106年6月號

2019-07-15

第四十六卷 第二期 總457 中華民國106年6月
Vol.46 No.2 June 2017

《中外文學》六月號收錄了五篇精彩的學術論文,以及「理論系列訪談」的第四篇。蘇子中以德希達(Jacques Derrida)評論亞陶(Antonin Artaud)的三篇文章切入,帶出其所欲討論的德希達「殘酷物語」,並指出德希達如何藉著趨近、挪用亞陶的論述來完成自我表述並發展自己的理論;周幸君從饑荒寓言的觀點來解讀喬伊斯(James Joyce)短篇小說〈死者〉(“The Dead”)中潛藏的饑荒陰影,說明作家筆下的愛爾蘭依舊無法擺脫半世紀前悲劇所造成的創傷,並持續迴避其揮之不去的陰影;陳重仁探討英國當代小說家麥克尤恩(Ian McEwan)在其書寫地球暖化的小說《日光》(Solar)中所採取的論述策略,剖析作者如何以開創性的手法和直指問題核心的方式,進行氣候變遷相關倫理議題的反思與批判;林巾力以戰後台灣與中國的現代詩為觀察對象,分析現代主義詩歌在冷戰期間如何重新崛起,以及冷戰的文化想像如何影響現代詩的思想與論述;林運鴻則探究台灣文學研究中長久以來「左翼缺席」的現象,並針對台灣文學史論述中的「後殖民左翼」與「族群導向的階級敘事」進行比較。「理論系列訪談」部分,則由本刊總編輯蕭立君與賴俊雄延續該系列訪談作為理論知識在地化基礎工程的關懷重點,深入探討了理論的定義、理論知識的多重面向、以及理論與哲學之分野等等議題。

中外文學六月號目錄
Contents

蘇子中╱趨近/挪用/解構/背叛亞陶? 論德希達的「殘酷物語」

趨近/挪用/解構/背叛亞陶?
論德希達的「殘酷物語」

蘇子中*

摘要

亞陶的作品具多層次的震撼力,往往能爆發出深不可測的巧思,並從四面八方釋放出殘酷的力量。不同的理論家從中篩選各自所要的部分,並試圖創發新的層面以滿足所需,德希達也不例外。在其生涯中,德希達曾多次評論亞陶的論述與創作,及亞陶謎樣的人生。對許多批評家而言,德希達的兩篇討論亞陶「殘酷劇場」的早期論文──〈被劫持的言語〉(1965)和〈殘酷劇場與再現的封閉〉(1966)──不但是「亞陶評論的經典範例」(Scheer 2004: 8),並對往後的亞陶研究造成深遠的影響。在其1986年的著作〈讓subjectile喪失理智〉中,德希達以亞陶所使用卻無法翻譯的字──subjectile──大作文章,除試圖去說明該字的狂亂意涵,也用該字來詮釋亞陶的思想與藝術創作。這三個著作構成本論文所欲討論的德希達「殘酷物語」。德希達到底是如何趨近、挪用、解構與背叛亞陶的想法?他如何憑藉其無堅不摧的解構方法學去有系統地重塑亞陶?本論文擬進一步細讀並分析德希達解讀亞陶的觀點與讀法,試圖評估並批判德希達的「殘酷物語」,並將「殘酷物語」置於德希達遺產的「文本織物」(textiles)脈絡中。換句話說,本論文梳理德希達對亞陶解讀方法的演變,過程中除了突顯德希達在論述中如何形塑亞陶,也展現德希達如何藉著趨近和挪用亞陶的論述與創作來完成自我的表述,發展自己的解構方法學與理論。

◎關鍵詞:亞陶,德希達,殘酷劇場,解構,形上學

★國立臺灣師範大學英語學系教授。

Tsu-Chung Su╱Approaching/Appropriating/Deconstructing/Betraying Artaud? A Critique of Derrida’s “Story of Cruelty”

Approaching/Appropriating/Deconstructing/Betraying Artaud?
A Critique of Derrida’s “Story of Cruelty”

Tsu-Chung Su*

Abstract

Antonin Artaud’s writings are layers deep in strain. They madden in layers of unfathomable genius and issue forces of cruelty from all directions. Different theorists tease out different layers from Artaud and try to create new layers to serve their purposes, and so does Jacques Derrida. Over his writing career, Derrida has written multiple commentaries on the work of Artaud and has mentioned the name of Artaud from time to time in his work. For many critics, Derrida’s two early essays on “the theater of cruelty”—“La Parole Soufflée” (1965) and “The Theater of Cruelty and the Closure of Representation” (1966)—have not only become “the paradigmatic case of Artaud commentary” (Scheer 2004: 8) but also exerted a profound impact on subsequent scholarship on Artaud. In his later work, To Unsense the Subjectile (1986), Derrida takes issue with the untranslatable word “subjectile” used by Artaud and attempts to illustrate demented implications of the word and thus Artaud’s thoughts and artistic practices. These three pieces of writing constitute what I call Derrida’s “story of cruelty.” How does Derrida approach, appropriate, deconstruct, and betray Artaud’s thoughts? How does he employ his invincible deconstructive methodology to refashion Artaud in a systematic fashion? The purpose of this paper is to analyze Derrida’s interpretive viewpoint and strategy in transvaluating Artaud’s enterprise. It aims to critique of Derrida’s reading of Artaud and situates his “story of cruelty” in the textual fabric of the Derridean heritage.

◎Keywords: Antonin Artaud, Jacques Derrida, the theater of cruelty, deconstruction, metaphysics

★Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

周幸君╱饑荒死者:〈死者〉中之愛爾蘭大饑荒陰魂

饑荒死者
〈死者〉中之愛爾蘭大饑荒陰魂

周幸君*

摘要
十九世紀中葉愛爾蘭的大饑荒是歐洲現代史上最悲慘的社會災難之一,更是現代愛爾蘭發展的分水嶺,其深遠影響持續超過一個世紀。詹姆斯‧喬伊斯繼承了此一文化記憶,把饑荒衝擊寫入作品。儘管〈死者〉中並未實際言及這場災難,故事中確實潛伏了饑荒鬼影:不僅大饑荒對於人口和文化的影響在故事中顯而易見,摩肯家的晚宴以及歌曲〈來自奧克林的少女〉亦喚起這場災難的聯想。本論文試圖從饑荒寓言的角度窺探〈死者〉中潛藏的饑荒陰影,說明喬伊斯筆下的愛爾蘭依然無法擺脫半世紀前悲劇所造成的創傷,持續迴避其存在及其揮之不去的陰影。喬伊斯故事中的「死者」可能隱含饑荒死者,而該災難在文本中的缺席更可能暗示其非常存在。無法安息的饑荒死者穿梭在摩肯家的晚宴上,要求被正視並且拒絕被遺忘。

◎關鍵詞:喬伊斯,〈死者〉,愛爾蘭大饑荒,人口衝擊,文化衝擊,缺席與存在

★ 國立中興大學外國語文學系副教授。

Hsing-chun Chou╱The Famine Dead: Specters of the Great Irish Famine in “The Dead”

The Famine Dead
Specters of the Great Irish Famine in “The Dead”

Hsing-chun Chou*

Abstract
One of the worst social catastrophes in modern European history, the midnineteenth-century Great Irish Famine was a watershed in the development of modern Ireland, its impacts lasting for well over a century. James Joyce inherited this cultural memory and incorporated impacts of the Famine into his work. Despite the fact that the catastrophe is not explicitly mentioned in “The Dead,” specters of the Famine can be found lurking in the story: not only are its effects on demographic and cultural aspects manifest, but the feast at the Morkans’ and the song “The Lass of Aughrim” evoke the calamitous event. In an attempt to investigate the Famine in “The Dead,” this paper argues that Joyce allegorically depicts the Ireland which was still traumatized by a tragedy that occurred half a century before but remained evasive about its presence and its haunting ghosts. The dead in Joyce’s story could imply the Famine dead, and the absence of the catastrophe could suggest its very presence. The unstill Famine dead are amid the living in the Morkans’ dinner party, requesting to be recognized and refusing to fade into oblivion.

◎Keywords: James Joyce, “The Dead,” the Great Irish Famine, demographic impacts, cultural impacts, absence and presence

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chung Hsing University.

陳重仁╱「只不過是場災難,放輕鬆!」 麥克尤恩《日光》中氣候變遷的探問

「只不過是場災難,放輕鬆!」
麥克尤恩《日光》中氣候變遷的探問

陳重仁*

摘要

本文探討英國當代作家麥克尤恩在《日光》採取的論述策略,有別於過往書寫氣候變遷慣用的科幻小說或是自傳書寫,麥克尤恩開創出一條不同的書寫路徑,批判力道更為深沈,而且問題直指核心的倫理衝突。麥克尤恩慣於將歷史事件融入故事場景,透過召喚過往的全球性危機與創傷記憶,麥克尤恩將近代發生許多讀者記憶猶新的事件串接到未來的想像情境,藉由書寫氣候變遷,小說家引渡歷史記憶進而挖掘暖化議題的倫理面向。作家書寫與故事主軸看似無關的重大危機與衝突事件,營造過去就在當下而未來即是過去的共時性想像,歷史的衝突不再顯得遙遠,集體的創傷記憶也不再只是殘留於歷史過往的孤立事件,而是與氣候變遷引發的倫理風暴緊密連結,在召喚集體回憶(remembering)的同時,也將之重組 (re-membering)並賦予新意。本文申論面對氣候變遷的困局不在於抉擇過什麼樣的生活,而是在於自認為有所抉擇的優越心態。氣候變遷困境所揭示的,是人類自認萬物皆為所用的現代性框限,是挑戰當下社會情境的正當性,也是針對自然環境步向他者化最深刻的批判。

◎關鍵詞:地球暖化,氣候變遷,框限,集體記憶,創傷

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系副教授。

Chung-Jen Chen╱“It’s a Catastrophe. Relax!” The Question Concerning Climate Change in Ian McEwan’s Solar

“It’s a Catastrophe. Relax!”
The Question Concerning Climate Change in Ian McEwan’sSolar

Chung-Jen Chen*

Abstract

The present article explores the narrative strategy in Solar in its distinction from previous approaches favored by sic-fi and autobiographical writings on climate change. By creating a prototypal anti-hero, McEwan takes an alternative route in depicting the ethical dilemma under the threat of climate change.
This article makes the case that in remembering past events of destruction and confrontation and in reassembling collective memories in a personal way, McEwan extradites environmental issues into ethical concerns. McEwan justifies the legitimacy of writing trauma in terms of environmentalized practices of past conflicts, the familiarization of the collective identity of life community, and the projection of collective memories of past traumas onto a sense of urgency at the moment of apocalypse. It is not the experience but the anticipation of risk that displays the calculable uncertainty of climate change that rationalizes the otherization of the environment and the normalization of risk. As the enframing of modern technology is presented and transformed into the revealing of human dominance over nature, an inner contradiction of the progress mentality is held in paradox. As human beings indulge in the wealth and comfort accumulated from the exploitation of nature, no resolution is possible but to continue the momentum of production, consumption and
waste that happen to be the cause of current problem of climate change.

◎Keywords: global warming, climate change, enframing, collective memory, trauma

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

林巾力╱冷戰意識形態與現代主義的文化想像:以戰後台灣與中國的現代詩論述為觀察中心

冷戰意識形態與現代主義的文化想像
以戰後台灣與中國的現代詩論述為觀察中心

林巾力*

摘要

近年來無論美國或台灣的學術界都在現代主義的研究上開展出嶄新的視野,這些研究使得吾人在探討台灣戰後的現代主義時,再也無法將其西方的參照僅僅囿限於十九世紀中葉至二十世紀前期的歐洲,而必須擴大將當時所處的冷戰條件考慮在內,也唯有如此,才能夠更清楚地照見台灣戰後現代主義「重返」文壇的契機。因此,本文以近年相關的研究成果為基礎,但特別關注先行研究較少著墨的問題,那就是:在眾多的文學思潮中為何是現代主義得以在冷戰期間異軍突起?對此,本文將考察的對象轉向現代詩領域,尤其是冷戰時期現代主義詩歌重新崛起當初的論述。此外,本文亦嘗試提出一個觀看的框架,也就是把現代主義文藝思潮放到冷戰底下的地緣政治結構中,並將考察的視野從台灣延伸到中國,進而分析同屬第三世界但分屬不同陣營的兩地現代主義詩歌在冷戰期間如何重新崛起,以及在重返的過程中如何受到冷戰結構的催生與限制。有鑒於此,本文希冀釐清如下幾個問題:冷戰究竟形塑了怎樣的意識形態與氛圍?台灣與中國身處冷戰與威權╱極權狀態下的作家們如何理解現代主義?現代主義在當時被賦予了怎樣的文化想像而得以受到青睞?最後,則是探討冷戰的文化想像又是如何影響或轉化現代詩的思想與論述等問題。

◎關鍵詞:冷戰,意識形態,現代主義,文化想像,現代化,現代詩論述

★國立臺灣師範大學臺灣語文學系副教授。

Nikky Lin╱Cold War Ideology and Modernism’s Cultural Imaginations: Observations on the Discourse of Modern Chinese Poetry in Post-war Taiwan and China

Cold War Ideology and Modernism’s Cultural Imaginations
Observations on the Discourse of Modern Chinese Poetry in Post-war Taiwan and China

Nikky Lin*

Abstract
In recent years, scholars in Taiwan and the United States have forged new ways of understanding and developing academic approaches to the study of modernism. This recent research has revealed that understanding postwar Taiwanese modernism requires knowledge not only of pre-early twentieth century modernist literature in the West, but also must take into account the Cold War Era modernism as a whole. Only in this way does it become possible to clearly observe the “return” of Taiwanese modernism after the war. Consequently, while based on this recent research on modernism, the present article focuses on a question that has received scant attention: that is, what factors led to modernism’s rise to prominence in Cold War literary and artistic circles? In approaching this question, this article concentrates the early period of the modernist movements arising in the Cold War era. This article attempts to provide a framework for answering this question, by placing modernism into the geo-political structure of the Cold War, and extending this range of observation from the United States and Taiwan to include China. Furthermore, this article explores how the two opposing “camps” of the Cold War stimulated and gave rise to the modernism movements in Taiwan and China. Therefore, this study attempts to clarify the following questions: What sorts of ideologies and political atmosphere did the Cold War form? How did Taiwanese and Chinese writers under different political regimes understand modernism? What sorts of cultural imaginings of modernism led to its rise to prominence on both sides of the Taiwan Strait? What sorts of new literary breakthroughs did this imagining of modernism bring about?

◎Keywords: Cold War, ideology, modernism, cultural imagination, modernization, discourse of modern Chinese poetry

★Associate Professor, Department of Taiwan Culture, Languages and Literature, National Taiwan Normal University.

林運鴻╱忘卻「階級」的兩種左派:比較台灣文學史論述中的「後殖民左翼」與「族群導向的階級敘事」

忘卻「階級」的兩種左派
比較台灣文學史論述中的「後殖民左翼」與「族群導向的階級敘事」

林運鴻*

摘要
相較於性別議題與民族主義,馬克思主義傳統在台灣文學研究中無疑是較為消沉的一支。本文探究的即是長久以來「左翼缺席」的現象。在本文的第一部分,將與一些當代文學史著作對話,以思考台灣的文學史研究與文學批評中「缺席的馬克思」。在文學史論著中,儘管強調多元文化、本土意識的「左翼」後殖民史觀,確實指向對現有體制的批判,但是,「左翼」後殖民史觀的主要關懷,還是在於反省國家在族群與文化上行使的各種暴力,而不是去解剖資本主義體制內在的弊病。本文接續處理的,則是回到解嚴後的台灣小說文本,並思考其中的「族群認同」之政治如何覆蓋「階級鬥爭」之政治:外省小說家們往往採用了一種「階級敘事」,來區分「富裕本省人」與「無產外省人」這樣不同的階級位置。然而,當代台灣小說中的階級敘事,基本上是為了表現族群關係的緊張、同時也是植根於解嚴後外省族群的特殊處境,而不是真正對於資本主義與階級社會提出異議。

◎關鍵詞:階級意識,族群政治,馬克思主義,後殖民主義,台灣文學史

★ 國立東華大學中國文學所博士。

Yun-Hung Lin╱Two Types of Leftists Who Forget about “Class”: A Comparison between Postcolonial Left and Ethnically-oriented Class Narrative in Discourses on the History of Taiwan Literature

Two Types of Leftists Who Forget about “Class”
A Comparison between Postcolonial Left and Ethnically-oriented Class Narrative in Discourses on the History of Taiwan Literature

Yun-Hung Lin*

Abstract
Compared with gender issues and nationalism, the Marxist tradition in studies on Taiwan literature is no doubt relatively stagnant. This paper aims to explore the long “absence of the left.” The first half of this paper engages in dialogues with a few works on the history of contemporary Taiwan literature as a meditation on the condition of “the absence of Marxism” in Taiwan’s scholarship on literary history and criticism. Although in works of literary history, the leftist postcolonial historiographical viewpoint that emphasizes diverse culture and local consciousness indeed tends to be critical of existing institutions, the main concern of “leftist” postcolonial historiography is still to reflect on the havoc wreaked by the nation state upon ethnic groups and cultures, rather than to expose the intrinsic flaws of capitalist institutions. The second half of this study returns to the post-martial law Taiwan fiction and ruminates on how its politics of “ethnic identity” covers that of “class struggle”: local fiction writers from Mainland China often adopt a “class narrative” to distinguish between the different class positions of “rich islanders” and “poor mainlanders.” However, the class narratives in contemporary Taiwan fiction, bearing no genuine objections to capitalism and class society per se, basically foreground the tensions of ethnic relations and are rooted in the particular circumstances in which mainlanders were placed after the lifting of martial law.

◎Keywords: class consciousness, ethnic politics, Marxism, postcolonialism, Taiwanese literary history

★Ph.D., Graduate Institute of Chinese Language and Literature, National Dong Hwa University.

理論系列訪談
Interview

  • 蕭立君╱研磨自己的鏡片看世界:與賴俊雄談理論
    Li-Chun Hsiao╱Through the Lens of Your Own Making: An Interview with Chung-Hsiung Lai on the Question of Theory

     
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