105年9月號「魏德聖與台灣電影的未然」

2019-07-18

第四十五卷 第三期 總454 中華民國105年9月
Vol.45 No.3 September 2016

《中外文學》九月號推出由邱貴芬、廖朝陽共同擔任專輯主編的「魏德聖與台灣電影的未然」專輯,收錄了六篇精彩的專輯論文。此外,本期也收錄兩篇專輯短文、以及一篇訪談紀錄。專輯論文部分,劉亮雅探討電影《賽德克‧巴萊》中的歷史再現與認同政治,試圖拆解霧社事件之內及其外文明與野蠻的對立;鄭如玉援引德勒茲的死亡與渾沌宇宙概念,探析《賽德克‧巴萊》中血祭祖靈的死亡儀式如何幫助族人突破殖民秩序,進入祖靈生命並脫離同一性;劉芳礽由史碧瓦克對再現的觀點切入,分析《賽德克‧巴萊》中的歷史與再現政治;江美萱著眼於《海角七號》中關於懷舊與歸鄉的討論,探索後現代史觀和地方記憶如何介入修補傳統的歷史大敘事;黃耀弘以《海角七號》與《賽德克‧巴萊》為例,經由康德、黑格爾哲學與拉岡、紀傑克的精神分析角度探討魏德聖電影中的「負面性」;邵棟則從《賽德克‧巴萊》與《KANO》出發,討論魏德聖「感時憂台」的創作意涵及其殖民史語境下的本土意識。專輯短文部分,日本學者赤松美和子分析魏德聖作品在日本的接受及研究狀況;韓國學者林大根探討韓國觀眾接受魏德聖電影的態度。本專輯特別規劃的訪談稿,則由蔡明燁與陳儒修共同訪問魏德聖導演,試圖經由多重角度的發問,引介、闡釋導演的創作與文化視野,並勾勒台灣電影的變遷及其與東亞電影圈的互動。

中外文學九月號目錄
Contents

劉亮雅╱並非簡單的文明與野蠻之對立:《賽德克‧ 巴萊》裡的歷史再現與認同政治

並非簡單的文明與野蠻之對立
《賽德克‧ 巴萊》裡的歷史再現與認同政治

劉亮雅*

摘要

本文將探討電影《賽德克‧ 巴萊》裡的歷史再現與認同政治。我認為電影對霧社事件的歷史再現和電影裡的認同政治相互纏繞,試圖拆解事件之內及其外文明與野蠻的對立。電影的歷史再現涉及了它所採取的手法和對事件的詮釋,而後者又蘊含了認同政治,包含賽德克族的自我認同或分裂認同、及其與電影隱含的台灣意識之關係。第一部分我先概述過去對霧社事件的呈現,《賽德克‧ 巴萊》貼近賽德克族觀點如何可能,第二部分討論片中的歷史再現,聚焦於太陽旗與彩虹橋兩組文化符碼的對位(contrapuntal)呈現。第三部分探討電影裡如何透過描寫認同政治與生死掙扎的關係,拆解野蠻與文明的對壘。結論則探討電影的環保意識和當代意義。

◎關鍵詞:《賽德克‧ 巴萊》,歷史再現,認同政治

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系特聘教授。

Liang-ya Liou╱Historical Representation and Identity Politics in Seediq Bale: Against a Simple Dichotomy between Civilization and Barbarism

Historical Representation and Identity Politics in Seediq Bale
Against a Simple Dichotomy between Civilization and Barbarism

Liang-ya Liou*

Abstract

This article examines historical representation and identity politics in Wei Te-Sheng’s film Seediq Bale. I argue that the movie’s historical representation of the Musha Incident is interwoven with its identity politics to deconstruct the dichotomy between civilization and barbarism both in and beyond the Incident. Whereas the historical representation has to do with its use of film genres and interpretation of the Incident, the latter entails identity politics, particularly regarding its portrayal of the Seediq tribesmen’s self-identity or split identity as well as their relationship with the film’s implicit Taiwanese consciousness. The first section traces the historical, literary, and filmic representations of the Musha Incident in the past, which make it possible for the film to adopt a view closer to those of the Seediq tribespeople. The second section discusses the film’s historical representation by focusing on the contrapuntal relationship between the two sets of cultural signifiers surrounding the Sun flag and the Rainbow Bridge. The third section deals with how the film debunks the dichotomy between civilization and barbarism by its depiction of the relationship between identity politics and the Seediq tribespeople’s struggle between life and death. The conclusion addresses the film’s portrayal of Seediq community’s environmental consciousness and the contemporary significance of the Incident the film brings into focus.

◎Keywords: Seediq Bale, historical representation, identity politics

★Distinguished Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

鄭如玉╱死亡與事件:《賽德克‧ 巴萊》的生命觀

死亡與事件
賽德克‧ 巴萊》的生命觀

鄭如玉*

摘要

魏德聖導演的《賽德克‧ 巴萊》是一部探討霧社事件的影片,描繪賽德克族遭受日本殖民政府壓迫並起而反抗,由於處理的是真實歷史素材,自然引發多方討論,其中尤以莫那‧ 魯道的英雄形象備受爭議。筆者認為重點不在質問莫那‧ 魯道究竟是個英雄或歷史罪人,而應聚焦在探問霧社事件究竟開啟了何種域外(不)可思考的空間,供我們思索魏德聖透過此象徵人物所帶出的可能意涵與對當代的意義。本文援引德勒茲的死亡與渾沌宇宙概念,企圖探討血祭祖靈的死亡儀式如何幫助族人突破殖民秩序,進入祖靈生命並脫離同一性。若我們將死亡當作一個「無人稱事件」,並且將莫那‧ 魯道視為一個「概念性人物」,我們將進到一個無人稱的潛態宇宙。潛態宇宙並不會抹煞個體性,而是允許每一個肉身化死亡的個體都有機會成為概念性人物,共同進入潛態宇宙的生命之流。賽德克人的反抗是重大事件,特別能將個體推向潛態宇宙,同時結合秩序的反面,也就是渾沌,形成「渾沌宇宙」。德勒茲的渾沌宇宙概念幫助我們理解族人如何含納與表達歧異,形成獨特的自我特異性。族人從渾沌借取武器對抗日本殖民秩序,期望能達到情感與政治的連結。這時死亡代表不可思考的渾沌失序力量,幫助族人脫離被化約成野蠻「非人」的命運,成為「賽德克‧ 巴萊」──真正的人。反抗使個體進入潛態,飛掠於現實化之上,成為既是你我他,亦非你我他的潛態/現實雙面體。每一個有覺知的個體所表達出的巴洛克視域綻放為如水晶結晶般獨一無二的朵朵緋櫻。

◎關鍵詞:《賽德克‧ 巴萊》,莫那‧ 魯道,霧社事件,死亡,渾沌宇宙,無人稱事件,祖靈之家,概念性人物

★佛光大學外國語文學系助理教授。

Catherine Ju-yu Cheng╱Death and Event in Wei Te-Sheng’s Seediq Bale

Death and Event in Wei Te-Sheng’s Seediq Bale

Catherine Ju-yu Cheng*

Abstract

In his 2011 film Seediq Bale, Wei Te-Sheng explores a controversial historical event, the Wushe Incident of 1930. Critics and aboriginal people hold opposing views on whether Mouna Rudo, chief of one of the Seediq tribes and leader of the revolt against the Japanese colonial administration, is a hero. The concern of the present article is how Wei Te-Sheng depicts the significance of this symbolic event of death. I attempt to shed light on the issue with recourse to an impersonal view of death and to a vision of Mouna Rudo as a conceptual character, through whom the significance of death can be revealed. Deleuze considers Death as an Event of Events, an impersonal event. Death in this film, if viewed via Deleuze’s concept of Event, transforms the seemingly inhuman Seediq people into “Seediq Bale,” real human beings and also into Blanchot’s “on”: impersonal persons. Death is the chaotic energy that subverts the Japanese colonial force, extends the Seediq tribes’ Gaya, allows the people to return to their ancestors’ heavenly home, and turns their world into a chaosmos. This way, every dying Seediq in the Wushe Incident reincarnates the Event and serves as a conceptual character occupying the position of the hero. The concept of the conceptual character thus resolves the question whether Mouna Rudo is a hero. Virtually, the dying Seediq people plunge into the spiritual flow of their ancestors, embody the Event, the Wushe Incident, and are actualized as “Seediq Bale.” Each of them, while facing death, expresses his or her own viewpoint on the Event, thus enriching the cosmos with variety.

◎Keywords: Seediq Bale, Mouna Rudo, the Wushe Incident, Death, Chaosmos, Impersonal Event, the ancestors’ heavenly home, the conceptual character

★Assistant Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures, Fo Guang University.

劉芳礽╱返復/反覆:魏德聖《賽德克‧ 巴萊》的歷史與再現政治

返復/反覆
魏德聖《賽德克‧ 巴萊》的歷史與再現政治

劉芳礽*

摘要

魏德聖以《賽德克‧ 巴萊》引導二十一世紀的台灣觀眾重返霧社事件的現場。從原住民的敘事角度出發,影片強調事件肇始於賽德克族為捍衛部落的嘎亞文化,而奮起抵抗入侵者的行動。不過,分析影片中重複出現的特定場面與主題,可發現這些反覆的呈現,除了不免俗地呈現原始與文明的對立,即殖民者與被殖民者間的衝突,更刻意凸顯賽德克族的內部紛爭,以及他們各自對於殖民者懷有的矛盾認同。於是,不同於其他霧社事件再現中,因為國族、社群或是性別身份差異而產生的對立,《賽德克‧ 巴萊》以反覆的場景與主題揭示了衝突以外的互惠關係。最後一幕裡,當觀眾看到彩虹橋上一群履行了嘎亞儀式的賽德克戰士正自豪地唱著賽德克歌曲,理所當然地以為從屬者終能發聲,史碧瓦克卻提示著這一切看似美好浪漫的歷史再現背後,可能持續運作的再現政治。

◎霧社事件,歷史,再現,文化記憶,賽德克族

★國立中山大學外文系博士後研究員。

Fang-jeng Liu╱Return/Repetition: History and Politics of Representation in Wei Te-Sheng’s Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale

Return/Repetition
History and Politics of Representation in Wei Te-Sheng’s Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale

Fang-jeng Liu*

Abstract

Wei Te-Sheng’s Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale (2011) represents the Musha Incident, a violent event when the Seediq, a tribe of Taiwanese aborigines, rose in revolt against their Japanese colonizers. Reviewing the tragedy exclusively from the scope of the tribe, Wei demonstrates that the incident was not so much caused by the colonization as most historical, cultural and visual texts represent it, as it was the result of a realization of Gaya, an ancient custom that every Seediq was disciplined to follow. Battle scenes, images of cherry blossom and the use of voice-over repetitively appear in the film. The repetition not only illuminates the significance of Gaya but also indicates that conflict could lead to collaboration. An analysis of the battle scenes, for instance, shows that the conflict was not always between the colonizers and the colonized but sometimes among the Seediq themselves. Out of self-interest, some of the Seediq choose to conspire with their invaders. Through portraying such conspiracy, Wei emphasizes the differences among the Seediq as individuals. However, perceiving the body and voice of the Seediq, we should pay attention to the intervention of the director. In the final scene, a group of Seediq warriors realize the ascent to a promised rainbow bridge. Romanticizing the Gaya practice, the director shows that these once-silenced aborigines eventually could articulate themselves in public realms. Yet, such romantic portrayal of the historical moments could incite “epistemic violence” against the aborigines, as Spivak may suggest.

◎Keywords: Musha Incident, history, representation, cultural memory, the Seediq

★Post Doctor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University.

江美萱╱後現代時空與歷史書寫:《海角七號》中的懷舊與歸鄉

後現代時空與歷史書寫
《海角七號》中的懷舊與歸鄉

江美萱*

摘要

本文透過魏德聖《海角七號》裡時間與空間的關聯性解析傳統歷史敘事的其他可能性。這部電影不論是藝術表現手法或是敘事層次都試圖跳脫傳統線性、漸進式、目標化的歷史敘事。透過後現代理論對時間的分析以及人本主義地理學對地方性的討論,本文分析電影裡的返鄉主題,解析電影中無法到達的「舊地」的重要角色。文章第一部分探討電影中日本教師以詭異(uncanny)的方式重返台灣,來處理被壓抑的歷史記憶和複雜情感。第二部分則探討了台灣近年來電影裡常見的回歸鄉村、小鎮的主題,在面對全球化經濟壓力之下,《海角七號》藉由召回台灣戰後「健康寫實電影」所建構出來的理想化的小鎮原型,重新補強以撫慰了觀眾對於全球化的焦慮,並強化地方認同。藉由這些關於懷舊與歸鄉的討論,本文試圖探討後現代史觀和地方記憶如何介入修補傳統的歷史大敘事(grand narrative)。

◎關鍵詞:後現代,歷史,地方,魏德聖,《海角七號》

★國立台北藝術大學電影創作學系助理教授。

Mei-Hsuan Chiang╱Postmodern Time, Space, and History Writing: Nostalgia and Homecoming in Cape No. 7

Postmodern Time, Space, and History Writing
Nostalgia and Homecoming in Cape No. 7

Mei-Hsuan Chiang*

Abstract

This article makes the case that Wei Te-Sheng’s film Cape No. 7. presents an alternative to traditional history-writing through its representation of time and space. Both the film’s formal aspect and narrative structure diverge from the traditional approach of presenting history in a linear, progressive, and goal-orientated way. In analyzing the unique presentation of history in Cape No. 7, the article draws upon the discussion of time in postmodern theory and “place” in humanistic geography. The first part of the article focuses on the Japanese teacher’s nostalgic yet uncanny return, which represents a Japanese memory of Taiwan that has often been neglected in the postcolonial discourses. The second part of the article explores the popular theme of “return to the countryside and native home” in recent Taiwan cinema. Cape No. 7 employs the trope of small town in postwar Taiwan cinema, more specifically, the utopian imagery from the 1960s’ “healthy realist film,” in order to alleviate Taiwanese audience’ anxiety toward global capitalism. Through these discussions of nostalgia and homecoming, the article attempts to explore ways in which the film revises the nation’s grand historical narrative.

◎Keywords: postmodernism, history, place, Wei Te-Sheng, Cape No. 7

★Assistant Professor, Department of Filmmaking, Taipei National University of the Arts.

黃耀弘╱探討歷史的負面性:從魏德聖的《海角七號》、《賽德克‧ 巴萊》談起

探討歷史的負面性
從魏德聖的《海角七號》、《賽德克‧ 巴萊》談起

黃耀弘*

摘要

本文從康德、黑格爾哲學與拉岡、紀傑克的精神分析角度去探討魏德聖電影中所呈現被一般歷史書寫所壓抑的「負面性」(negativity)。筆者認為歷史論述本身就帶有暴力性,是統治者與統治族群藉由建立有利於自己的「主人論述」,藉以改變、壓抑或忽略與統治者當代相左的史料,讓統治者與族群所建立的歷史論述能被合理化,與現有事實接軌,求得治理的正當合法性,俾使社會秩序與社會大眾的思緒隨治理者的意願與治理政策方向順利運作。依循如此象徵秩序的思考模式,個體必須接受統治者的歷史書寫及其所認可的「主人能指」(Master Signifier),方能融入社會秩序中,成為被認可並接受的主體。除了被動地接受,個體也主動地透過主人能指,自動產生意識形態幻想(ideological fantasy),無意識地投射在現實生活中,讓主體以一種安逸現狀的心態生活,不去質疑歷史中充滿矛盾與衝突性的負面性。
第二部分從康德、黑格爾與拉岡的角度討論主體思緒中被壓抑的負面性,如何對主體跟象徵秩序的意義鍊造成威脅,並擾亂其完整性。雖然這種負面性因為具有破壞及干擾性,所以必須被遺忘壓抑;不過此暗藏跳脫既有框架限制及反思力道的負面性,則存在於歷史中被遺忘的邊緣人身上。由於魏德聖的電影也著重探討負面性,因此,筆者認為可以藉由魏德聖電影中的人物及情節重新審思過往的歷史。
本文的第三部分,筆者透過對「主人論述」與「分析家論述」之間的探討,凸顯執著於主人能指的主人論述在魏德聖的電影中帶來的暴力過程與悲慘結局。「分析家論述」並不執著於主人能指,反而跳脫主人能指,不再以主人能指所引導的小客體來掩飾蓋負面性,而是以暫時全然空白的方式,寄望重新認識過去那段傷痛的負面性;透過這種負面性的追求,找尋未來能讓傷痛出現的主人能指。筆者認為魏德聖導演的貢獻在於透過電影的再現,幫助觀者脫離主人論述與主人能指,再度經驗歷史中的創傷,並進而理解邊緣人的歷史,找到另一種思考面向,改變既有的歷史書寫模式,避免歷史重蹈覆轍。

◎關鍵詞:負面性,分析家論述,康德,黑格爾,拉岡,紀傑克

★國立台灣師範大學英語系博士生。

Yao-hung Huang╱Discussing Negativity in History: On Wei Te-Sheng’s Haijiao qihao (Cape No. 7 ) and Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale

Discussing Negativity in History
On Wei Te-Sheng’s Haijiao qihao (Cape No. 7 ) and Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale

Yao-hung Huang*

Abstract

This paper draws on Kant, Hegel, Žižek and Lacan to discuss representations of repressed “negativity” in Wei Te-Sheng’s movies. These negativities are often repressed, disciplined, and regulated by the ruling class. Taking recourse to Lacanian and Žižekian psychoanalysis, I attempt to show how popular culture narratives of history perpetrate violence upon the psyche via a process in which the ruling class construct and reinforce a master’s discourse beneficial to them. The result of this process is that the public will feel compelled to follow the master’s discourse qua the social order in order to be accepted as a member of society. This, moreover, prompts the public to actively
generate and project the received ideological fantasy onto their personal lives in order to avoid encountering traumatic negativity.
In the second part, I explore the meaning of negativity from the perspective of Kant, Hegel, and Lacan. When the negativity resurfaces, it threatens to disturb or impede the operation of signification. Although the negativity must be repressed so that signification can function properly, it offers us the opportunity to perceive the excluded parts of the collective history. As Wei’s films focus on the negativity, I stress that we can reflect on our history via plots and characters in his films.
In the final part of this paper, I compare the master’s discourse with the analyst’s discourse to underscore the violent nature of the master’s discourse. The analyst’s discourse aims to overthrow the master signifier. In the analyst’s discourse, the analyst enables the analysand to perceive the emptiness behind its objet petit a, but forces it to confront the traumatic negativity. Through a discussion of negativity, I show how Taiwanese viewers were encouraged to abandon the master signifier as well as the master’s discourse. It proposes a means to avoid the reproduction of oppressive or subjugating narratives of history.

◎Keywords: negativity, analyst’s discourse, Kant, Hegel, Lacan, Žižek

★Ph.D. Student, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

邵棟╱感時憂「台」:魏德聖電影中的抵抗姿態與殖民書寫

感時憂「台」
魏德聖電影中的抵抗姿態與殖民書寫

邵棟*

摘要

本文將從魏德聖的兩部作品《賽德克‧ 巴萊》(編劇、導演)與《KANO》(編劇)出發,探討作者「感時憂台」的創作意涵以及其殖民史語境下的本土意識。魏德聖運用「零度敘事」表現「本土意識」,將殖民史中的抵抗姿態,「沉默地」展示,不加渲染和評論。魏德聖在兩部作品中闡釋了殖民語境下的兩種本土抵抗意識:在《賽德克‧ 巴萊》中表現為爆發式的抵抗;而《KANO》中則是嘉農野球隊在殖民者的規則下遊走適應的策略性的抵抗姿態。然而魏德聖在通過「零度敘事」消解了過去固化的民族大敘事的同時,他重構歷史的電影文本中卻出現一個鬼魅的殖民超敘事,使得台灣的本土意識的強度遭到削減,亦反過來弱化了「零度敘事」的效果。兩部電影中魏德聖所建構的殖民者形象及其意識形態,反而成了台灣意識無法衝破的陰影。魏德聖出於道義責任與「悲情」書寫殖民志,而這種民族主義卻需要另一種強勢文化界定與正名,以致延宕了主體性的形成。魏德聖「感時憂台」的創作意涵局限了台灣的獨立價值的呈現,只是召喚了民族主義的認同,難以形成超然的視野與反思意識。

◎關鍵詞:「感時憂台」,零度敘事,殖民主義,抵抗姿態,超敘事,主體性

★香港大學中文學院博士生。

Dong Shao╱Obsession with Taiwan: The Resistance Posture and Colonialism Narration in Wei Te-Sheng’s Movies

Obsession with Taiwan
The Resistance Posture and Colonialism Narration in Wei Te-Sheng’s Movies

Dong Shao*

Abstract

This article considers the so-called Obsession with Taiwan complex attributed to director Wei Te-Sheng, by examining two of his movies, The Warriors of Rainbow and KANO. I argue that Wei Te-Sheng uses basic degree zero narration strategies to elaborate the Taiwanese characters’ resistance posture as a key part of the “Taiwan Consciousness.” In The Warriors of Rainbow, he presents the radical dimension of the Taiwan Consciousness, while in KANO he depicts it as a way of compromise. However, the colonialism super narrative—within which Japanese figures are in command—reveals a sharp contradiction with the independent dimension of the aforementioned Taiwan Consciousness. What’s more, Wei’s obsession with Taiwan in these two films is limited only to the characters’ nationalist efforts but not his modernist depictions of individuals.

◎Keywords: Obsession with Taiwan, narration degree zero, colonialism, resistant posture, super narration, agenda

★Ph.D. Student, School of Chinese, The University of Hong Kong.

專輯短文
State-of-the-Field Essays

  • 赤松美和子╱魏德聖在日本的接受狀況
    Miwako Akamatsu╱The Acceptance of the Movies of Wei Te-Sheng in Japan
  • 林大根╱韓國觀眾接受魏德聖電影的態度
    Dae Geun Lim╱Korean Audiences’ Attitude toward Wei Te-Sheng Films

訪談
Interview

  • 蔡明燁、陳儒修╱魏德聖導演專訪
    Ming-yeh T. Rawnsley and Ru-shou Robert Chen╱An Interview with Director Wei Te-Sheng
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