歌》,張派小說

★國立中央大學中國文學系助理教授。

Yi-Wen Chuang╱Double Mirror Images of City and Gender: The Irregular Contrast between the Nostalgic Films by Stanley Kwan and Their Hypotexts

Double Mirror Images of City and Gender
The Irregular Contrast between the Nostalgic Films by Stanley Kwan and Their Hypotexts

Yi-Wen Chuang*

Abstract
Nostalgic films such as RougeCenter Stage and Everlasting Regret directed by Stanley Kwan and based on novels by the Shanghai-style literature/ followers of Eileen Chang or the old Shanghai films, illustrate the historical transformation of cities by using the turbulent lives and emotions of individual female characters as analogies. The melancholic and aesthetic style of the film Rouge overshadows the sarcastic tone of the hypotext by Lilian Lee, with gender identity in the former overriding national identity in the latter. Center Stage weakens the critical charge of left-wing films focusing on similar heroines, as it mirrors the past and present of Shanghai and Hong Kong through corresponding relationships of roles in the film. The recent work, Everlasting Regret, weakens the implications of the proletariat’s rising in the hypotext by An-yi Wang, and presents the perspective of Hong Kong in a nostalgic manner. All three films ultimately reveal national consciousness and demonstrate Kwan’s ability to depict and identify with the female temperament; they elicit images of cities and convey gender identity through portrayal of time-honored affectionate and elegant female roles in history.

◎Keywords: Stanley Kwan, Rouge, Center Stage, Everlasting Regret, Novels by followers of Eileen Chang

★Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Central University.

黃建宏╱從晶體-影像到離散色彩: 以王家衛、彭浩翔、馬修‧巴尼為例

從晶體-影像到離散色彩
以王家衛、彭浩翔、馬修‧巴尼為例

黃建宏*

摘要

這一篇論文,主要延續著我研究上的兩個方向:分別是德勒茲(Gilles Deleuze)的影像哲學,以及電影影像再現中的空間-政治問題。首先,關於德勒茲電影論的思考,則一直集中在該影像理論的「有效性」:他的理論在今天還能夠存在什麼價值-意義?又曾經限於什麼樣的價值-意義之中?德勒茲的電影影像論中作為哲學問題意識的部分就是「時間-影像」,而在其概念整配中,如何進一步提出「潛在的影像」或「影像中的潛在面向」在影像思維中的「新價值」,更是其思想行動的核心。另一方面,影像除了其自身幾近存有論的「流變」意涵(德勒茲的「晶體-影像」與「造假力量」〔puissance du faux〕,與阿岡本〔Giorgio Agamben〕的「不可憶取的影像」〔image immémorable〕)之外,還有影像的再現(意即梅茲〔Christian Metz〕的延續:巴黎第三大學新索邦的分析學派)。

論文分為幾個部份,先以不同於德勒茲的問題意識對於「晶體-影像」進行閱讀,而論者的旨趣則是時間在晶體型態的思考上所挑起的主體性差異,可能觸及影像的政治性問題。接著,論者嘗試將前者接合上傅科(Michel Foucault)在「異托邦」概念中對鏡子的說明,另一方面,將後者對應到瓜達里(Félix Guattari)與德勒茲發展的「畛域」概念上。

第二部份則連結到離散(diaspora)的主題,當我們嘗試思考這影像-時間-政治的連繫,在確實的影像呈現或是政治現實是否能夠找到更為直接的連繫時,便碰觸到一個今天極為重要而核心的政治性議題:離散。第三部份則嘗試以三部作品為例,分別是王家衛的《花樣年華》、彭浩翔的《伊莎貝拉》與馬修‧巴尼的(Matthew Barney)《懸絲》系列中的《懸絲3》,對於這三部影片中涉及「離散色彩」的再現方式進行分析,以求在當代影像生產中,能夠在更為直接──意即脫離意識形態或批判理性的操作──的感性經驗中捕捉到「離散」的再現、運用與消費。

◎關鍵詞:晶體-影像,德勒茲,離散,無人稱,王家衛,彭浩翔,馬修‧巴尼

★國立台北藝術大學美術系助理教授。

Chien-hung Huang╱From the Cristal-Image to the Diaspora-Color: Wong Kar-wai, Pang Ho-cheung and Matthew Barney

From the Cristal-Image to the Diaspora-Color
Wong Kar-wai, Pang Ho-cheung and Matthew Barney

Chien-hung Huang*

Abstract

This paper is divided into several parts in accordance with my preoccupation with the theory of image. Firstly, I introduce and develop the concept “crystal-image”, not by following Deleuze’s problematic focused on the Time-Image, but by discussing the political aspect of image regarding the possible differenced subjectivity. This extension of the concept could be connected to the idea of mirror in Foucault’s concept “heterotopias”, as well as to Deleuze and Guattari’s theory of “territory”.

The second part concerns “Diaspora”. When we ponder this serial concept “image-time-politics” in the aesthetico-political reality, we find the relationship of inherence between the “crystal-image” mode of thinking and the condition of Diaspora.

The third part examines three works in light of crystal image and Diaspora: Wong Kar-wai’s In the Mood for Love, Pang Ho-cheung’s Isabella and Matthew Barney’s Cremaster III. Through these three works, I demonstrate the representation of “diaspora-color” in the sensible experience of image, beyond the ideology or the critical reason aspect in the critique rational operation.

◎Keywords: Cristal-image, Deleuze, diaspora, impersonal, Matthew Barney, Pang Ho-cheung, Wong Kar-wai

★Assistant Professor, School of Fine Arts, Taipei National University of the Arts.

陳正芳╱淡化「歷史」的尋根熱── 重探大陸新時期小說的魔幻現實主義

淡化「歷史」的尋根熱── 重探大陸新時期小說的魔幻現實主義

陳正芳*

摘要
論及大陸新時期的尋根小說,總不免涉及拉美的魔幻現實主義,但是細究其「在地化」的過程,卻可發現一相當耐人尋味的議題——淡化「歷史」的尋根熱。如果說探尋「歷史」,是一個民族自我身份認同及定位必經的過程,那麼,「尋根」就是在新時期階段新舊文化交融之下,對民族及身份認同的另一種表現。可是相對於拉美魔幻現實主義小說以重構官方歷史為敘述主軸,大陸尋根小說何以要迴避此一重要課題?本文將就文化尋根的審美意識和民族議題的文化尋根兩大方向探究原委,並且嘗試從「歷史」的不在場釐析尋根小說的現實關懷。

◎關鍵詞:魔幻現實主義,尋根小說,新時期小說,官方歷史

★國立暨南國際大學中國語文學系助理教授。

Cheng-Fan Chen╱Neglect of “History” in the Root-Searching Fever—Re-Seeking Magical Realism in the Mainland Chinese New Era Novels

Neglect of “History” in the Root-Searching Fever—Re-Seeking Magical Realism in the Mainland Chinese New Era Novels

Cheng-Fan Chen*

Abstract
The root-searching novels in the New Era China are related to Magical Realism in Latin American Literature. However, during the process of the “localization” of Magical Realism in China, one intriguing/ ironic phenomenon emerges—people who exhibit root- searching fever tend to neglect history. Generally speaking, if exploring history is a necessary procedure for revealing a nation’s identity, root-searching will be another representation of a nation’s identity in the New Era when Mainland China encounters the integration of traditional and modern cultures. While most of the Magical Realism novels in Latin America attempt to reconstruct the narratives of the official history, the Mainland Chinese root-searching novels try to avoid this essential project. This study aims to solve the puzzle from two perspectives: 1) the aesthetic value of cultural root-searching and 2) the ethnicity of cultural root-searching. In addition, this study intends to analyze the realistic concerns in the root-searching novels in which “history” is absent.

◎Keywords: Magical Realism, root-searching novels, New Era novels, official history

★Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese Language & Literature, National Chi Nan University.

許維賢╱現代中國「同志」的修辭學 ——從郁達夫的《茫茫夜》到王小波的《革命時期的愛情》和《東宮‧西宮》

現代中國「同志」的修辭學
——從郁達夫的《茫茫夜》到王小波的《革命時期的愛情》和《東宮‧西宮》

許維賢*

摘要
本文追溯「同志」語意功能的系譜在現代中國政治語境下的流變,以友愛的修辭學爲起點,思考「同志」在中國大陸如何再現其「罔兩性」。並且分析友愛的修辭學是如何在大陸同志書寫的語言裏含蓄地操作,從而管窺現代中國的男性建構和友愛修辭是如何在國族主義的意識形態下被組織起來。本文以20世紀二十年代郁達夫的《茫茫夜》與九十年代王小波《革命時期的愛情》和《東宮‧西宮》爲例,並且借用德希達的「友愛的政治學」,以及劉人鵬和丁乃非的「罔兩問景」方法論,論證這些文本是如何借「同志」之「形」,以及「友愛」的修辭學之「影」,來偷渡男性之間的「罔兩」情欲。

◎關鍵詞:同志,友愛,罔兩性,郁達夫,王小波,酷兒,膠片同志

★新加坡南洋理工大學中文系助理教授。

Hee Wai Siam╱The Rhetoric of “Comrade” in Modern China— From Yu Dafu’s Boundless Night to Wang Xiaobo’s Love in the Revolutionary Period and East Palace, West Palace

The Rhetoric of “Comrade” in Modern China
— From Yu Dafu’s Boundless Night to Wang Xiaobo’s Love in the Revolutionary Period and East Palace, West Palace

Hee Wai Siam*

Abstract
This paper ascends to the incremental change on genealogy of semantic function of “comrade” in political contexts in modern China. It starts from the rhetoric of fraternity, pondering how did “comrade” represent its penumbrae in mainland China, and analyzes how did the rhetoric of fraternity perform itself implicitly in gay stories of mainland China, thereby, taking a personal vision that how did masculinity in modern China and the rhetoric of fraternity become wrapped up in nationalistic ideology. This paper takes examples of Yu Dafu’s Boundless Night of the 20’s, Wang Xiaobo’s Love in the Revolutionary Period of the 90’s, 20th century, and Estern Palace, Western Palace, quotes from Derrida’s “The Politics of Friendship,” and the methodology of Liu Jenpeng and Ding Naifei’s “Penumbrae Query Shadow,” to demonstrate how these texts resort to the “image” of “comrade,” and rhetorical shadow of “fraternity” as means to stow away “penumbral lust” between males.

◎Keywords: Comrade, Fraternity, Penumbrae, Yu Dafu,Wang Xiaobo,Queer, Celluloid Comrade

★Assistant Professor, Division of Chinese, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

張麗萍╱性別自覺: 商晚筠的女同志話語建構

性別自覺
商晚筠的女同志話語建構

張麗萍*

摘要
曾有學者以「沉睡」形容東南亞華文女作家的女性意識,然而,首位於臺灣獲小說獎的馬來西亞留臺生──商晚筠的女性意識卻不曾「沉睡」,並於女同志書寫熱潮前已經初試啼聲。本文藉由「女性主義」視角,以商晚筠小說中被馬華文學評論界忽視的女性意識書寫為研究主軸,審視商晚筠如何在話語層面上超越男性中心樊籬,憑藉同性之愛的獨特題材建構女性的敘述權威。本文分爲五節,前言説明建構女性話語的意義;正文厘清女同志書寫的定義、探討與分析商晚筠女同小説的書寫策略及特色;最後總結商晚筠建構女同性話語的意義。

◎關鍵詞:商晚筠,馬華文學,女同志話語,女性書寫,女性意識,書寫策略

★新加坡國立大學文學院講師。

Cheong Lee Peng╱Gender Consciousness: Shang Wanyun’s Construction of Dyke Discourse

Gender Consciousness
Shang Wanyun’s Construction of Dyke Discourse

Cheong Lee Peng*

Abstract
The level of feminist consciousness among Malaysian-Chinese female writers is perceived as comparatively low. The late Malaysian novelist Shang Wanyun is a notable exception. She created female characters from both rural and urban landscapes while examining and reflecting on the difficult process of the individual woman’s spiritual growth and personality development. Unfortunately, the strong female consciousness in her works had mostly been neglected in literary criticism. This essay is an attempt to rediscover it under the guidance of feminist theory, by virtue of the perspective of the equality between men and women and the basis of connotation and denotation. It investigates Shang Wanyun’s intention to subvert patriarchal ideology by constructing new female discourse in the area of lesbianism.

◎Keywords: Shang Wanyun, Malaysian Chinese Literature, Dyke Discourse, Female Writing, Female Consciousness, Writing strategy

★Lecturer, Centre for Language Studies, National University of Singapore.

劉育玲╱口傳文學與作家文學的三重對話 ──以台灣原住民族文學為考察中心

口傳文學與作家文學的三重對話
──以台灣原住民族文學為考察中心

劉育玲*

摘要
台灣原住民族文學因文學表現形態的不同可區分為口傳文學與作家文學兩大範疇,口傳文學是集體性的文學創作,傳播的媒介是語言,作家文學是個體性的文學創作,傳播的媒介則是文字,由於語言與文字是兩種完全不同的符號系統,這就使得分別承載於其上的文學之間其實存在著相當大的差異。然而,儘管如此,口傳文學與作家文學仍然有著一定程度的互動與交流,以台灣原住民族為例,原住民作家就是促成雙方展開對話的重要橋樑。因此,本文首先探討原住民作家與口傳文學之間的互動關係,這是口傳文學與作家文學的第一重對話;其次,探討作家作品多方面運用口傳文學的模式,這是口傳文學與作家文學的第二重對話;最後,在兩者的發展關係上,藉由瓦歷斯‧諾幹所提出的「接續」概念,進而延伸探討兩種文學之間所呈現出的「對位」關係,這是口傳文學與作家文學的第三重對話。

◎關鍵詞:口傳文學,民間文學,作家文學,原住民文學,原住民族文學

★國立東華大學民間文學研究所博士生。

Yu-ling Lu╱The Three Rounds Dialogue between Oral Literature and Writer Literature —Based on Taiwan’s Aboriginal Ethnic Literature as the Core of the Study

The Three Rounds Dialogue between Oral Literature and Writer Literature
—Based on Taiwan’s Aboriginal Ethnic Literature as the Core of the Study

Yu-ling Lu*

Abstract
Based on differences in expressive patterns in literature, Taiwan’s Aboriginal Ethnic Literature can be divided into the two main categories: Oral Literature and Writer Literature. Oral Literature consists generally of the literary creations formed collectively, with spoken language as its propagation media, while Writer Literature consists generally of the literary creations created by individuals, with written text as its propagation media. Since spoken language and written text belong to two different signal systems, significant differences exist between the literatures carried on respectively through them. Even so, indisputably, there still can be interactions and exchanges between Oral Literature and Writer Literature. Taking Taiwan’s Aboriginal Ethnic Literature as an example, aboriginal writers can form an important bridge that prompts the two parties to unfold dialogues. Consequently, this article first explores the interactive relationship between aboriginal writers and Oral Literature, which is the first round dialogue between Oral Literature and Writer Literature. Second, the models used for Oral Literature in writers’ creations are explored in various ways, which is the second round dialogue between Oral Literature and Writer Literature. Finally, as for the relationship in the two parties’ developments, through the concept of “continuation” proposed by Walis Norgan, the relationship of “counterpoint” expressed between the two kinds of literature is explored extensively, which is the third round dialogue between Oral Literature and Writer Literature.

◎Keywords: Oral Literature, Folk Literature, Writer Literature, Aboriginal Literature, Aboriginal Ethnic Literature

★Ph.D. Student, Graduate Institute of Folk Literature, National Dong Hwa University.

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