109年3月 人類世專輯——重新思考生態: 誰的人類,什麼的人類世?

2020-03-30

第四十九卷 第一期 總468 中華民國109年3月
Vol. 49 No. 1 March 2020

《中外文學》三月號推出「人類世專輯——重新思考生態:誰的人類,什麼的人類世?」,收錄了三篇精彩的專輯論文,以及兩篇專輯書評。此外,本期也收錄了兩篇一般論文,以及一篇思想轉譯。專輯論文部分,張君玫以「抵抗的立足點」、「測量的政治」和「生命的肯定」三個面向出發,探討六位當代女性主義思想家的生態想像,進而繪製出人類世中女性主義思考與實踐的地圖;蔡晏霖的《金寶螺胡撇仔》以多物種影像實驗自然史的方式,呈現宜蘭友善耕作水稻田裡的多物種連結與共生景象,並嘗試彰顯多物種民族誌的理論關懷;吳宗憲檢視當代自由主義政治制度,探究在當代「人類世」中,動物能否得到應有的權利,進一步思索動物的主體性和能動力等問題。專輯書評部分,李宜澤對庫依珊克(Julie Cruikshank)的《冰川是否聆聽:在地知識,殖民遭逢以及社會想像》(Do Glaciers Listen? Local Knowledge, Colonial Encounters, and Social Imagination),以及哈斯靈頓(Kregg Hetherington)主編的《人類世下的基礎建設、環境與生命》(Infrastructure, Environment, and Life in the Anthropocene)做出精彩評析;作為譯者之一,陳榮泰則深入評介了拉圖(Bruno Latour)的《面對蓋婭》(Facing Gaia)。一般論文部分,蔡玫姿以在臺馬來西亞華裔女作家馬尼尼為的圖文創作為研究個案,主張其創作源於賤斥母職及賤斥新家園,分析其作《帶著你的雜質發亮》(2013)至「隱晦家庭系列」繪本(2016)與《沒有大路》(2018)如何形成異端母職論述;黃士元以德語作家克萊斯特(Heinrich von Kleist)的短文〈關於傀儡戲〉(“Uber das Marionettentheater”)為例,探討作家如何思考另一種不以人為中心的生命之可能性,並重新看待不在人的意識與企圖的主導下,生命有何新的定義。思想轉譯部分,李家沂則逐條翻譯巴迪烏(Alain Badiou)的「人民」用字二十四條注,反思現今世界之民族或國家主義的本位狂熱。

中外文學三月號目錄
Contents

人類世專輯
Special Issue on Anthropocene

  • 張君玫(專輯主編)╱「人類世專輯」弁言:人類世的多樣性政治
    Chun-Mei Chuang, Guest Editor╱Introduction: A Politics of Multiplicity in the Anthropocene

張君玫╱人類世中的女性主義:立足點、地方與實踐

人類世中的女性主義:立足點、地方與實踐

張君玫*

摘要

本中以「抵抗的立足點」、「測量的政治」和「生命的肯定」等三條論述的線索出發,探討了六位當代女性主義思想家的生態想像,並透過這些討論,繪製出一張關於人類世中女性主義思考與實踐的地圖。在本文繪製的動態航線中,席娃的「自然的創造力」、普姆伍德的「新的人性模式」、哈洛威的「製造奇異親族」、巴芮德的「酷兒展演能動力」、布拉達蒂的「泛人性化成」以及班內特的「化人的活力物質」都彰顯了其獨特的所在地政治,以及特定的肉身、地方和歷史立足點。除了延續拆解文化和自然的層級化二元對立,在人類世中的女性主義生態批判更需要正視能動力的不均衡分配,釐清人類行動者在多物種與跨類別的後人類化成中的實踐與責任。

◎關鍵詞:人類世,生態轉向,後人類,能動力,女性主義所在地政治

★東吳大學社會學系教授。

Chun-Mei Chuang╱Feminism in the Anthropocene: Standpoints, Places and Practices

Feminism in the Anthropocene
Standpoints, Places and Practices

Chun-Mei Chuang*

Abstract

This paper discusses six contemporary feminist thinkers’ ecological imagination through three interconnected perspectives: the standpoint of resistance, the politics of measurement, and the affirmation of life. I thereby draw up a dynamic map of theory and practice in which Vandana Shiva’s “nature’s creativity,” Val Plumwood’s “new mode of humanity,” Donna Haraway’s “making oddkin,” Karen Barad’s “queer performative agency,” Rosi Braidotti’s “pan-human becoming,” and Jane Bennett’s “anthropomorphic vibrant matter” all respectively highlight their specific politics of location as well as their particular bodily, local, and historical standpoints. Continuing to deconstruct the hierarchical dualism of culture and nature, feminism in the Anthropocene has called our attention to the uneven distribution of agency and the urgency of clarifying the orientations and responsibilities of human agents in the multispecies and transversal posthuman becoming in which we’ve always already participated.

◎Keywords: Anthropocene, ecological turn, posthuman, agency, feminist politics of location

★Professor, Department of Sociology, Soochow University, Taipei.

蔡晏霖╱金寶螺胡撇仔 :一個多物種實驗影像民族誌

金寶螺胡撇仔
一個多物種實驗影像民族誌

蔡晏霖*

摘要
《金寶螺胡撇仔》以多物種影像實驗自然史的方式,嘗試呈現宜蘭友善耕作水稻田裡的多物種連結與共生景象。原生於阿根廷的福壽螺於 1979年引進台灣,短短數年間迅速擴散至亞洲各地。然而與其以農藥殺 螺同時也殺死其他的水田生物,近年於台灣各地興起的友善稻作小農社群嘗試轉化農民與福壽螺的關係。透過農技藝的復古與創新,許多友善耕作小農嘗試將農民與福壽螺的關係從對立性的「害彼害己」轉化為「減量共存」,甚至進一步創造「協同生產」的可能。《金寶螺胡撇仔》描繪的正是以上從「人螺殊途」到「人螺共生」的共同演化之道。透過從不同物種尺度拍攝的影像與結合分析與想像的劇本實驗,《金寶螺胡撇仔》挑戰西方知識體系對於不同的人、以及人與非人之間階層化的預設,轉而透過「實驗自然史」嘗試彰顯多物種民族誌的理論關懷。

◎關鍵詞:多物種民族誌,實驗自然史,實驗影像民族誌,友善耕作,福壽螺

★國立交通大學人文社會學系副教授。

Yen-Ling Tsai╱Golden Snail O-pe-la: A Multispecies Experimental Ethnography

Golden Snail O-pe-la
A Multispecies Experimental Ethnography

Yen-Ling Tsai*

Abstract
Golden Snail O-pe-la (a “hybrid” form of Taiwanese folk opera) is a genrebending, multispecies enactment of experimental ethnography. First imported to Taiwan from Argentina in 1979, Pamocea canaliculata is now a major pest to rice agriculture in Taiwan and across Asia. Whereas conventional farmers use poison to exterminate snails, a new generation of friendly farmers (youshan xiaonong) in Taiwan’s Yilan County are attempting to achieve a symbiotic, multispecies way of life within the paddy. Drawing on a variety of knowledge sources, including personal experience, institutional science, social media, traditional calendars, and local understandings of ghosts and deities, these farmers construct an experimental natural history of organic rice paddies, which self-consciously intersects with the observations and interventions made by other more-thanhuman paddy denizens.

◎Keywords: multispecies ethnography, experimental natural history, experimental visual ethnography, organic rice farming, Pamocea canaliculata

★Associate Professor, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Chiao Tung University.

吳宗憲╱建構「人類世」的動物保護治理機制

建構「人類世」的動物保護治理機制

吳宗憲*

摘要

自由主義政治制度是人類的發明,使得歷史中弱勢的人類,逐漸在這個治理框架下得到自由與平等,但隨時間邁入「人類世」,動物能不能繼續放入這個治理架構中,得到應有的權利,將會是人類能否解決「人類世」困境的重要因素。

本文將先說明學術圈將動物納入自由主義治理的新架構之嘗試,將「動物」僅僅作為「個人動物保護道德」而存在的理念「客體」,提升為像人類一樣,具有能動性的「主體」,並且務實地解決動物「理性能力」、動物「代表性」及動物「疆界」問題。

但本文進一步闡述,為了使動物權利在當代自由主義治理架構變得可行,必須進一步引進當代的動物行為學,以協助完善金柏莉‧史密斯提出的治理架構,惟若欲使此一設想得以成為動物保護的途徑,動物行為學還有研究資源侷限、方法論分歧,以及代理人本身的價值等數項困境必須克服。

◎關鍵詞:自由主義,動物行為學,道德能動者,道德容受者,治理

★國立臺南大學行政管理系教授。

Chuang-hsien Wu╱To Construct an Animal Governing Mechanism in the “Anthropocene”

To Construct an Animal Governing Mechanism in the “Anthropocene”

Chuang-hsien Wu*

Abstract

Liberalism, an all too human construct, is founded with the principle to incorporate the underprivileged into its political/philosophical framework on the basis of liberty and equal rights. However, as we entered the Anthropocene, whether animals have the rights to benefit from this political system is crucial for us to resolve the predicaments of this era.

With the above ideas in mind, this paper first discusses the new framework of liberalism proposed by academics to include animals. Animals need to be considered as subjective agencies instead of mere moral objects under human protection. The questions of boundaries, rationality, and representation of animals are also in urgent need of practical resolution.

In order to make animal rights possible in the new framework of liberalism, this paper further argues that ethology should be introduced to perfect Kimberly Smith’s framework. Nevertheless, issues concerning limited resources, methodological differences, and the values of agency have to be overcome in order to make such proposal feasible.

◎Keywords:  liberalism, ethology, moral agent, moral patient, governance

★Professor, Department of Public Administration and Management, National University of Tainan.

專輯書評
Book Review

  • 李宜澤╱人類世下的原住民:地景敘事與基礎建設認識論

    Yi-tze LeeIndigenous People in the Anthropocene: Landscape Narratives and Epistemology of Infrastructure

  • 陳榮泰╱表達蓋婭的三種方式

    Rong-tai ChenThree Ways to Express Gaia

一般論文
General Topics

蔡玫姿╱漂移、賤斥與不滿 :在臺馬來西亞華裔女作家馬尼尼為的小眾創作

漂移、賤斥與不滿
在臺馬來西亞華裔女作家馬尼尼為的小眾創作

蔡玫姿*

摘要

本文以在臺馬來西亞華裔女作家馬尼尼為的圖文創作為研究個案,其創作基調源於賤斥母職、賤斥新家園。《帶著你的雜質發亮》 (2013) 至「隱晦家庭系列」繪本(2016)、《沒有大路》 (2018)逐步形成異端母職 論述。本文的論有三:一、轉換「在臺馬華文學」作家框架為「在臺馬華婚姻移居」作家,於馬華文學中納入婚姻移居女作家,再現其漂移主體;二、以源發「賤斥」的創作欲力,詮釋其高舉「因為恨,所以創作」的創作動機。作家提出本能創作、垃圾技法、不完整性、專業與生活合流四者為創造型母親的策略。三、生存異地因母職而荒廢多年、缺乏人脈的新住民藝術家,使用網路募資及仰賴小出版社,有效改善發表空間,當視為「小眾文創」的能動力表徵。

◎關鍵詞:馬尼尼為,馬華文學,母職,繪本,賤斥

★國立成功大學中國文學系副教授。

Mei-Tzu Tsai╱Drifting, Abjection and Dissatisfaction: The Minority Creation of Manini-Wei

Drifting, Abjection and Dissatisfaction
The Minority Creation of Manini-Wei

Mei-Tzu Tsai*

Abstract

The case study of this paper is the graphic-text composition of Manini-Wei, a Malaysian female author and a Taiwanese new immigrant. The keynotes of her creation theme are abject motherhood and adaptation to a new homeland. In Shining with Your Impurity (2013), Obscurity Family picture book series (2016), and No Avenue (2018), she forms her discourse of “Heretic Motherhood.” This particular study focuses on the following issues: (1) How her transformation from a Chinese literature writer in Malaysia to a Malaysian immigrant writer in Taiwan is achieved through her marriage, and how this transformation represents her expatriation; (2) Wei’s creative mantra, “I hate so I write,” will be interpreted with the theory of abjection to understand the origin and development of her creativity. Wei’s theories of creation (instinct creation, trash technique, incompleteness, interflow of professional and everyday life) are examined as a strategy to maintain the existence of a creative mother; (3) How Wei, who lacked social network due to her motherhood and being a foreigner, was able to raise funds for her picture book publication will be taken as a strategy to improve the publishing space and is representative of “minority creation” in the publishing industry.

◎Keywords:  Manini-Wei, Chinese literature in Malaysia, motherhood, picture book, abjection

★Associate Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Cheng Kung University.

黃士元╱克萊斯特〈關於傀儡戲〉裡的移動與生命

克萊斯特〈關於傀儡戲〉裡的移動與生命

黃士元*

摘要

本文以德語作家克萊斯特在1810年完成的短文〈關於傀儡戲〉為 主,探討作者如何在他的文本中突破傳統,思考另一種不以人為中心的生命之可能性,並以此重新看待不在人的意識與企圖的主導下,生命有 何新的定義。討論從克萊斯特在1801年開始質疑康德哲學的知識論, 也就是所謂的「康德危機」的背景開始,並探討受康德哲學影響的席勒美 學。此外本文將借用德勒茲與瓜達里對於流變(becoming)的思考,論證 為何這篇短文認為傀儡戲木偶因其本身的物質性與無意識之故,反而能展現比人更自然優雅的移動之動。同時本文也借助馬蘇米關於動物本能的論述,探討〈關於傀儡戲〉裡所隱含自我異化的可能性,以及如何抽離人為主導下一直習以為常的觀念,想法與優越性。最後本文總結:克萊斯特文本中的優雅裡所代表的生命,即是去除自我,並經歷過無限領域後與非人的領域相互連結的生命,表達出另類生命與存在於跨界開放結構下的想像與可能性。

◎關鍵詞:克萊斯特,移動,生命,流變,優雅,非人,德勒茲

★文藻外語大學德國語文系副教授。

Shih-Yen Huang╱Movement and Life in Heinrich von Kleist’s “Über das Marionettentheater”

Movement and Life in Heinrich von Kleist’s “Über das Marionettentheater”
Shih-Yen Huang*
Abstract

Based on the German writer Heinrich von Kleist’s short prose “Über das Marionettentheater,” this paper explores how Kleist breaks the philosophical and religious tradition so as to depict a new possibility of life decentered from the human being. The discussion begins with Kleist’s skepticism against Kant’s epistemology in 1801, the so-called “Kant-crisis.” This is followed by an exposition on the aestheticism of Friedrich Schiller, who was strongly influenced by Kant. Against such backdrop, Kleist argues that the marionette puppet can, due to its materiality and non-consciousness, express movement with more natural grace and elegance than a ballet dancer. Kleist’s notion is in keeping with the concept of becoming raised by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Quattari. By applying Brian Massumi’s studies on animal instinct, this paper aims to delineate the underlying implications in Kleist’s text, such as the notion of self-estrangement and the establishment of a new relationship between the humans and the non-humans. In conclusion, the grace presented in Kleist’s text demonstrates a kind of life that is de-subjectified and closely associated with the non-humans, signifying the possibility of another way of living that is based on an open-ended and cross-border structure.

◎Keywords: Heinrich von Kleist, movement, life, becoming, grace, the non-humans, Gilles Deleuze

★Associate Professor, Department of German, Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages.

思想轉譯
Theory-in-Translation

  • 阿蘭‧巴迪烏(李家沂 譯)╱「人民」用字二十四條注
    Alain Badiou (Trans. Chia Yi Lee)╱Twenty-Four Notes on the Uses of the Word ‘People’

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