106年12月號

2019-07-15

第四十六卷 第四期 總459 中華民國106年12月
Vol.46 No.4 December 2017

《中外文學》十二月號收錄了五篇精彩的學術論文、一篇訪談稿、以及一篇論壇稿。劉毓秀藉由對孟若(Alice Munro)短篇小說〈出走〉(“Runaway”)與拉岡(Jacques Lacan)《第二十講座》(Seminar XX)(以及《電視》)之雙向閱讀/分析,讓這兩個艱澀的文本發揮兩經互解的作用,爬梳出其陰語邏輯;胡心瑜探討中古英文頭韻詩《高文爵士與綠騎士》(Sir Gawain and the Green Knight)「臥房片段」中,高文爵士受城堡女主人誘惑試煉的過程,為已被詳加討論的《高文》一詩提出不同的閱讀視角;許靜瑛以喬伊斯(James Joyce)《尤里西斯》(Ulysses)中之〈賽克羅普斯〉(“Cyclops”)章節為例,分析作家如何透過敘述斷裂、離題、誇張、文體驟變等修辭過剩手法,探索病徵國族主義及從屬主體的處境與政治倫理議題;鄭惠雯從班雅民(Walter Benjamin)的「模仿機能」概念與史提格勒(Bernard Stiegler)提出之「誰」與「什麼」之間相互成立的關係,探討人類能否藉著科技增能的同時產生失能的問題,以及當中是否存在逆轉失能的可能;楊宗樺則以金瓜石戰俘營生還者艾華士(Jack Edwards)所著之《無言的吶喊:「萬歲,你混蛋!」》(Banzai, You Bastards!)為著眼點,援引阿甘本(Giorgio Agamben)之生命政治論述,解析日本統治臺灣時期戰俘的生命狀態,進而開展裸命與抵抗、見證與記憶、遺忘與寬恕之倫理議題。「理論系列訪談」部分,由本刊總編輯蕭立君與李有成深入探討了理論、年代與創作等等議題。「《中外文學》論壇」部分,則由主持人兼與談人蕭立君及另外八位與談人——史書美、李育霖、李鴻瓊、張君玫、梅家玲、陳東升、廖朝陽、賴俊雄——針對「台灣理論關鍵詞」與理論「在地話」之相關議題接力來回討論,完成了一場精彩的跨領域對談。

中外文學十二月號目錄
Contents

編輯室報告
Editorial Note

  • 蕭立君╱編輯室報告
    Li-Chun Hsiao╱Editorial Note

劉毓秀╱ 從愛、慾、知識迷宮到陰語的謎域:孟若小說〈出走〉與拉岡《第二十講座》的雙向閱讀/分析

從愛、慾、知識迷宮到陰語的謎域
孟若小說〈出走〉與拉岡《第二十講座》的雙向閱讀/分析

 

劉毓秀*

摘要

晚期孟若小說〈出走〉和晚期拉岡《第二十講座》(以及《電視》),兩者都深入潛探展開於上世紀中葉以後,至今方興未艾的兩大解放運動──第二波婦女運動與青年反叛運動──以及與此兩者相關的知識/關係/倫理,並出之以陰語模式的表達,呈現文字與絕爽兩者的結合,因而對端賴語言和理知的傳統解讀造成基進的挑戰。加之牽引著讀者自身的難題,而引發一種強迫性重複閱讀。
這兩套著作(以及讀者)面對的難題,一方面關係著兩大解放運動──加之消費資本主義──所引發的反壓抑理想主義與威權弱化對分離之作用與主體性之形塑造成的嚴峻挑戰。另一方面,(陽性)主體性及其自戀式愛情也變得窘態百出。
本論文藉著孟若與拉岡的雙向閱讀/分析,讓這兩個困難的文本發揮兩經互解的作用,而爬梳出其陰語邏輯:唯有大大降低自我對於無意識與客體的掌控,轉而從體制的內裡邁向知識與關係之真實無意識(陰性無意識)謎域,才有以臻至「真實」的解放與非自戀式愛情。

◎關鍵詞:艾莉絲‧孟若,拉岡,佛洛伊德,性化,無意識,愛情,知識,情動,女性主義

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Yu-hsiu Liu╱A Two-Way Reading/Analysis of Munro’s “Runaway” and Lacan’s Seminar XX

The Limits of Hospitality?
Repositioning the Status of (Parasitic) Insects in Animal Ethics

Yu-hsiu Liu*

Abstract

Alice Munro’s “long” short story “Runaway” and Lacan’s Seminar XX (and Television) both delve into the two great liberation movements that began in the latter half of the last century and are now still underway—the youth movement and the feminist movement—as well as the discourses on
knowledge and human relations these movements give rise to. These texts give expression to these authors’ observations and responses in the form of what Lacan calls “lalangue,” a mixture of language and affect, which relates to feminine jouissance and which thus poses a radical challenge to language and logocentrism. In addition, the reader’s own predicament consequent upon the two liberation movements adds to the difficulty.
The predicament is a twofold one. On the one hand, there is the daunting challenge to separation and the formation of subjectivity subsequent to the anti-repressive idealism and the weakening of authority brought about by the two movements, plus consumer capitalism. On the other, (phallic) subjectivity, along with its narcissistic love, is becoming invalid.
By resorting to a two-way reading/analysis of Munro’s “Runaway” and Lacan’s Seminar XX, the present article attempts to tackle the compulsively repetitive reading entailed by these two difficult texts. This attempt leads to lalangue’s enigmatic vision: it is only by toning down the dominant discourse prescribing the ego’s domination over the unconscious and the object, via the encounter between subjects with their respective enigmatic unconscious
knowledges, that “real”/authentic liberation and non-narcissistic love may have chances of realization.

◎Keywords: Alice Munro, Lacan, Freud, sexuation, the unconscious, love, knowledge, affect, feminism

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

胡心瑜╱珠寶盒裡的騎士:《高文爵士與綠騎士》臥房片段中的文‧物

珠寶盒裡的騎士
《高文爵士與綠騎士》臥房片段中的文‧物

胡心瑜*

摘要
本篇論文探討中古英文頭韻詩《高文爵士與綠騎士》「臥房片段」中,高文爵士在下塌高皇城堡(Hautdesert)時,受城堡女主人誘惑試煉的過程。本文承接先前學者對此片段中性別顛倒和高文女體化的觀察與論述,在中世紀的文物互文(intertextuality)文化和宮廷愛情圖像傳統的框架下,從當代物質文化的角度切入,討論詩中對女性閨房用品如珠寶、盒子等的指涉,以及詩人如何透過這些文物當時的社會文化語意,生動而具象地刻劃高文爵士與城堡女主人之間「貓抓老鼠」的愛情遊戲,呈現女主人試圖牽制(contain)高文的舉動背後隱晦流露的戀物和偶像破壞(iconoclasm)意圖,為已被詳加討論的《高文》一詩提出不同的閱讀視角。

◎關鍵詞:《高文爵士與綠騎士》,《高文》手抄本,宮廷愛情文化,象牙藝術品,圖像傳統,偶像破壞,性別政治

★國立交通大學外國語文學系助理教授。

Hsin-Yu Hu╱The Knight in the Casket: Text and Objects in the Bedroom Scenes in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

The Knight in the Casket
Text and Objects in the Bedroom Scenes in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

Hsin-Yu Hu*

Abstract
This article examines the well-noted gender subversion in the famous Bedroom Scenes in the Middle English poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. In line with previous gender studies of this poem, it argues for Gawain’s feminized and queered body, but departs from them by analyzing the scenes from a visually stimulating perspective achieved by means of examining Gawain’s images in Courtly Love literature, objects, and iconographical tradi-tions. Through a close textual reading, this paper shows how the Gawain-poet, with his playful puns and verbal allusions to contemporary trousse de toilette for women, vividly represents the cat-and-mouse game between Lady Bertilak and Gawain, to crystalize the knight’s “contained” body, and the poem’s fetishistic and iconoclastic sentiments detectable through the subverted gender relation.

◎Keywords: Sir Gawain and the Green KnightGawain-manuscript, courtly love, ivory caskets, iconography, iconoclasm, gender

★Assistant Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University.

許靜瑛╱地窖裡的笑聲:〈賽克羅普斯〉中的修辭過剩與病徵國族主義

地窖裡的笑聲
〈賽克羅普斯〉中的修辭過剩與病徵國族主義

許靜瑛*

摘要

本文詮釋〈賽克羅普斯〉(“Cyclops”)章節中,喬伊斯(James Joyce)如何透過敘述斷裂、離題、誇張、修辭過剩(rhetorical excess)、文體驟變等等炫目難解的手法探索病徵國族主義、從屬主體(subaltern subject)的處境與政治倫理議題(ethico-political problematic)。
本文以精神分析對驅力經濟(libidinal economy)和幻見(fantasy)的分析觀點出發,參考拉岡(Jacques Lacan)、齊傑克(Slavoj Žižek)、阿甘本(Giorgio Agamben)等人的論述,分析敘述斷裂與修辭過剩等手法造成的再現效果與讀者美學感受。喬伊斯透過修辭過剩展現愛爾蘭特殊的病徵國族主義。它一方面癱瘓都柏林市民,又令其沉醉其中的享樂。
論者不應只探討反諷對象,而應進一步探討敘述實驗如何完成批判、有何政治倫理效果。本文主張修辭過剩文體實驗乃是一種美學上的驅魔儀式,試圖對病徵國族主義進行類似精神分析式的文學病徵消解(literary working through of fantasy)。喬伊斯的敘述至少可分三層,第一是寫實主義式的再現(realistic representation)、第二層次是顛覆寫實再現的修辭過剩敘述、第三層次是修辭過剩的內爆(implosion)。藉此敘述實驗手法喬伊斯試圖書寫國族創痛及其病徵,分析並瓦解敘述流動當中的認同與幻見,藉此完成歷史夢魘的驅魔儀式,為從屬主體的未來尋找嶄新的可能性。

◎關鍵詞:〈賽克羅普斯〉,喬伊斯,拉岡,齊傑克,修辭過剩,病徵國族主義,文學幻見/病徵消解

★ 靜宜大學英國語文學系專案約聘助理教授。

Ching-ying Hsu╱Laughter in the Dungeon: Rhetorical Excess and Symptomatic Nationalism in “Cyclops”

Laughter in the Dungeon
Rhetorical Excess and Symptomatic Nationalism in “Cyclops”

Ching-ying Hsu*

Abstract

The present article takes Joyce’s literary experiment in “Cyclops” as an arrangement deployed through the narrative by the Nameless One that juxtaposes with the rhetorical excess of interpolated digressions. Rather than focusing on what is being parodied and mocked in the narrative clashes as previous Joyce criticism has done, this article examines how the critique through parodies is carried out and attempts to identify the libidinal mechanism in the narrative experiment. Drawing on Lacan, I argue that Joyce conducts a literary traversal of fantasy, a working through of symptomatic nationalism through such an experimental, narrative juxtaposition. Joyce’s narrative experiment is triple-layered: (1) realistic representation, (2) excessive narrative interpolations that threaten/destabilise realistic representation, and (3) the implosion of rhetorical excess as it runs out of control. I read this triple-layered narrative manoeuvre in terms of Lacan’s theory of the look and the gaze, of fantasy and the traversal of fantasy. This psychoanalytic interpretation of “fantasmatic” working yields an alternative reading of “Cyclops” and identifies the ethico-political significance of Joyce’s aesthetic enterprise.

◎Keywords: “Cyclops,” James Joyce, Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Žižek, rhetorical excess, symptomatic nationalism, literary working through of fantasy

★Assistant Professor, Department of English, Providence University.

鄭惠雯╱科技與時間:資本主義全球化時代的失能與潛能

科技與時間
資本主義全球化時代的失能與潛能

鄭惠雯*

摘要

本文擬從班雅民的「模仿機能」概念與史提格勒提出之「誰」與「什麼」之間相互成立的關係來探討人類是否藉著科技增能的同時產生失能的問題,以及當中是否存在逆轉失能的可能。班雅民認為人與物之間相互參照模仿的機能在現代資本主義社會中產生根本的轉變。史提格勒對當今資本主義全球化的觀察與批判與班雅民有所呼應,他認為記憶的工業化嚴重弱化「誰」之所以為「誰」的關鍵「延異機制」。班雅民和史提格勒皆從所處時代的資本主義與科技技術雙重發展中探究人的「能」如何依附於物質層面。本文的重要提問為:班雅民和史提格勒對於科技與時間的討論是否能夠扭轉資本主義全球化時代的失能,進而勾勒未來潛能。對班雅民而言,「模仿機能」背後所蘊含的是一種閱讀過去的方法,在這種「實現過去」的閱讀當中,存在於過去但卻隱而未顯的面向得以躍然浮現。史提格勒則提出「誰」能否對新科技造成的衝擊做出「劃時代的趕超」將是未來潛能的關鍵。

◎關鍵詞:班雅民,史提格勒,模仿機能,非感官近似性,劃時代的趕超,全球化

★國立清華大學外國語文學系兼任助理教授。

Hui-Wen Cheng╱Technology and Time: The Problem of De-skilling and Future Potentiality in the Age of Global Capitalism

Technology and Time
The Problem of De-skilling and Future Potentiality in the Age of Global Capitalism

Hui-Wen Cheng*

Abstract
In this paper, Walter Benjamin’s notion of the mimetic faculty and Bernard Stiegler’s theorization of the co-constituting relation between the who and the what are read together to address the question whether humanity actually loses certain capacities while trying to increase its capacity with all the technological advances. Benjamin’s notion of the mimetic faculty serves as a wedge into the question of capitalist modernity. For Stiegler, global capitalism has hijacked real-time digital technology to extend its reach in contemporary life, which has greatly weakened the différance movement critical to the constitution of the who. The global world suffers from the problem of disorientation, while the who suffers from that of de-skilling. Both Benjamin and Stiegler try to take account of the double development of capitalism and technology by exploring how the capacity of man attaches to matter. Inasmuch as the notion of time also plays an important role in both scholars’ conceptualization of the relation between man and matter, the principal concern of this paper is whether Benjamin’s and Stiegler’s theorization of technology and time helps us to envision the contours of the globalization problem more clearly, along with its future potentiality beyond.

◎Keywords: Walter Benjamin, Bernard Stiegler, mimetic faculty, nonsensuous similarity, epokhal redoubling, globalization

★Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Tsing Hua University.

楊宗樺╱無言的吶喊:金瓜石戰俘營中不/可能見證的餘生

無言的吶喊
金瓜石戰俘營中不/可能見證的餘生

楊宗樺*

摘要
二次世界大戰末期,日本帝國俘虜許多大英國協的戰俘到金瓜石服勞役,逼迫他們開採銅礦,日本戰敗之後,這些戰俘被送回他們的故鄉,他們的故事也漸被世人所遺忘,直到歷經戰後數十年,這些戰俘的故事才又逐漸浮現,其中描述這段史實最為詳盡的莫過於艾華士(Jack Edwards, 1918-2006)所著的《無言的吶喊:「萬歲,你混蛋!」》(Banzai, You Bastards!)(1990),艾華士是戰俘營裡的生還者之一,於此書中描述他當時在戰俘營裡痛苦的生活、及見證其他同袍的生死經歷。本文以艾華士所著的《無言的吶喊》這個文本為經,以阿甘本(Giorgio Agamben)對生命政治的論述為緯,一方面將這位思想家對於主權和生命的論述對照日本殖民情境下的金瓜石戰俘營與礦場,另一方面也將其思想帶入臺灣的殖民情境中,探討日本統治臺灣時期戰俘的生命狀態,進而開展裸命與抵抗、見證與記憶、遺忘與寬恕的倫理議題。

◎關鍵詞:金瓜石戰俘營,裸命,見證,遺忘,寬恕

★ 國立臺灣師範大學英語學系博士候選人。

Tsung-hua Yang╱The Silent Cry: The Im/possibility of Witnessing the Life That Remains in the Kinkaseki POW Camp

The Silent Cry
The Im/possibility of Witnessing the Life That Remains in the Kinkaseki POW Camp

Tsung-hua Yang*

Abstract
Toward the end of the Second World War, a myriad of prisoners of war, who were mostly soldiers of the British Commonwealth, were captured and forced by the Japanese Empire to extract copper in Kinkaseki—today’s Jinguashi, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Their stories about life in the camp, little known and studied, have been largely ignored and forgotten for several decades. Among the historical accounts of POWs in Kinkaseki, Jack Edwards’s book Banzai, You Bastards! (1990) narrates this history in unprecedented detail. As a survivor, he describes the painful life, unbearable suffering, and numerous deaths in the camp. In this paper, I employ the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben’s theory of biopolitics as a point of departure to deal with life issues in Banzai, You Bastards! I discuss the Kinkaseki POW Camp with reference to this thinker’s concept of sovereignty and life, as well as examine the conditions of life endured by the war prisoners in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period. I further extend my argument to explore ethical issues, such as bare life and resistance, witness and memory, and forgetting and forgiving.

◎Keywords: the Kinkaseki POW Camp, bare life, witness, forgetting, forgiving

★Ph.D. Candidate, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

理論系列訪談
Interview

  • 蕭立君╱理論的基因:訪李有成談理論、年代與創作
    Li-Chun Hsiao╱The Genes of Theory: An Interview with Yu-cheng Lee on Theory, Times, and Creative Writing

《中外文學》論壇
Chung Wai Forum

  • 史書美、李育霖、李鴻瓊、張君玫、梅家玲、陳東升、廖朝陽、蕭立君、賴俊雄╱理論台灣:台灣理論關鍵詞與理論「在地話」
    Dung-sheng Chen, Chun-Mei Chuang, Li-Chun Hsiao, Chung-Hsiung Lai, Yu-lin Lee, Hung-chiung Li, Chaoyang Liao, Chia-ling Mei, Shu-mei Shih╱Taiwan and Theory: A Forum on the Keywords Taiwan Project and the Local Vocabulary of Theory
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