109年12月 中介專輯

2021-01-07

第四十九卷 第四期 總471 中華民國109年12月
Vol. 49 No. 4 Dec. 2020

《中外文學》十二月號推出由丁乃非與劉人鵬共同主編的《中介》專輯,收錄了五篇精彩的專輯論文與一篇專輯評論。另外,本期也收錄了一篇一般論文,以及一篇論壇稿。專輯論文部分,林文玲以排灣族導演撒舒優‧渥巴拉特的《最後12.8公里》與《原來我們不核》兩部台灣原住民族紀錄片為著眼點,認為紀錄片中介了台灣原住民族所遭遇的現代性課題,在地族人如何援用傳統作為因應,以及從中產生的多元轉化;林純德深度訪談了中國大陸底層弱勢的「妖」群體,以訪談結合參與觀察的民族誌研究方法,探索當代中國大陸妖的山寨性/別模組化展現及其惑亂效應;劉人鵬從十九世紀末到二十世紀初性/別之討論,觀察知識分子「性/別」感知轉變過程中的某些現象,及其後在學術中的敘述;黃詠光從陳光興在《去帝國》中關於參照對象向亞洲「轉移」的概念出發,閱讀在亞洲之間思想遭遇或「糟」遇的歷史中一個「負面性轉移」案例,即瞿秋白與泰戈爾在1924 年的相遇;丁乃非則以敘事分析方法閱讀三種文本──連續劇、專題訪談、英美語界四篇女性主義文章──藉以探討妓妾與妻之身影如何再現於時刻連動的光譜,亦即民初開始朝向平等專偶婚姻轉型的一夫一妻制度。專輯評論部分,李思齊(Nicholas de Villiers)以劉言的紀錄片《女夭儿》與《跨‧年》為例,分析中國東北的變裝和跨性別性工作者的日常生活、酷兒親緣關係與生存樣態等問題,及其不確定的未來夢想。一般論文部分,馮冬解析策蘭(Paul Celan)於詩集《語言柵欄》(Sprachgitter)與《無人的玫瑰》(Die Niemandsrose)等,受到西方哲學與神學中「虛無」觀念之深度侵擾,分析詩人如何以詩「凍結」虛無於瞬間,將虛無帶入一種站立或終止。「《中外文學》論壇」部分,則由本刊總編輯兼論壇主持人李鴻瓊和另外七位與談人——廖咸浩、邱貴芬、姜翠芬、李育霖、王穎、鄭芳婷、楊雅筑——為緬懷詩人楊牧先生,而進行一場深具紀念性與知識性的「楊牧之於比較文學」紀念論壇。

中外文學十二月號目錄
Contents

中介專輯
Special Issue on Mediations

  • 專輯主編:丁乃非、劉人鵬
    Guest Editors: Naifei Ding and Jen-peng Liu

    丁乃非、劉人鵬、黃詠光╱專輯弁言:中介及其不可化約之剩餘
    Naifei Ding, Jen-peng Liu, and Wing-Kwong Wong╱Introduction: Mediation and Its Remains

林文玲╱社會議題的中介與轉化:以撒舒優‧ 渥巴拉特兩部台灣原住民族紀錄片為例

社會議題的中介與轉化
以撒舒優‧ 渥巴拉特兩部台灣原住民族紀錄片為例

林文玲*

摘要

台灣原住民族導演的紀錄片創作,自1990 年代末期至今已有二十多年的發展。台灣社會在這期間進一步捲入全球化、資本流動,以及新自由主義經濟的體系與環節。而生活於偏鄉的原住民族社群則歷經政治、經濟與文化的急速變遷,從中浮現的社會衝突,以及關於生存權利的尖銳議題,成為近年原住民族紀錄影片的重要主題。《最後12.8 公里》與《原來我們不核》在面對「道路修築與否」以及「核廢料貯存場」如此意見分歧與不同訴求的衝突情境,排灣族導演撒舒優.渥巴拉特透過影音序列的建構,安置在地族人的不同觀點、立場或認知框架,並在公開映演的各個場合持續發酵與延展。作為物質與媒介的道路與核廢料,在影像媒介的內部與外部發出其獨特的聲響,進而與影片的敘事、觀點產生共振。《最後12.8 公里》以及《原來我們不核》兩部紀錄片描繪與中介了台灣原住民族所遭遇之現代性課題,在地族人如何援用傳統作為因應,以及從中產生的多元轉化。

◎關鍵詞:原住民紀錄片,中介,現代性轉化,聲音,物質

★中央研究院民族學研究所副研究員;國立交通大學社會與文化研究所合聘教授。

Wen-ling Lin╱Mediations and Transformations of Social Issues: Analysis of Two Taiwan Indigenous Documentaries of Sasuyu Ubalat

Mediations and Transformations of Social Issues
Analysis of Two Taiwan Indigenous Documentaries of Sasuyu Ubalat

Wen-ling Lin*

Abstract

Indigenous documentary in Taiwan has been developing for more than 20 years since the late 1990s. During this period, Taiwanese society has been further implicated in the system of globalization, capital flows, and the neoliberal economy. The aboriginal communities living in the remote counties have undergone rapid changes in politics, economy, and culture. The social conflicts that emerged from these changes and the sharp issues concerning survival rights have become significant themes in the indigenous documentary films in recent years. Paiwan director Sasuyu Ubalat’s two films, Last 12.8km and Get Out, face and deal with the contested and controversial issues of road construction and nuclear waste storage site selection. The director juxtaposes diverse positions and viewpoints of the local people through the audio-visual construction of these two documentaries. In so doing, these two films present, confront, and extend the divergence of opinions in the space of intermediality. The roads and nuclear wastes, which are materials and media themselves, also emit their unique sounds inside and outside the images, and resonate with the narratives and viewpoints of the films, thus mediating the contemporary issues facing indigenous people and their multi-dimensional transformations in the process of modernity.

◎Keywords: indigenous documentary, mediation, transformation in modernity, voice, matter

★Associate Research Fellow, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica; Joint Professor, Institute for Social Research and Cultural Studies, National Chiao Tung University.

林純德╱妖嬈若是: 當代中國大陸「妖」的山寨性/別模組化展現

妖嬈若是
當代中國大陸「妖」的山寨性/別模組化展現

林純德*

摘要
二十一世紀初急速後工業化的中國大陸都會城市的邊緣窘蹙地區聚集大量農村剩餘勞動人口及弱勢底層民眾,其中有一群生理男性相繼以扮女裝的「妖」賣淫方式謀生。就在此一妖群體興起的時空裡,中國大陸同運積極打造政治正確的性/別主體性,以便對內建立中國家庭主義特色的同性戀正典化,對外與以西方為中心的全球LGBT運動接軌。換言之,正當在地同運戮力向上提昇之際,弔詭的是,底層賣淫的妖群體卻是逆勢而行,向下探底,持續磨礪出一種無視性/別文明化與進步性的頑強淫鄙姿態,並以其山寨性/別模組化展現惑亂了在地關乎西方現代性/別身分認同政治的知識中介及各就其位的性/別主體打造工程。本文採取結合深度訪談及參與觀察的民族誌研究方法,一探當代中國大陸妖的山寨性/別模組化展現及其惑亂效應。

◎關鍵詞:妖,性/別模組化,山寨,賣淫,中介

★中國文化大學大眾傳播學系副教授。

Dennis Chwen-der Lin╱Flamboyantly Yao: Shanzhai Gender/Sexual Modularization among Contemporary Chinese Yaos

Flamboyantly Yao
Shanzhai Gender/Sexual Modularization among Contemporary Chinese Yaos

Dennis Chwen-der Lin*

Abstract
Since the 2000s, there has been rapid post-industrialization in Mainland China, leading to numerous rural migrants and disadvantaged people gathering in the depressed areas of metropolitan cities. Among them are an increasing number of “yaos,” that is, people who make a living by male-to-female crossdressing prostitution. Meanwhile, the emergence of the yao community is met with Chinese local LGBT activism’s desire to align with the West-centered global LBGT movement. This is done through the mediation of gender/sexual identity politics in its attempt to forge a local homonormativity characterized by Chinese familism. In face of the ascending global respectability of Chinese LGBT activism, local yaos have persisted in their vulgarity, lewdness, and backwardness at the bottom of the heap. Employing an ethnographic research approach which combines in-depth interviews and participant observations, this essay theorizes this everyday tactic of contemporary Chinese yaos as “shanzhai gender/sexual modularization,” exploring how these abjected subjects negotiate their prostitution practices and trouble the gentrified local LGBT activism.

◎Keywords: yao, gender/sexual modularization, shanzhai, prostitution, mediation

★Associate Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Chinese Culture University.

劉人鵬╱性、淫、翻譯:晚清性別知識重構舉隅

性、淫、翻譯
晚清性別知識重構舉隅

劉人鵬*

摘要

本文主要從三個例子討論晚清性/別知識重構過程中某些感知框架作為中介的問題。其一,當英文sex 尚未普遍譯為「性」時,本文以譚嗣同(1865-1898)《仁學》(1897)為例,觀察他如何討論「淫」而帶出現代視為「性」的內容;其二,本文考察將英文sex 翻譯成「性」字之前的一點歷史遺跡,並觀察知識敘述中介之作用;其三,以馬君武(1881-1940)1903年翻譯彌勒約翰(John Stuart Mill, 1806-1873)的文本脈絡,觀察今日視為「自由主義女性主義」理論者曾經如何與社會主義糾結的種種遺跡。透過這三道遺跡的討論,看出中介帶出的特定知識形構,以及遮蔽的事實與關係。本文一方面呈現知識對象,同時分析知識用語,說明這些知識如何並非直接知識,而是經常被西方現代性所構築的「傳統與現代」的關係所中介,且本身又成為這種關係的中介,構築了落地的現代與傳統。

◎關鍵詞:中介,性,淫,翻譯,譚嗣同,馬君武,彌勒約翰

★國立清華大學中文系教授。

Jen-peng Liu╱Sex, Yin, Translation : Nooks and Crannies of Sex/Gender Knowledge Reconfiguration in Late Qing China

Sex, Yin, Translation
Nooks and Crannies of Sex/Gender Knowledge Reconfiguration in Late Qing China

Jen-peng Liu*

Abstract

By looking into three examples, this paper investigates how certain conceptual frameworks were appropriated as mediation to reconfigure the knowledge formations of sex/gender in Late Qing China. First, it examines how Tan Sitong in Ren Xue used “yin” to bring out the content of modern “sex.” Second, it explores certain historical traces of how “sex” was translated as “xing” to survey the effects of mediation in knowledge. Third, it traces the contexts of Ma Junwu’s translation of John Stuart Mill to observe the remnants of how this “liberal-feminist theorist,” as viewed from today, was once intertwined with socialism. Through these remains, this paper demonstrates how “mediation” brings out certain configurations of knowledge while obscuring certain facts and relations. This paper also analyzes specific terms of knowledge to explain that they are not immediate knowledge but, on the contrary, are oftentimes mediated by the modern-traditional relationship organized by Western modernity. This mediated knowledge itself then turns into a mediating interface that simultaneously constitutes the localization of the modern and the traditional.

◎Keywords: mediation, sex, translation, Tan Sitong, Ma Junwu, John Stuart Mill

★Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Tsing Hua University.

黃詠光╱亞洲之間思想遭遇的負面性轉移 : 瞿秋白與泰戈爾,1924

亞洲之間思想遭遇的負面性轉移
瞿秋白與泰戈爾,1924

黃詠光*

摘要

這篇文章從陳光興在《去帝國》一書中關於參照對象向亞洲「轉移」的概念出發,閱讀在亞洲之間思想遭遇或是「糟」遇的歷史中的一個「負面性轉移」案例,也就是瞿秋白與泰戈爾在1924 年的相遇。事後來說,這個短暫相遇中的負面性轉移卻有著長久的效果,彷彿瞿秋白當時激烈批評泰戈爾的小說《家庭與世界》卻成了他自身在歷史中悲劇命運的預言——「過去的人」在歷史必然中走向毀壞的不可免命運。而我想回頭閱讀竹內好思考「作為方法的亞洲」時亞洲如何作為中介的負向客體來思考這樣轉移的時刻,並由此回頭梳理閱讀亞際文化研究從「亞洲作為方法」(陳光興)到「亞洲之間的方法論」(寧蒂珠)的論述轉移,以及這兩個歷史瞬間的文化政治情感挫傷與化為行動的絕望。藉此,我希望賦予亞洲之間思想遭遇中的負面性時刻新的價值,因為「轉移」從來不只是樹立替代性的認識框架,而更是那開展了有情工作的時間。

◎關鍵詞:亞洲作為方法,糟遇,參考框架轉移,負面性轉移,過去的人,自然,中介,負向客體,時間

★印度理工學院德里分校人文與社會科學研究所博士候選人。

Wing-Kwong Wong╱The Negative Transference in Inter-Asian Encounters : Qu Qiubai and Tagore, 1924

The Negative Transference in Inter-Asian Encounters
Qu Qiubai and Tagore, 1924

Wing-Kwong Wong*

Abstract

This essay takes its cue from Kuan-hsing Chen’s Asia as Method to look at an instance of “negative transference” in the history of inter-Asian encounters, or mis-encounters: the Marxist critic Qu Qiu-bai’s encounter with Rabindranath Tagore in 1924. In hindsight, this negative transference seems to have a lasting effect. It is as if the protagonist of Tagore’s novel The Home and the World that Qu had trenchantly criticized then was prefiguring what Qu’s fate would later unfold in history—the unavoidable tragedy of “man of the past” destroyed inwardly and outwardly under the force of history. I then return to read Takeuchi Yoshimi’s thought of Asia as a negative mediating object to understand the moment of transference. Finally, the essay tracks the discursive “shift/transference” from “Asia as method” (Kuan-hsing Chen) to “Inter-Asia methodology” (Tejaswini Niranjana) and how the two historical moments of impasse that wounded cultural politics gave rise to some acts that embodied despair. By doing so, I wish to assign a new value to the negative moments in inter-Asian encounters, for transference/shift is not only an act of erecting alternative intellectual frameworks, but also the time that unfolds the passionate work.

◎Keywords: Asia as method, mis-encounter, shifting frame of reference, negative transference, man of the past, in-itself, mediation, negative object, time

★Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India.

丁乃非╱成者為妻,敗者妾妓 : 婚姻轉型與女權演化

成者為妻,敗者妾妓
婚姻轉型與女權演化

丁乃非*  著
黃道明**  譯

摘要

本文以敘事分析方法閱讀三種文本──連續劇、專題訪談、英美語界四篇女性主義文章──藉以探討妓妾與妻之身影如何再現於時刻連動的光譜,亦即民初開始朝向平等專偶婚姻轉型的一夫一妻制度。在這三種文本裡,《艋舺女人》連續劇以及尤美女律師的一則訪談各自觸及1997 年台北的公娼抗爭運動以及牽連的婦女運動「家變」,而四篇美國女性主義介入婦女、同志運動的文字,在四十年前的冷戰尾端思索著全球女性、同志連結的可能基礎──婚姻買賣之結構壓迫、父權暴力與男性特質、父權與男「性」讓女性墊底的性暴力與剝削,以及新興「性」族群的多元民主與倫理的建立。本文企圖說明,英美語系女性主義理論的譯介,讓婚姻制度在特定區域之歷史過程隱形化;婚姻轉型中介下,女性親密勞動之移動、移動的連帶,以及傳遞與分工,在連續劇、訪談、理論文字譯介中承受了女性主義加速進步敘述下的性污名甩尾效應。

◎關鍵詞:妾侍,妾侍制度,妓-性工作者,賣淫-性工作,妻,專偶婚姻,親密勞動,女性主義敘事

★國立中央大學英美語文學系教授。
★★國立中央大學英美語文學系教授。

 

Naifei Ding╱Winners Take All! Marriage Transformation and Women’s Rights Evolution

Winners Take All!
Marriage Transformation and Women’s Rights Evolution

Naifei Ding*
Trans. Hans Tao-Ming Huang**

Abstract

This paper reads three kinds of texts—a television serial, an interview, and four Anglophone feminist texts—to explore representations of prostitutes, concubines, and wives along the spectrum of a century-long marriage transformation toward modern egalitarian monogamy. In these texts, the serial Monga Woman and the interview with Yu Mei-nu both touched upon the 1997 Taipei licensed prostitutes’ movement and the ensuing women’s movement’s split. And in an era of Cold War détente, the four feminist texts intervened into a decade of US women’s movement and lesbian and gay movement, debating on the structural oppression of marriage as traffic in women, the dual violence of patriarchy and masculinity in constituting women as “bottom,” and the possibilities of new sexual communities and ethics. Taiwan’s 1990s’ translations of Anglophone feminist texts in effect invisibilized hierarchies of marriage forms in the racial capitalist formation shared by the US and Taiwan. This paper reveals women’s labor as moving in a continuum of relayed intimate work through changing legal marriage forms, as is happening from prostitution through concubinage into wifely positions. The serial, the interview, and the theorization track heightened sexual stigma as a drift effect from the accelerating feminist progress narrative.

◎Keywords: concubine, concubinage, prostitute-sex worker, prostitution-sex work, wife, monogamy, intimate labor, feminist narratives

★Professor, Department of English, National Central University.
★★Professor, Department of English, National Central University.

  • 專輯評論 Special Issue Critical Review

    李思齊(蕭美芳、張行 譯;林純德 校譯)╱中國跨性別性工作者不確定的未來與言證紀錄片
    Nicholas de Villiers (Trans. Mei-fong Siu and Xing Zhang;Trans. Ed. Dennis Chwen-der Lin)╱Uncertain Futures of Chinese Trans Sex Workers and Testimonial Documentary

一般論文
General Topics

馮冬╱無人的影子:策蘭的虛無話語

無人的影子
策蘭的虛無話語

馮冬*

摘要

自詩集《語言柵欄》(1959)與《無人的玫瑰》(1963),策蘭被西方哲學、 神學裡「虛無」這一觀念深度侵擾。這一方面表明策蘭拒絕與戰後歐洲和解,但更深層的原因可能還在於策蘭企圖把「虛無」從包括海德格在內的本體-存在論闡釋,以及猶太教卡巴拉神學的超越化中分離出來。策蘭將海德格所稱的「虛無之虛無化活動」變得可視、可觸,以帶出「無」在神學、政治與存在論上的隱蔽運行。策蘭中晚期詩裡沉重之物的自由懸浮不僅是一個天文或神秘學現象,從存在論上看,它帶有尼采式虛無主義的印記。策蘭終生研讀的哲學家很可能正是尼采,其虛無主義和永恆輪回學說深刻影響了策蘭詩。如果尼采的問題是如何從宗教、道德和形而上價值裡解放出來投身於生命之創造,那麼策蘭的問題則是如何以詩悖論地「凍結」虛無於瞬間,把虛無再一次帶入一種站立或終止。策蘭詩作敞開於虛無的時刻,懸浮其中,與其說「完成了」虛無主義,不如說把虛無主義本身維持在一個非虛無主義的視野內。

◎關鍵詞:策蘭,虛無,虛無主義,海德格,尼采,自由懸浮

★中國青島大學英語系特聘教授。

Dong Feng╱No One’s Shadow: The Nihilistic Discourse of Paul Celan

No One’s Shadow
The Nihilistic Discourse of Paul Celan

Dong Feng*

Abstract

Since Speech-Grille (1959) and The No-One’s-Rose (1963), Paul Celan’s poetry has been increasingly punctured by negativity and the theo-philosophical notion of das Nichts (the nothing). Apart from his refusal to reconcile with postwar Europe, Celan’s insistence on the nothing works primarily for its releasement from both Heidegger’s ontological interpretations and Judeotheological idealization. Giving voices and figures to what Martin Heidegger calls “the nihilation of the nothing,” Celan queries the intricate workings of this notion in various ontological, theological, and political discourses. The free-floating heavy objects in Celan’s poetry are therefore not limited to certain astronomical or mystical phenomena; ontologically, they reveal an imprint of Nietzschean nihilism. In terms of nihilism (eternal recurrence), Nietzsche, rather than Heidegger, could arguably be the philosopher who influenced Celan most. If Nietzsche’s question is how to free human life from religious, moral, and transcendental values and create new values “out of nothing,” as it were, Celan’s then would be to “freeze” nothingness in(to) an instant, bringing it to a halt. Celan’s poetry continuously opens up to the arrival of the nothing, and delights in its free-floating state; instead of claiming to “overcome” nihilism, Celan rather seeks to think nihilism non-nihilistically through poetry.

◎Keywords: Celan, nothing, nihilism, Heidegger, Nietzsche, free floating

★Distinguished Professor, Department of English, Qingdao University, China.

《中外文學》論壇
Chung Wai Forum

廖咸浩、邱貴芬、姜翠芬、李育霖、王穎、鄭芳婷、楊雅筑、李鴻瓊╱「楊牧之於比較文學」紀念論壇
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12月號《中外文學》發行點(由於誠品訂單每期浮動,讀者前往購買前請自行與店家確認)

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