107年6月號

2019-07-15

第四十七卷 第二期 總461 中華民國107年6月
Vol.47 No.2 June 2018

《中外文學》六月號收錄了五篇精彩的學術論文,以及一篇學術書評:黃宗慧探討動物倫理議題經常援引之「悅納異己」概念,在面對(寄生)昆蟲時是否仍有將其納入倫理考量的機會,主張重新思考「人的智性vs.蟲的本能」這種高低位階的問題;王穎以非裔民權作家鮑德溫(James Baldwin)在七零年代早期的三部作品為例,分析其如何透過作品反映並抨擊民權運動結束之後,美國都會區的貧困非裔仍被官方及主流媒體塑造為罪犯並大量逮捕入獄之情況;岑學敏挪用台灣鄉土文學理論,結合城市書寫理論,探析2000年代香港華語語系詩與土地相關之公共實踐,說明文學介入公共之可能,及其對反思與深化「本土」的意義;王家琪透過也斯六十年代末至七十年代末刊於各大報刊的短篇譯文,探討他的譯介如何將西方文學「脈絡化」以介入當時香港的文學論爭,並「以翻譯作為評論」打開新局;謝志謙則針對兩部太陽花運動的影像紀錄——《太陽‧不遠》及《佔領第561小時》,析論其如何展現並同時限縮了運動本身的「基進性」。學術書評部分,林文月教授以原文及四種譯文之實例對照,對於佐復秀樹將Arthur Waley的英譯本The Tale of Genji再譯回為現代日文之《ウエイリ-版 源氏物語》譯文做出精彩評析。

中外文學六月號目錄
Contents

黃宗慧╱不可能悅納(寄生)昆蟲? 動物倫理的蟲蟲危機

不可能悅納(寄生)昆蟲?
動物倫理的蟲蟲危機

黃宗慧*

摘要

動物研究者在探討倫理議題時,經常會援引德希達(Jacques Derrida)所謂悅納異己的觀念,但這樣的訴求經常面臨的質疑是:難道就算面對(寄生)昆蟲,我們也必須無條件地接納,即使會因此造成自身的風險?由於在類似的質疑之中,往往是(寄生)昆蟲被挑出來作為動物倫理的思考與實踐跨不過的門檻,本論文因此企圖探討,蟲在動物研究中的邊陲位置,是否有助於我們進行更基進的思考,從而讓蟲也有被納入倫理考量的機會。論文第一部分將以列維納斯(Emmanuel Levinas)的理論思考昆蟲的倫理面貌,也將對比昆蟲如何以擬人的面貌出現在我們的文化中;第二部分帶入德希達的動物倫理觀,討論諸如動物與人是「共死者」(commourans)等概念,為何似乎也不能有效扭轉我們視昆蟲生命為無物的傾向,並以凸顯昆蟲「可塑性」的藝術家法默(Tessa Farmer)其作品為參照,思考昆蟲不被視為共死者的原因,是否正在於其強大的生存本能;第三節則聚焦於可塑性此主題,指出人類社會既利用並依賴了昆蟲的這種可塑性,就有倫理責任進一步去理解人與蟲之間的依存關係,並主張重新思考「人的智性vs.蟲的本能」這種高低位階的問題所在,期能為辨識蟲的倫理面貌帶來一線希望。

◎關鍵詞:悅納異己,列維納斯,德希達,(寄生)昆蟲,可塑性

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Tsung-huei Huang╱The Limits of Hospitality? Repositioning the Status of (Parasitic) Insects in Animal Ethics

The Limits of Hospitality?
Repositioning the Status of (Parasitic) Insects in Animal Ethics

Tsung-huei Huang*

Abstract

Animal ethicists often draw on Jacques Derrida’s theory of hospitality to claim that nonhuman animals warrant our moral consideration. However, their advocacy is contested by questions like “Are we able to enter into a relation of care with insects or parasites which are inimical to human health?” In this paper, I will inquire why insects or parasites seem to constitute insurmountable barriers to our ethical behavior. The first section of this essay explores how insects, lacking a Levinasian notion of face which demands our response/responsibility, are anthropomorphized in literature and mass culture, and how their appalling appearance thereby hinders our ethical access to them. The second section uses Derrida’s notion of commourans to explain why his philosophy also seems insufficient to make us include insects in our circle of moral concern. Using Tessa Farmer’s artwork as an example, I analyze how the plasticity of insects precludes us from seeing them as our co-diers. The third section begins with how humans have exploited the plasticity of insects to turn them into our companions of war. I also question the hypothesis that insects are eminently instinctive and devoid of intelligence. The paper concludes that the reconsideration of the “instinct/intelligence” dichotomy may pave the way for the deconstruction of anthropocentrism and, hopefully, enable us to recognize an insect’s “face” in the ethical sense.

◎Keywords: hospitality, Levinas, Derrida, (parasitic) insects, plasticity

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

王穎╱美國後民權運動時代早期的種族囹圄政治:鮑德溫在七零年代的批判

美國後民權運動時代早期的種族囹圄政治
鮑德溫在七零年代的批判

王穎*

摘要
本文以非裔民權作家鮑德溫(James Baldwin)在七零年代早期的三部作品為基礎,分析他如何透過作品反映並抨擊民權運動結束之後,美國都會區的貧困非裔非但社經地位未見改善,反而被官方及主流媒體型塑為各式罪犯,日後更被大量逮捕入獄的情況。本文主張鮑德溫出版於1972年的回憶錄《無人知曉》(No Name in the Street)大致勾勒了他對種族自由主義貌似開明進步,實則姑息白人資本家壟斷社會資源,並且對非裔反對陣營進行人格謀殺的觀點。鮑德溫同樣在1972年出版的劇本《迷途羔羊》(One Day When I Was Lost)則饒富深意地改編了馬爾孔‧X(Malcolm X)口述的自傳,將這個同時受到國家強烈譴責與民間非裔讀者愛戴的政治領袖刻畫為一個終生反抗美國新舊種族隔離制度的凡人,並以此立體化現黑人民族主義的理性與限制。1974年的小說《畢爾街悲歌》(If Beale Street Could Talk)一方面清晰呈現了保守派當道時代的警察暴力,另方面似亦藉由其中底層非裔彼此扶助支持的圖像向讀者傳遞希望的能量。在鮑德溫這三部作品中,非裔貧民在種族隔離時代的美國生為次等人當中的次等人,在後民權運動時代則往往被國家預設為隨時可能危害社會安全的罪犯。

◎關鍵詞:鮑德溫,後民權時代,種族自由主義,馬爾孔‧X,警察暴力,大規模監禁

★國立成功大學外國語文學系副教授。

Yin Wang╱Politics of Race and Mass Incarceration in Early Post-Civil Rights America: James Baldwin’s Critique in the 1970s

Politics of Race and Mass Incarceration in Early Post-Civil Rights America
James Baldwin’s Critique in the 1970s

Yin Wang*

Abstract
With James Baldwin’s three books published in the first half of the 1970s, this essay looks into how this acclaimed African American writer and civil rights advocate critically presents how lower-class black civilians continue to struggle financially and socially after the landmark passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965, while at the same increasingly fall prey to rekindled discourse of “black criminality” and find themselves subject to mass incarceration. This essay reads Baldwin’s memoir No Name in the Street(1972) as a critique of racial liberalism that centers on its token inclusion of self-made black elites and its cruel disregard, if not deliberate criminalization, of their disadvantaged counterparts. Furthermore, by positioning One Day When I Was Lost (1972) as an attempt to counter both the governmental condemnation and subcultural celebration of Malcolm X, this essay argues that Baldwin is keen to reveal the material basis of Black Nationalist sentiment among the most oppressed African Americans at the time, and his engaging reflections on the limits of such pathos. Finally, this essay reads If Beale Street Could Talk (1974) not only as a realist literary text that exposes the racist terror of police brutality in the post-civil rights era, but one that reveals compelling pictures of love between lower-class black Americans across familial and conventional social frames.

◎Keywords: James Baldwin, Post-civil rights era, racial liberalism, Malcolm X, police brutality, mass incarceration

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Cheng Kung University.

岑學敏╱城市、土地與文學:2000年代香港華語語系詩的實踐

城市、土地與文學
2000年代香港華語語系詩的實踐

岑學敏*

摘要

本文借用台灣鄉土文學理論,結合其他城市書寫理論,討論2000年代香港華語語系詩和土地相關的公共實踐。城市並非沒有「土地」的概念,只是其表現方式和鄉郊地區不一樣。本文歸納,在2000年代香港華語語系詩的實踐中,書寫與回應城市的土地的作品,美學與表現方式多元,就內容而言,則以兩種形態出現:其一是在和土地相關的大事件(如保育天星碼頭和皇后碼頭運動)時的回應;其二是深耕於城市土地,書寫街道和社區,以及其中的人與事的作品,但當「大事件」發生時,它們可以為之提供養份。透過分析2000年代香港華語語系詩的實踐,本文說明文學在新自由主義當下介入公共的可能,如何有助反思自身和城市土地的關係,豐富文學也豐富運動,以及其對反思與深化「本土」的意義。

◎關鍵詞:香港華語語系詩,城市,土地,鄉土文學,文學的再政治化,保育天星碼頭和皇后碼頭運動,社區保育,本土意識

★新加坡國立大學亞洲研究所博士後研究員。

Desmond Hok-Man Sham╱City, Land, and Literature Practices of Hong Kong: Sinophone Poetry in the 2000s

City, Land, and Literature
Practices of Hong Kong Sinophone Poetry in the 2000s

Desmond Hok-Man Sham*

Abstract

By adopting theories of xiangtu wenxue (homeland literature), with other theories on the writing of the city, this paper focuses on the re-politicization of Hong Kong Sinophone poetry in the 2000s. In the 2000s, there are many Hong Kong Sinophone poetic works in various genres and forms related to the land in the city. In an urban context, “land” means something different from a rural context. It is not true that the city lacks the concept “land,” only the representation of which is different. This paper suggests that in the literary practices of Hong Kong Sinophone poetry in the 2000s, literary works that respond to the concept “land” in the city present themselves in various ways. In terms of the contents, these Sinophone poems are either responding to a particular event related to the land in the city (e.g. Preservation Movement of Star Ferry and Queen’s Piers) or focusing on the people and livelihoods on different streets and neighbourhoods in Hong Kong. Yet, when the “events” happen, these works rooted in the streets and neighbourhoods become useful resources for urban social movements. Through analyzing these literary practices, this paper discusses how literature engages with urban politics while reflecting on one’s relationship with the city and the land. The paper also asserts that these practices are also significant for rethinking and deepening the understanding of “localism.”

◎Keywords: Hong Kong Sinophone poetry, city, land, homeland literature (xiangtu wenxue), re-politicization of literature, Preservation Movement of Star Ferry and Queen’s Piers, community conservation, local consciousness

★Postdoctoral Fellow, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore.

王家琪╱文學翻譯作為評論:也斯六、七十年代的西方文學譯介

文學翻譯作為評論
也斯六、七十年代的西方文學譯介

王家琪*

摘要

也斯自言他青年時期積極翻譯和介紹西方文藝是嘗試突破當時香港文壇的成規,並作為「練筆」,摸索適合本地的文學形式。本文全面整理也斯由六十年代末至七十年代末散見於各大報刊的文章和專欄,從大量短小的譯介文章中整理出他關注的西方文學潮流,嘗試探討他的譯介如何把該等西方文學「脈絡化」以介入當時香港的文學論爭,包括現代詩檢討風潮以及寫實主義的興起。由此本文提出也斯的譯介往往有明確的對話對象和針對性,是「以翻譯作為評論」打開新局面。也斯早年的翻譯經歷迄今仍然亟待整理,這將有助理解也斯的文學觀念和早年的文學主張,而以這位活躍於香港文壇的多面寫手為中心,通過爬梳他的倡議、批評、建言和文學實驗,更是切入六、七十年代香港文化與文學場域的有利觀察角度。

◎關鍵詞:美國戰後詩歌,法國新小說,拉美魔幻寫實主義,香港現代主義,寫實主義,生活化詩歌

★香港樹仁大學中國語言文學系助理教授。

Ka Ki Wong╱Literary Translation as Criticism: Yesi’s Introduction and Translation of Western Literature in the 1960s and 1970s

Literary Translation as Criticism
Yesi’s Introduction and Translation of Western Literature in the 1960s and 1970s

Ka Ki Wong*

Abstract
Yesi introduced and translated Western literature in his early career. He said he was trying to change the status quo of the Hong Kong literary scene and search for a literary form suitable for representing Hong Kong. This paper goes through the columns and other articles he published in local newspapers and magazines during the 1960s and 70s. His writings show the kinds of western literature he was interested in, namely postwar American poetry, the nouveau roman, and Latin American magical realism; we also see how he translated and contextualized the types of literature in which he was interested to intervene in the debates over modern poetry and realism in the early 1970s. Yesi often commented on contemporary literary issues by introducing western literature, thus I propose in this paper that Yesi was actually using translation as criticism. His translation reveals much regarding his literary concepts in his early days. By studying a figure like Yesi, we are able to better understand the literary field of Hong Kong in the 1960s and 70s.

◎Keywords: postwar American poetry, French new novel, Latin American magical realism, Hong Kong modernism, realism, “everyday-life poetics”

★Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese Language and Literature, Hong Kong Shue Yan University.

謝志謙╱太陽花運動的「無分之分」:《太陽‧不遠》與《佔領第561小時》的政治與美學

太陽花運動的「無分之分」
《太陽‧不遠》與《佔領第561小時》的政治與美學

謝志謙*

摘要
      2014年3月18日,數百名大學生與NGO人士衝進立法院,抗議強行通過的兩岸服務貿易協議,這一天標示了318太陽花運動的開始,同時也改寫了台灣抗爭運動史。本文將針對兩部太陽花的影像紀錄,包括由台北紀錄片工會發起拍攝的紀錄片《太陽‧不遠》,以及袁廣鳴的錄像作品《佔領第561小時》,試圖提問這兩部影片如何展現,卻又同時限縮了運動本身的「基進性」。本文共分三個部分進行:第一部分將討論法國哲學家洪席耶(Jacques Rancière)對政治與美學的重思,不同於政治哲學對於政治的規範式定義,洪席耶將政治描繪為「歧議」的發生,它讓「無分之分」得以出現,重新劃分了既有的「感知分配共享」,讓我們看到政治與美學之間的密不可分;第二部分討論《佔領第561小時》如何以「後再現」的方式,挑戰紀錄片影像的再現秩序,並在新的觀看現實中體現美學民主;第三部分探討《太陽‧不遠》如何在影像運動上,挑戰資本主義所有權與財產的概念,開展太陽花運動所蘊含的「共群」想像。

◎關鍵詞:太陽花運動,《太陽‧不遠》,《佔領第561小時》,洪席耶,無分之分

★美國布蘭戴斯大學英文系博士生。

Chih-chien Hsieh╱“The Part of No Part” of the Sunflower Movement: The Politics and Aesthetics of Sunflower Occupation and The 561st Hour of Occupation

“The Part of No Part” of the Sunflower Movement
The Politics and Aesthetics of Sunflower Occupation and The 561st Hour of Occupation

Chih-chien Hsieh*

Abstract
 On March 18th 2014, a coalition of students and civic groups occupied the Legislative Yuan in protest against the enforcement of the Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement. This day not only marks the beginning of the Sunflower Movement but also rewrites the history of social movements in Taiwan. Focusing on two videos that document the movement, Sunflower Occupation by Taipei Documentary Filmmakers’ Union and Yuan Goang-Ming’s The 561st Hour of Occupation, this essay asks the extent to which the “radicality” of the movement is both developed and reduced by them. Divided into three parts, this essay first discusses the French philosopher Jacques Rancière’s rethinking of politics and aesthetics. In contrast to the prescriptive definition of politics in political philosophy, Rancière describes politics as the occurrence of “disagreement” that makes the “part of no part” appear and re-configures the established “distribution of the sensible,” thus revealing the inseparable coupling between politics and aesthetics. Part II demonstrates how The 561st Hour of Occupation challenges the representative order of documentary through “post-representation” and embodies an aesthetic democracy in its new visual reality. Part III turns to Sunflower Occupation to show how it questions the capitalist concept of ownership and property and unfolds the imagining of “the common” implicit in the Sunflower Movement.

◎Keywords: Sunflower Movement, Sunflower OccupationThe 561st Hour of Occupation, Jacques Rancière, the part of no part

★Ph.D. Student in English, Brandeis University, USA.

中外書評
Chung Wai Book Review

  • 林文月╱翻譯的再譯:讀佐復秀樹《ウエイリ-版 源氏物語》
    Wen-Yueh Kuo╱Retranslating Translation: Reading Hideki Samata’s Arthur Waley’s Version of The Tale of Genji
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