98年3月號「生命、政治、倫理:文學研究的回應 第三十二屆全國比較文學會議論文專輯」

2019-08-22

第三十八卷 第一期 總424 中華民國98年3月
Vol.38 No.1 March 2009

《中外文學》三月號推出〈生命、政治、倫理:文學研究的回應——第三十二屆全國比較文學會議論文專輯〉,收錄七篇精彩論文:林松燕將拉岡與伊希嘉黑作相互參照、閱讀,探討「愛欲」、「倫理」與「性別差異」;周俊男以後期傅柯理論解讀《關鍵報告》的後人類倫理;林宛瑄以德勒茲與瓜達希在《千重臺》中病毒的異質連結為例,說明病毒感染是一種身動力的交相作用;廖高成探討庫雷西(Hanif Kureishi)小說《黑色唱片》中的主角如何受到晚期資本主義社會不同倫理觀念的影響,透過/超越消費主義與基本教義實踐找到自身認同;黃渼婷討論德國表現主義作家都柏林(Alfred Döblin)如何融合無政府主義思想與道家思想,勾勒出他的「政治烏托邦」。在「文學/文化論評」中,王儀君藉由德萊登(John Dryden)劇作《安波那》,將英國十七世紀與荷蘭在殖民地安波那的經濟、政治角力,重新繪上國族主義與對東方殖民城市的想像;另外,本期與《美國季刊》(American Quarterly)三月號同步刊出美國研究學會會長狄若瑞爾(Philip J. Deloria)2008年年會的會長演說稿,討論美國研究未來的取徑。

中外文學三月號目錄
Contents

專題論文
Special Issue Papers

林松燕╱愛在生成時:拉岡與伊希嘉黑性別差異的倫理未來

愛在生成時
拉岡與伊希嘉黑性別差異的倫理未來

林松燕*

摘要
本文以拉岡第二十講《女性性欲》以及伊希嘉黑後期著作兩者相互參照與閱讀,從「存有的時間性」觀點出發,探討「愛欲」、「倫理」與「性別差異」。若說拉岡反對「自戀之愛」與「融合之愛」,提出「愛」位於知識及欲望的存有之外,並且以「蕩力」(jouissance)為新的「身體存有」(bodily being),那麼伊希嘉黑則以「前知識的」、「前判斷」的「驚奇」(wonder)為新的情感(affect)、以「成為兩個」(to be two)為性別差異的存有,重新看待陷於知識、欲望與時間封閉的「存有的僵固性」,愛即是「性別的變為與生成」,是時間中開展的「事件」。她視「成為兩個」為時間與性別差異的存有,以開展個體之時間性,成為性別他者的身體做為一時間面向,開展未來之「事件」,以開啟性別化的生成與成為,將具有創造力的、面對未來的時間,連結至身體不斷變化的生成成為。

◎關鍵詞:性別差異,倫理學,時間性,存有,生成,事件,愛

★國立暨南國際大學外國語文學系助理教授。

Song-Yen Lin╱Love in the Time of Becoming: The Ethical Future of Sexual Difference in Lacan and Irigaray

Love in the Time of Becoming
The Ethical Future of Sexual Difference in Lacan and Irigaray

Song-Yen Lin*

Abstract
This article explores love, ethics, and sexual difference from the perspectives of temporality of being. It examines the interconnections between Lacan’s Seminar XX on female sexuality and Irigaray’s later works. What Lacan and Irigaray have in common in their later works is their shift of the discussion of love and sexual relations away from negation and lack to embodiment and temporality of being. The first section points out that Lacan in Seminar XX refutes commonsensical notion of love as either "narcissism" or "the fusion of One." He treats these two phenomena as symptoms of the subject of desire and knowledge, indicative of a being fleeing away (taking flight). Lacan rethinks love and being outside the path of desire by privileging jouissance as an alternative bodily being (para-being). The second section draws attention to how Irigaray reconceives the question of love and being through sexual difference. "Wonder" and "to be two" are two ways for Irigaray to treat being away from spatial and temporal fixation and repetition to becoming, event, and the future.

◎Keywords: sexual difference, ethics, temporality, being, becoming, event, love

★Assistant Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chi Nan University

周俊男╱生命政治、自我外化、界面管理:試以傅柯理論閱讀《關鍵報告》的後人類倫理

生命政治、自我外化、界面管理
試以傅柯理論閱讀《關鍵報告》的後人類倫理

周俊男*

摘要
在疆界流動快速或「去疆界化」的後現代社會,隨著科技及媒體的高度發展,傳統「人文主義」或「人類中心論」所強調的「人」的自主性及(疆界)完整性正受到嚴峻的挑戰。傅柯所謂的「人已死」或晚近逐漸興起的「後人類」論述正是以「人」所遭受的挑戰及「去疆界化」為立足點。但「去疆界化」或對「他者」的不斷開(解)放是否就該是後現代主體的終極倫理?在後現代「開放的」社會中,各種之前受到壓抑的「他者」或慾望都可隨時隨地得到解放,但矛盾的是,慾望橫流的結果,其角色卻逐漸由挑戰社會體制的抵抗力量演變為社會體制的一部分,成了一種「強制的慾望」(the imperative to enjoy),而失去解放的功能。狄博(Guy Debord)曾經提出「表像社會」(society of the spectacle)的概念,認為在媒體掌控的社會中,由於層次的崩解或去疆界化,社會各領域已整合成一個整體表像,而當權者可利用這個整體表像來管制或改變個人的感知方式或價值觀。狄博的這個「表像社會」概念對於追求開放多元的後現代社會有警告與提醒的作用:開放多元不等於解放或自由,反而可能是另一種形式的監控或束縛。從傅柯所談的「生命政治」的角度來看,「生命」(心靈及身體)的解放,其實代表生命的物化或量化,使其成為「政治」(國家權力體制)管制的對象;生命的解放是後現代社會知識權力體系的運作模式,不一定具有革命的效力,這是傅柯的「權力」論述有別於具有烏托邦傾向的「超人類主義」或哈樂威的「人機複合體」(「半人」)之處。但傅柯的「權力」論述,不是一般批評家所談的,是抹煞或忽略主體的,而是其主體或倫理論述的基礎。也就是說,主體依「權力」而生,主體相對於「權力」而言,是全然「內在的」,而非「超越的」。後期傅柯則強調主體自身如何詮釋及管理知識權力體制所呼喚的慾望及身體,使主體內部形成一個與知識權力體制之間的雙向緩衝機制,讓主體不(完全)受慾望或身體所束縛。前期傅柯強調主體與知識權力的摺疊,而後期傅柯則強調主體與知識權力互動過程中所產生的主體與自身的摺疊,形成主體的反身性,傅柯稱之為「主體詮釋學」(the hermeneutics of the self)或「主體的管理」(the care of the self)。後期傅柯強調的反身性可收「以量制量」、「以毒攻毒」之效,讓主體也量化、虛假化,而為後現代主體另闢蹊徑。後期傅柯所著重的「自我管理」基本上就在剖析主體如何在權力內部(也是主體內部)找到自我的內在界限或「摺疊」,這是一種「內在的界面管理」,是一種「反身性倫理」。傅柯「生命政治」所涉及的倫理學和一般後現代、後結構主義強調以「他者」為主體的倫理學(列維那斯)之間的差異可見一斑。本文前半部剖析傅柯理論樞紐的「管理」概念,說明主體如何進行「內在的界面管理」為主,而後半部則以電影《關鍵報告》為例,闡釋在後現代社會或未來社會裡,主體如何完全受權力(系統)掌控,而主體又該如何與權力(系統)「摺疊」,借力使力,找到其「反身性倫理」。

◎關鍵詞:傅柯,生命政治,管理,後人類,倫理,反身性,表像社會

★南台科技大學應用英語系助理教授。

Jun-Nan Chou╱Bio-Politics, Self-objectification, and Reflexivity: A Foucauldian Reading of Minority Report

Bio-Politics, Self-objectification, and Reflexivity
A Foucauldian Reading of Minority Report

Jun-Nan Chou*

Abstract
Postmodern society is a society of deterritorization, in which the boundaries traditionally set up for "humanism" have broken down, in which various kinds of "other" and desires are liberated. The problem is: is the liberation of "other" and desire the right and only way to freedom of the subject? For many theorists, the answer is "no." For Guy Debord, it is the media which bombard people in postmodern society with the spectacle of liberation such that the society has become a "society of the spectacle" through which the authority can easily manipulate the values of the people with the spectacle. For Foucault, the liberation of life is the target of the regime of bio-politics and has to do with knowledge and power rather than freedom of the subject. The regime of bio-politics, for Foucault, is responsible for the objectification of the subject and turns the subject into a unit of the state policy of population. And yet, the later Foucault spots a reflexivity within the subject, a reflexivity called by him as "the hermeneutics of the self" or "the care of the self," through which the subject can objectify itself and attain an "objectification of objectification," thus creating a buffer for the subject within the power relationship. The reflexivity of the subject enables the subject to cope with power and create a "folding" relationship with power. The reflexivity of the subject, "the hermeneutics of the self" or "the care of the self," for Foucault, constitutes an "ethics of the self," an ethics based on the relationship between the subject and itself and different from Levinas’ ethics based on the relationship with the other.

◎Keywords: Foucault, bio-politics, governmentality, post-human, ethics, reflexivity, society of the spectacle

★ Assistant Professor, Department of Applied English, Southern Taiwan University.

林宛瑄╱《千重臺》中的病毒: 從生物醫學看身動力

《千重臺》中的病毒
從生物醫學看身動力

林宛瑄*

摘要

德勒茲與瓜達希在《千重臺》中以病毒所牽動的異質連結作 為例子,來說明根莖異於樹狀結構的運作機制。但一般對病毒感 染的論述方式深受軍事隱喻的影響,傾向把病毒視為單方面入侵 人體的敵人,免疫系統則是確保主權完整的防線,這種論述框架 很難轉換為有創造性的異質連結。本文將爬梳生物醫學相關研究 的論點,舉出例證來說明,病毒感染不只是單向的入侵,而是身 動力交相作用的結果。而免疫系統也不需是證明自我界限何在的 防線,而是人體細胞與病毒之間不斷解軫域化與再軫域化的一重 平台。當敵我對抗的意象被解構後,我們方能循線進入病毒所織 出的生命網絡,看到多重的異質連結。

◎關鍵詞:病毒感染,身動力,聯結器,免疫系統,解軫域化,再軫域化

★元培科技大學應用英語系助理教授。

Wan-Shuan Lin╱The Virus in A Thousand Plateaus: Approaching Affect from the Perspective of Biomedicine

The Virus in A Thousand Plateaus
Approaching Affect from the Perspective of Biomedicine

Wan-Shuan Lin*

Abstract

Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari refer to the conditions of viral infection in A Thousand Plateaus as an example of how alliances of heterogeneous elements are effectuated. However, as popular descriptions of viral infection are so captivated by military metaphors which preach confrontation between the human self and the viral other, an alternative model of viral infection has to be formulated so that the creative involution facilitated by viral infection can be appreciated. Following Deleuzean lines, the present article argues that viral infection testifies to the circulation of affects within machinic assemblages instead of coming about as a result of unilateral imposition. There is even a certain motivation to viral infection on the part of the human body. It is also argued that rather than serving as the guarantee of a certain biological self by waging battles against foreign antigens, the immune system defines a territory which is engaged in an endless process of deterritorialization and reterritorialization.

◎Keywords: viral infection, affect, machinic assemblages, the immune system, deterritorialization, reterritorialization

★Assistant Professor, Department of Applied English, Yuanpei University.

廖高成╱在消費主義與基本教義之間:《黑色唱片》的倫理、認同與晚期資本主義

在消費主義與基本教義之間
《黑色唱片》的倫理、認同與晚期資本主義

廖高成*

摘要
本文探討庫雷西(Hanif Kureishi)的小說《黑色唱片》(The Black Album)中的主要角色如何受到晚期資本主義社會中不同的倫理觀念影響,透過/超越消費主義與基本教義的種種實踐,而找到自身的認同。作者對於各角色的呈現說明了消費主義的巨大影響力,讓意欲堅守回教基本教義的個體也無所遁逃。在另一方面,作者也在小說中顯示,個人是可以透過與消費主義緊密扣連的浪漫倫理、個人主義與自由主義,跳脫物欲橫流的陷阱而深化其精神實踐。消費社會並不只是建立在商品符號之上,其運轉有賴於內含於資本主義邏輯中的倫理觀。坎貝爾(Colin Cambell)已經指出,消費社會有著現代性中的兩層邏輯,亦即在計算與實驗活動中表現的理性邏輯,以及源自激情和渴望的夢想邏輯。兩種邏輯運作的結果,分別產生了工作倫理與浪漫倫理,在生產端和消費端維繫資本主義社會的運作。然而,小說裡認同於資本主義生活形態的角色們不見得都能兼具這兩種倫理。同時,為了反抗浪漫倫理的過度擴張,以及在西方消費社會中對抗長存的種族主義剝削,也有著生長於消費社會中,卻堅持以回教基本教義來抵抗個人認同碎散化的危機。在檢視小說中各種道德信念及文化認同極端的角色之後,庫雷西的小說勾勒出消費社會中工作與浪漫倫理平衡的重要性,並探討超越縱欲與禁欲實踐的可能。

◎關鍵詞:庫雷西,消費主義,消費社會,工作倫理,浪漫倫理, 回教基本教義派,晚期資本主義,自由主義

★國立臺灣師範大學英語系博士候選人。

Kao-Chen Liao╱Between Consumerism and Fundamentalism: Ethic, Identities, and Late Capitalism in The Black Album

Between Consumerism and Fundamentalism
Ethic, Identities, and Late Capitalism in The Black Album

Kao-Chen Liao*

Abstract

This paper discusses how main characters in The Black Album go through and beyond practices of consumerism and Islam fundamentalism, finding their own identities among various ethical positions in late capitalism. Representations of different characters from the author illuminate the enormous impact of consumerism, which even fundamentalist believers are not immune from. On the other hand, Kureishi also indicates that, via the romantic ethic, individualism and liberalism articulated with consumerism, an individual is capable of evading extravagant desire and achieving spiritual development. The consumer society does not merely take root on commodities and their signs. Its management relies on the ethic inherent in the logic of capitalism. Colin Campbell has pointed out that the consumer society is guided by the dual logic of modernity, namely the logic of reason manifested in calculation and experiment, and the logic of dream originated from passion and aspiration. Working ethic and romantic ethic are resulted from this dual logic, and in turn maintain the operation of capitalism in the end of production and consumption. Yet, characters in this novel do not necessarily follow its ethical principles even if they are products of consumer captialism. Furthermore, to resist over-expansion of the romantic ethic and the ethnic exploitations long present in the Western consumer society, there is a fictional community, despite its breeding in Britain, insistent on Islamic fundamentalism to withstand fragmentation of the personal or communal identity. Examining characters with widely different ethic and cultural identity, Kureishi’s novel validates the balance between the working and romantic ethic in the consumer society, and explores the possibility of transcending self-indulgence and asceticism.

◎Keywords: Hanif Kureishi, consumerism, consumer society, working ethic, romantic ethic, Islamic fundamentalism, late capitalism, liberalism

★Ph.D. Candidate, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

黃渼婷╱「政治烏托邦」與「無為」的變奏:論《王倫三躍進》共群實踐的生命秩序轉向

「政治烏托邦」與「無為」的變奏
論《王倫三躍進》共群實踐的生命秩序轉向

黃渼婷*

摘要
道家思想在十九、二十世紀之際對歐洲產生了重大的影響。 老子的生命觀點吸引了漢學家與德國文學家的目光。其中,德國 無政府主義信奉者以及表現主義作家艾弗德‧都柏林(Alfred Döblin)處在這樣的時代背景之下,吸納了道家思想,並在他原 有的無政府主義概念的基礎之下,創作了他的表現主義烏托邦作 品《王倫三躍進》(Die drei Sprünge des Wang-lun)。本論文擬 探討都柏林在無政府主義思想與道家思想的影響之下,如何融合 並運用此兩種不同的生命秩序觀點,勾勒出他的「政治烏托邦」 以及描繪西方人因受到道家思想影響而產生的生命秩序概念的 轉變。

◎關鍵詞:道家思想,無政府主義,政治烏托邦,生命秩序,艾弗 德‧都柏林

★輔仁大學天主教學術研究院博士後研究員。

Mei-Tin Huang╱Variations of Political Utopia and Wu-Wei: Change of People’s Life Order in Die drei Sprünge des Wang-lun

Variations of Political Utopia and Wu-Wei
Change of People’s Life Order in Die drei Sprünge des Wang-lun

Mei-Tin Huang*

Abstract
Daoism played a distinctive role in Europe of 19th and 20th centuries. Its aurora appealed to many German sinologists and literary writers. Alfred Döblin, an anarchist and one of the famous German Expressionist writers, absorbed the Idea of Daoism and thus created his utopian masterpiece Die drei Sprünge des Wang-lun. In this paper, Döblin’s presents a political Utopia which seeks to integrate the ideas of Daoism and Anarchism and to show the change of forms of life in the West brought about by Daoism as its main themes.

◎Keywords: Daoism, Anarchism, Political Utopia, Life Order, Alfred Döblin

★Post-doctoral Fellow, Fu-Jen Academia Catholia

文學/文化論評
Literary / Cultural Criticism

  • 王儀君╱德萊登劇本《安波那》中的東方城市與殖民想像
    I-chun Wang╱John Dryden’s Amboyna: Oriental City and Colonial Imagination
  • 菲力普‧狄若瑞爾(Philip J. Deloria)╱百路匯與主街:十字路、鬼途以及美國研究未來的取徑(黃心雅、張淑君譯;單德興校譯)
    Philip J. Deloria╱Broadway and Main: Crossroads, Ghost Roads, and Paths to an American Studies Future (Trans. Hsinya Huang and Clara Shu-Chun Chang; Trans. editor: Te-hsing Shan)

王儀君╱德萊登劇本《安波那》中的東方城市與殖民想像

德萊登劇本《安波那》中的東方城市與殖民想像

王儀君*

摘要
德萊登的劇本《安波那》完成於一六七三年,在此以前,英 國與歐洲其他海上霸權競爭下,已逐漸開展國際的勢力,但歐陸 的荷蘭人更早開拓跨洋的經紀手腕,英國人與荷蘭忽敵忽友的關 係亦早有軌跡可循。《安波那》的時代背景是英荷殖民競爭下的 第三次戰役,德萊登藉著一六二三年發生在摩鹿加群島安波那城 的屠殺事件,闡述殖民空間的醞釀與操作,批判殖民競爭對手, 建構英國屬性,卻同時從英國的殖民記憶中流露十七世紀的東方 殖民想像。

◎關鍵詞:德萊登,《安波那》,殖民文學,殖民想像

★國立中山大學外國語文學系教授。

I-Chun Wang╱John Dryden’s Amboyna: Oriental City and Colonial Imagination

John Dryden’s Amboyna
Oriental City and Colonial Imagination

I-Chun Wang*

Abstract
Dryden’s play Amboyna was published in 1673; the core of the play deals with the massacre of the English merchants by the Dutch in 1623. The conflicts between England and Netherland over overseas plantations started back in the previous century but the tensions increased and resulted in Anglo-Dutch wars. In America, the Dutch controlled the Hudson River Valley from 1609 until the English took over in 1664, when the Dutch lost New Netherland. In 1673, however, at the time when Amboyna was published, the Dutch had recaptured New Netherland with a fleet of 21 ships. In its time, Amboyna was a play that reinforced national identity, not only by depicting the tensions between the English and the Dutch, but by expressing colonial imagination in English cultural memory.

◎Keywords: Dryden, Amboyna, colonial literature, colonial imagination

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University.

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