98年6月號

2019-08-22

第三十八卷 第二期 總425 中華民國98年6月
Vol.38 No.2 June 2009

《中外文學》六月號收錄七篇精彩論文:蘇子中援引荷米‧巴巴(Homi Bhabah)的概念,以及尤金諾‧芭芭(Eugenio Barba)的理論,討論現代實驗劇場與南管戲的第三類接觸;傅士珍從家園歸屬的問題出發,探討奈耶(Mira Nair)電影《密西西比的馬薩拉》中的印度離散;黃錦容以日本哲學家九鬼周造的觀點切入,解析日本傳統「粹」(iki)的意涵;黃士元從班雅明(Walter Benjamin)早期對經驗、感覺和認知的論述開始,探討純粹語言與認知在本質上的關聯;陳佩筠透過尼采的「權力意志」概念,以諾貝爾文學獎得主薩拉馬戈(José Saramago)的《里斯本圍城史》為例,重新思考翻譯與詮釋的兩難處境;陳俊榮(孟樊)以英美後現代詩中語言詩派(the Language Poets)的特色為參照,分析夏宇詩作中的語言詩特質;蔡林縉則以零雨、夏宇詩作為例,結合法國哲人巴什拉(Gaston Bachelard)與德勒茲(Gilles Deleuze)的論述,推論「運動-詩」的詩學想法。

中外文學六月號目錄
Contents

蘇子中╱尤金諾.芭芭與南管戲: 劇場的第三類接觸?!

尤金諾.芭芭與南管戲
劇場的第三類接觸?!

蘇子中*

摘要

芭芭與南管戲的碰撞與接觸是跨國、跨文化及跨領域的接觸。這樣的接觸是丹麥歐丁劇場與台灣江之翠劇場的接觸,是西方與東方劇場的接觸,也是現代實驗劇場與傳統戲曲的接觸。這樣的接觸除了開創了劇場的新視野與想像,也可說是台灣劇場界一件難得的盛事。但我們要質問,這樣的接觸對劇場界而言到底是屬於那一種類型的接觸?是表面膚淺的接觸?是趕流行彰顯異國情調的接觸?是所謂東方主義下的產物?是某種形式的第三類接觸嗎?又甚麼是第三類接觸?可以被歸屬於芭芭所謂的「第三劇場」或「歐亞劇場」嗎?又這樣的接觸與後殖民和後現代劇場的關係是甚麼?本論文的目的在探索、理解與分析芭芭與南管戲已進行兩次的第三類接觸。論文援引荷米‧巴巴的兩個概念──「混種」與「第三空間」──和芭芭自己的理論,特別是「第三劇場」與「歐亞劇場」概念,來討論所謂的第三類接觸。除此之外,劇場跨文化的協商溝通需要一種獨特的倫理學來理解在地劇場與文化他者的關係與互動。在此面向,本論文援引列維納斯「與他者遭遇」的理論與葛羅托斯基的劇場遭遇論,來作進一步的闡釋與討論。再者,本論文也試圖整合各家跨文化表演理論,包括佛南多‧歐提茲所提出的「文化轉移」概念、克里斯多夫‧龐的「融合劇場」概念、派翠斯‧巴維斯的「沙漏時鐘」模式、賈克琳‧羅和海倫‧吉爾伯特所提出能夠突顯溝通折衝過程的「雙向交流」對話模式及勾梅茲-皮納所謂的「邊緣藝術」等理論,搭建一個理論平台,做為討論跨文化表演的對話基礎。

◎關鍵詞:尤金諾‧芭芭,南管戲,歐丁劇場,江之翠劇場,第三劇場,歐亞劇場,劇場人類學,跨文化表演

★國立臺灣師範大學英語系教授。

Tsu-Chung Su╱Eugenio Barba and Nanguan Opera: Theatrical Encounters of the Third Kind?!

Eugenio Barba and Nanguan Opera
Theatrical Encounters of the Third Kind?!

Tsu-Chung Su*

Abstract

The theatrical encounter between Barba and Nanguan opera is a transnational, transcultural, trans-disciplinary event. It is at once an encounter between the Odin Teatret in Denmark and the Gang-a-tsui Theatre in Taiwan, and one between Western experimental theatre and Eastern traditional opera. This close encounter opens up our theatrical vision and imagination, and is considered a major event in Taiwan theatre circles. Certainly this theatrical encounter between Barba and nanguan opera is a contested event of constant negotiations. How do we come to terms with this kind of theatrical encounter. Is it just a trendy promotional event whose purpose is to sell exoticism? Is it an example of Orientalism which reflects Westerner’s interpretations of Eastern cultures and peoples? Is it really a “theatrical encounter of the third kind”? Can we ascribe it to what Barba calls “the third theatre” or “Eurasian theatre”? What is its relevance to postcolonial theatre or postmodern theatre?

This paper examines the theatrical encounters between Barba and nanguan opera, attempting not only to trace, contextualize and map out the trailings of this theatrical event but also to provide it with a theoretical framework built on diverse theories and perspectives, such as Homi Bhabha’s notions of hybridity and the third space, and Barba’s performance theories, especially the concepts of the third theatre and Eurasian theatre. In addition, this paper uses Levinas’s and Grotowski’s theories of encounter as well as some theories of intercultural performance, including Fernado Ortiz’s notion of transculturation, Christopher Balme’s idea of Syncretic Theatre, Patrice Pavis’s hourglass model, Jacqueline Lo and Helen Gilbert’s interactive exchange model, Gómez-Peña’s concept of border arts, etc., to discuss intercultural human relationships and negotiations.

◎Keywords: Eugenio Barba, nanguan opera, Odin Teatret, Gang-a-tsui Theatre, the third theatre, Eurasian theatre, theatre anthropology, intercultural performance

★Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

傅士珍╱遷移的家園: 論《密西西比的馬薩拉》之印度離散再現

遷移的家園
論《密西西比的馬薩拉》之印度離散再現

傅士珍*

摘要

本文從家園歸屬的問題出發,討論奈耶的電影《密西西比的馬薩拉》。奈耶對印度離散的處理,細膩地載入殖民歷史與種族問題的糾結,一方面交織鋪陳帝國與後殖民情境的歷時共構,與家園爭議中多層次的種族傾軋,一方面從跨越種族本位的視野,質疑家與種族血胤緊密連結的家園論述之排外主義。透過一個印度裔家庭的多重遷移故事,《密西西比的馬薩拉》不僅暴顯白人霸權對有色族裔的歷史性、結構性壓迫,更正面呈現認同的流動揉雜,肯定越界與新聯繫的創造。奈耶的視域指向的,是班哈碧所倡言,不斷與既有的想像疆界反覆協商調整的多元文化社會。

 

◎關鍵詞:奈耶,印度離散,家園,種族主義,烏干達,族裔性,多元文化主義

★國立東華大學英美語文學系副教授。

Shyh-Jen Fuh╱Becoming Home: Representation of Indian Diaspora in Mississippi Masala

Becoming Home
Representation of Indian Diaspora in Mississippi Masala

Shyh-Jen Fuh*

Abstract

Taking the issue of home as its point of departure, this paper examines Indian director Mira Nair’s treatment of Indian diaspora in her 1991 film Mississippi Masala. It explores the idea that Nair, by carefully attending to the entanglements of racial problems and colonial history, delineates multi-layered racial conflicts in the post-colonial condition, on the one hand, and presents a diasporic view of home and migration in challenge of the racial/national exclusionism, on the other hand. Through the story of an Indian family’s repeated experience of migration, Mississippi Masala not only exposes the historical and structural oppression of white hegemony, but also valorizes fluid and hybrid identities, celebrates border-crossing, and seeks connections and development. Mississippi Masala is oriented towards the kind of multicultural society Benhabib envisions, one in which cultures continually negotiate with the imagined boundaries and create room for adjustments and evolution.

 

◎Keywords: Mira Nair, Indian diaspora, home, racism, Uganda, ethnicity, multiculturalism

★Associate Professor, Department of English, National Dong Hwa University.

黃錦容╱「粹」:九鬼周造召喚的文化記憶

「粹」
九鬼周造召喚的文化記憶

黃錦容*

摘要

名著《「粹」的構造》(1930)是分析日本傳統「粹」(iki)的文化現象的經典佳作。哲學家九鬼周造(1888-1941)得自於海德格的詮釋學因素啟發,嘗試用柏格森與胡塞爾、海德格《存在與時間》的概念系統,以更鮮明規格化的解讀揭示「粹」的意涵。九鬼以江戶末期深川藝妓的特質為本,橫跨歌舞伎、清元、浮世繪、文様等各藝術層面,勾勒出「粹」的理想。

本論文由九鬼的成長經歷,鋪陳他來自於「失父記憶與藝妓的心」的「粹」的哀愁,並由九鬼在「粹」的定義與演繹詮釋方法上所使用的「普遍化的語言精神」與具體事實性的「民族特殊個性的存在」,確認其實證性格的詮釋學方法。再以江戶藝妓的邊緣詩學所展現的「媚態」、「骨氣」、「死心」等特質,說明江戶「色道」遊樂哲學中「粹」的虛幻美學意識。檢視日本近代由「粹」的「色」轉化為「愛(love)」的過程中,「粹」的二元性緊張所顯現的「粹」的戀愛觀與他者性。再以1930年代日本思想家對現代主義抵抗的「近代的超克」觀點,解析九鬼東洋同一性「帝國主義」主張中呈現的慾望敘事特質,詮釋「粹」周邊的日本文化本質與近代性,論證九鬼《「粹」的構造》一書以海德格詮釋學進行東洋哲學實踐性的實證意義與歷史評價。

◎關鍵詞:粹,九鬼周造,《「粹」的構造》,「粹」的戀愛觀,文化記憶,近代的超克

★國立政治大學日本語文學系特聘教授。

Ching-Jung Huang╱“Iki”: Cultural Memory Kuki-syuzou Calls Forth

“Iki”
Cultural Memory Kuki-syuzou Calls Forth

Ching-Jung Huang*

Abstract

The well-known book The Structure of “iki” (1930) is a canon analyzing the Japanese traditional cultural phenomenon of “iki.” Philosopher Kuki-syuzou (1888-1941) is enlightened by Martin Heidegger’s hermeneutics and tries to apply the concept system of Henri Bergson, Edward Husserl, and Martin Heidegger in Being and Time to formalize vividly and dig out the meaning of “iki.” Kuki-syuzou takes the characteristic of geisya芸者 of Fukagawa深川 in the late phase of Edo江戸 as the basis for stretching across different artistic phenomena, such as Kabuki歌舞伎, kiyomoto清元(the background music played during Kabuki performance), and ukiyoe浮世絵 (the pictures of the floating world), and mon’you文様 (a design pattern, frequently using geometric shapes or abstracted images of nature or man-made objects) for the purpose of drawing the ideal outline of iki.”

 

The article shows that Kuki-syuzou’s sorrow of “iki” which comes from his “memory of lost father and heart of geisya” by narrating his adult experience. This article also applies “general spirit of language” which is Kuki-syuzou’s definition of “iki” and method of deduction as well as specific “being of particular national character” to confirm the hermeneutical way of positivism. At the same time, in the study, I use the examples of coquetry(bitai媚態), brave composure(ikiji意気地), resignation(akirame諦め)expressed by Edo geisya poetry to explain the illusory aesthetics consciousness of “iki” in the entertainment philosophy of “erotica.” By surveying the process of modern Japanese “iki” transforming to “erotic” and then to “love,” the article also explores the love concept and the otherness of “iki” in terms of duality of “iki.” In the long run, from the modernist viewpoint of “Overcoming Modernity” resisted by Japanese intellectuals in the 1930s, this article analyzes the erotic narration points shown in the Kuki-syuzou’s position of “imperialism” of Asian sameness and illustrates Japanese peripheral cultural essence and modernity of “iki,” as well as demonstrates Kuki-syuzou’s The Structure of “iki” employing Martin Heidegger’s hermeneutics to reveal the positive meaning and historical evaluation of Asian philosophic practice.

◎Keywords: Iki, Kuki-syuzou, The Structure of “iki”, love concept of “iki”, cultural memory, Overcoming Modernity

★Distinguished Professor, Department of Japanese, National Chengchi University.

黃士元╱純粹語言的經驗與認知:談班雅明對語言的思考

純粹語言的經驗與認知
談班雅明對語言的思考

黃士元*

摘要

本文將從班雅明早期對經驗、感覺和認知等方面的論述開始,探討所謂的純粹語言與認知在本質上的相關聯性。首先藉由對〈彩虹:關於奇想的對話〉、〈關於感覺〉以及〈關於未來哲學的規劃〉等文的討論,說明班雅明如何反思傳統知識建構的形式。這其中主要是在於對康德哲學的批評。所批評的重點為:以康德哲學為主的知識系統過於服從科學理性的形式,而這樣的知識結構因太依賴脆弱的主體自我意識,無法形成純粹自主的知識,反而變成知識神話。在此,班雅明提出另一種知識建構的形式之可能。他借助宗教的道理,主張以「更高層次的經驗」為基礎來建立「真實內涵」的知識。在此思考背景下,班雅明在〈關於語言本身與人的語言〉一文裡討論純粹語言的直接傳達,以及如何透過翻譯把人的語言移動轉變至此。這篇文章透露出班雅明對「更高層次的經驗」之探索和發掘,以及表達建立「真實內涵」的知識系統之企圖。

 

◎關鍵詞:康德,班雅明,知識論,宗教,經驗,語言,翻譯

★文藻外語學院德國語文系助理教授。

Shih Yen Huang╱The Experience and Epistemology in the Pure Language: On Walter Benjamin’s Thought about Language

The Experience and Epistemology in the Pure Language
On Walter Benjamin’s Thought about Language

Shih Yen Huang*

Abstract

This paper opens by discussing Walter Benjamin’s early views of experience, perception and epistemology to serve as the theoretical- philosophical foundation for probing the close relationship between the pure language and epistemology in his thought. By interpreting his early works such as The Rainbow: Dialogue on PhantasyOn Perception, and On the Program of the Coming Philosophy, this paper explicates how Benjamin critically reflects on some traditional forms of constructing knowledge. Benjamin’s criticism focuses mainly on Kant’s philosophy. Some of his critical points are: The epistemological system based on Kant’s philosophy conforms to the form of scientific reason. Such an epistemological structure depends too much on the subject’s self-consciousness, which is to some extent unstable; hence, the knowledge based on that is a sort of epistemological mythology. Therefore, Benjamin seeks to revise Kant’s philosophy by integrating the religious doctrine into his reflection about the philosophical tradition. This serves as the foundation of his suggested epistemological system of the “true content.” With this philosophical consideration, Benjamin discusses the pure language, its communicatability, and why translation is meant to remove human language to the pure language in his essay “On Language as Such and on the Language of Man.” In this essay, Benjamin argues the “higher concept of experience” is to be found in the pure language from which the epistemological system of the “truth content” can be developed.

 

 

◎Keywords: Immanuel Kant, Walter Benjamin, epistemology, religion, experience, language, translation

★Assistant Professor, Department of German, Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages.

陳佩筠╱翻譯、詮釋、權力意志

翻譯、詮釋、權力意志

陳佩筠*

摘要

翻譯與詮釋兩個概念之間有一些共通之處。翻譯與詮釋都必須面對一個根本問題:我們在詮釋什麼?翻譯什麼?當這個問題以「什麼」作為起始時,這個「什麼」就不可避免地指涉某個尚未明瞭的東西,某種無可名狀、不可辨別,但卻又並非不存在的東西。因此詮釋與翻譯往往處於一種進退兩難的處境。一方面,詮釋需要參照,也就是說,它必須是根據某個東西進行閱讀與解釋,但另一方面,也正因為詮釋必須以不同方式述說,它扮演一個差異的角色,每一個詮釋都與其他詮釋不同。各個詮釋的目的既相同也不同。翻譯的概念與詮釋相似但絕非同一,原文作為翻譯的參照點理應是翻譯的客觀標準,因此「忠於原文」向來是翻譯的指導原則,但是也正因為譯文與原文不可能完全相同,翻譯的任務也就在於表現差異。翻譯與詮釋最為不同的部份,也許可以簡略的說,翻譯更關注譯出語與譯入語之間的轉換。

要思考翻譯與詮釋所處的兩難處境,「意義」的問題舉足輕重,可以說,各個翻譯與詮釋之間上演著作者、讀者、譯者、詮釋者等人之間的意義控制的鬥爭。本文從尼采的「權力意志」的說法,以薩拉馬戈的《里斯本圍城史》一書為例,試圖尋找一個重新思考翻譯與詮釋共同面臨的兩難處境的新方向。

◎關鍵詞:翻譯,詮釋,權力意志,里斯本圍城史,忠實,自由

★淡江大學英文系助理教授。

Pei-Yun Chen╱Translation, Interpretation, and Will-to-Power

Translation, Interpretation, and Will-to-Power

Pei-Yun Chen*

Abstract

Interpretation and translation have something in common, that is, both interpretation and translation must confront a fundamental question: what is to be interpreted/ translated? Interpretation, as well as translation, is situated in a double-bind, since the reference is dispensable for interpretation, and yet, interpretation is by nature a differential element for any given text. Hence interpretation needs a ground as its destination and yet, at the same time, its destination necessarily designates differences. Similar to yet by no means identical with interpretation, translation is involved with this double-bind insofar as an objective standard for translation cannot be discarded and at the same time translation is not an innocent vehicle for communication between different linguistic systems—this is source of the complexity of translation.

To think about the double bind in which translation and interpretation are situated, the issue of “meaning” must be raised; hence the determination of meaning in any given text embodies the struggle for the control of meaning between author, reader, interpreter and translator. This paper attempts to present an understanding of this struggle for the control of meaning in terms of Nietzsche’s notion of will-to-power along with the example illustrated in Saramago’s The History of the Siege of Lisbon in order to seek a new way to reconsider the principles of fidelity and freedom which have long dominated the criteria of interpretation and translation.

 

 

◎Keywords: translation, interpretation, will-to-power, The History of the Siege of Lisbon, principle of fidelity, freedom

★Assistant Professor, Department of English, Tamkang University.

陳俊榮(孟樊)╱夏宇的後現代語言詩

夏宇的後現代語言詩

陳俊榮(孟樊)*

摘要

語言詩派(the Language Poets)是當今英美後現代詩中一個頗具代表性的流派,台灣詩壇以後現代詩聞名的詩人中,夏宇的詩作最具有這種語言詩的特質。夏宇從第一本詩集《備忘錄》到新近第五本《粉紅色噪音》的出版,不管其是否具有如英美語言詩派文本政治的企圖,她在詩語言所顯現的「離經叛道」,則已樹立自身與眾不同的風格。大體而言,她的語言詩具有底下三個特質:一是語言的物質性與非指涉性;二是構句的隨興與反敘事;三是意符遊戲及讀者的參與性。本文即以此三個面向進行討論。

 

 

◎關鍵詞:語言詩,物質性,指涉性,隨意性,敘事性,未確定性,意符遊戲

★國立臺北教育大學語文與創作學系副教授。

Chun-jung Chen╱Hsia Yu’s Postmodern Language Poetry

Hsia Yu’s Postmodern Language Poetry

Chun-jung Chen*

Abstract

The Language Poets are a representative postmodern poetry school in the UK and the US today. Hsia Yu’s poetry, which exhibits many qualities of this language poetry, has obtained a unique status among the noted poets in Taiwan. Regardless of whether she attempts textual politics as the Anglo-American language poets do, Hsia Yu has set up her own distinctive style in betraying the language of poetry from her first collection of poems Memorandum to her newly published fifth book Pink Noise.

Basically, Hsia Yu’s language poetry has three characteristics: materiality and non-referentiality of language; randomness of syntax and anti-narrative; and the game of signifier and reader-participation. This paper offers a comprehensive study of these three characteristics.

 

◎Keywords: Associate Professor, Department of Language and Creative Writing, National Taipei University of Education.

★Master Candidate in Comparative Literature and World Literature, Nanjing University.

蔡林縉╱夢想傾斜:「運動-詩」的可能 ──以零雨、夏宇詩作為例

夢想傾斜:「運動-詩」的可能
──以零雨、夏宇詩作為例

蔡林縉*

摘要

本文嘗試結合法國哲人巴什拉(Gaston Bachelard)、德勒茲(Gilles Deleuze)的論述,自二者思想體系裡提取些許可供對話、焊接、相互深化的概念,從中推論「運動-詩」(movement-poem)的詩學想法,並以零雨、夏宇之詩作進行文本閱讀。分兩部分論析巴什拉與德勒茲思想內部可能的接隼:一、巴什拉早期關於火、水、氣、土四大物質的論述,到了後期《夢想的詩學》,逐漸從物質認識論之層次轉向存有的探索。「安尼瑪」(anima)與「安尼姆斯」(animus)的概念,揭示了主體存在之能動性,「我」在移動的過程中超越主體而來到另一個「非我」:一種「跨主體」的存有。透過德勒茲與瓜達里「游牧主體」的概念,巴什拉所謂「我的非我」在游牧、變成的解析下得以具體地描述。二、結合巴氏「夢想的斜坡」與德勒茲「平面」之概念,讓我們將目光投向「運動」(movement)的狀態本身,「運動」因此得與「詩」產生連結,論證出「運動-詩」的詩學理念。

在如此之理論架構下,透過對零雨、夏宇詩作的實際批評,使「運動-詩」的詩學理念具體展現。經本文之論析:零雨詩主體「我」以「表演」的形式穿越自身與外在物質,在身體整體與局部之間任意結合、鬆脫,以「扮演」和「假裝」演現變成與運動的張力。夏宇則嘗試將詩的主體隱匿,藏在任何事物與事件的「反面」,成為戲外的旁觀者、「變成攝影機」,透過消失不見的想法「更趨向存在」。「運動-詩」的概念不僅提示著詩另一種存有的姿態,更讓讀者產生不同的認識論,感知詩可感知與不可感知的一切,在感知運動與移動的過程裡,「幸福的容積」得以於審美經驗中逐漸成形。

 

◎關鍵詞:運動-詩,巴什拉,德勒茲,零雨,夏宇

★國立成功大學現代文學研究所碩士生。

Chin Tsai-Lin╱The Dreaming-Slope: A Study of Lin Yu and Xia Yu’s Poems under the Concept of “Movement-Poem”

The Dreaming-Slope
A Study of Lin Yu and Xia Yu’s Poems under the Concept of “Movement-Poem”

Chin Tsai-Lin*

Abstract

This paper discusses the poems of Lin Yu and Xia Yu under the concept of “movement-poem” derived from Gaston Bachelard and Gilles Deleuze. Firstly, Bachelard describes the ontology of trans-subject by the notion of “anima” and “animus”, which marks the turning-point of his poetics. Bachelard’s thought can be clarified in certain degree by citing Deleuze’s insight on nomadism. Secondly, I illustrate “the slope of dream” by Bachelard and “the plane of immanence” by Deleuze in order to extract the idea of “movement”, and turn to the poetics of “movement-poem”. Then, I analyze the poems of Lin Yu and Xia Yu under the concept of “movement-poem”. After the textual interpretation, this paper shows that the subjects in Lin Yu’s poems display the movement by means of dramatic performance, whereas Xia Yu creates a kind of “hidden-subject” that transforms into an observer or a “becoming- camera” to probe another way of existence. The notion of “movement-poem” brings the different ontology and epistemology of poetry, provides us another aesthetic to read and experience.

 

◎Keywords: movement-poem, Gaston Bachelard, Gilles Deleuze, Lin Yu, Xia Yu

★M.A. Student, Graduate Institute of Modern Literature, National Cheng Kung University.

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