105年6月號「體、適、能」: 第三十七屆全國比較文學會議專輯

2019-07-23

第四十五卷 第二期 總453 中華民國105年6月
Vol.45 No.2 June 2016

《中外文學》六月號推出「『體、適、能』:第三十七屆全國比較文學會議專輯」,收錄了四篇精彩的專輯論文,此外,也收錄一篇非專輯論文、一篇學術書評、以及一篇訪談紀錄。專輯論文部分,劉人鵬從晚近「殘障研究」新興領域所提供的論點,重新解讀魯迅的〈狂人日記〉及其小說主人公「狂人」,探討「瘋子」的再現與閱讀政治;吳凱書聚焦於柯慈(J. M. Coetzee)的小說《慢人》(Slow Man),深入剖析失能經驗與移民情境在小說中提供身份認同之議題;曾佳婕以法國導演塔提(Jacques Tati)的電影《玩樂時光》(Playtime)為例,探討玻璃對視覺文化、公私空間及都市人觀看模式之影響;林璄南則以藏傳佛教的「中陰身」論述來重新探討莎翁名劇《哈姆雷特》中的鬼魂一角,並對該劇早期主要版本中之相關對白、場景與舞台指示進行文本分析、比較與探討。非專輯論文部分,葉金輝以國籍作為文學的身份座標,嘗試界定「有國籍」與「無國籍華文文學」的馬華文學,並探究馬華旅臺、「在臺」文學與臺灣文學之間的交互關係。學術書評部分,葉德宣對許維賢的著作《從豔史到性史:同志書寫與近現代中國的男性建構》做出精彩評析。訪談部分,則由本刊總編輯蕭立君與廖咸浩深入討論理論的生續問題。

中外文學六月號目錄
Contents

劉人鵬╱重讀〈狂人日記〉與「狂人」:殘障政治視野的提問

重讀〈狂人日記〉與「狂人」
殘障政治視野的提問

劉人鵬*

摘要

本文從晚近「殘障研究」(或譯「障礙研究」)新興領域所提供的洞見,重新閱讀魯迅(1881-1936)〈狂人日記〉(1918)及其小說主人公「狂人」。主要關注點是「瘋子」的再現及閱讀政治,而非魯迅其人其文之思想或藝術成就。
魯迅以其現代醫學知識,設定小說主人公狂人為「迫害狂」,本文將〈狂人日記〉與其他材料(如報紙新聞、傳記回憶等)並讀,發現小說以外的材料對於瘋狂的再現,傳統氣息較為濃厚,瘋子通常是鄉村鄰里親友;對照閱讀之下,本文分析了〈狂人日記〉小說敘事如何為「非瘋狂」的讀者設計了閱讀框架,將狂人讀成隱喻,尋求與現實瘋子本身無關的象徵意義,而忽視小說中已經描述得相當具體的瘋疾者所遭遇的社會排斥與汙名。
〈狂人日記〉中「狂人」這個虛構的角色,在創作與閱讀中被認同、被象徵、被隱喻,也被「寫實」,在小說中依西方醫學範疇被診斷為「病人」,又被中醫診治,不論在小說本身或其後的解讀中,都經歷著「再現的勞務」,承擔了溢出的意義。小說透過「寫實」的狂人賦予象徵的功能,以批判中國傳統禮教的暴力(禮教「吃人」),這個現代文學的設計,恰恰是將現代對於瘋疾的暴力「吃」進現代文學,構成「寫實」現代性的一部份。

◎關鍵詞:狂人日記,瘋狂,障礙研究(殘障研究)

★國立清華大學中文系教授。

Jen-peng Liu╱Rereading Lu Xun’s “Diary of a Madman” and Its Madman from a Disability Studies Perspective

Rereading Lu Xun’s “Diary of a Madman” and Its Madman from a Disability Studies Perspective

Jen-peng Liu*

Abstract

Focusing on the representational politics of insanity, this paper rereads Lu Xun’s (1881-1936) “Diary of a Madman” (1918) and its madman protagonist in light of emerging insights and perspectives from Disability Studies. Drawing on his state of the art medical knowledge, Lu Xun presents his madman protagonist as diagnosed with “persecutory delusion.” In this paper, I juxtapose Lu Xun’s story with other contemporary materials, such as newspapers and memoirs, which on the contrary present a more nuanced traditional attitude toward the madman as familiar neighborhood type. This paper analyses how the fictional narrative devises a framework for non-insane readers to read madness as metaphor and seek a symbolic significance unrelated to actual madness while ignoring the social exclusion and stigma of mental illness already depicted in great detail in the narrative.
I demonstrate how the madman in “Diary of a Madman” has been identified, symbolized, metaphorized and “realized” during the ongoing processes of writing and reading. I also analyze how the fictional madman as a “patient” diagnosed according to western medical categories and treated by Chinese doctors has experienced “the labors of representation” and taken on excessive meanings, both in the fiction itself and in the readings thereafter. I argue that, as the modern literary device criticizes a traditional Chinese moral violence (depicted as “eating people”) via a realistic madman who also functions symbolically, the actual violence toward the madman was eaten by modern literature as part of its “realistic” modernity.

◎Keywords: “Diary of a Madman,” Madness, Disability Studies

★Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Tsing Hua University.

吳凱書╱柯慈《慢人》裡的失能主體、移民歸屬感與小說增補空間

柯慈《慢人》裡的失能主體、移民歸屬感與小說增補空間

吳凱書*

摘要

柯慈執筆至今的作品,給予失能角色相當程度的重視。然而,在《慢人》之前,柯慈往往賦予失能者客體的角色,為的是突顯殖民主義或南非種族隔離體制之下的龐大噤聲機制。本文指出,《慢人》是柯慈首度呈現其筆下失能角色積極追求主體地位的一本重要創作。該書少了柯慈前期作品中顯著的強、弱對比關係,反倒是將健能者與失能者、敘述者與被敘述者、以及不同的移民者放在同一平台上進行對話。該書獨特的小說形式在於它弔詭地以「失」作為小說中諸多「增補空間」的元素。而以「失」作為組構《慢人》的形式更「體現」了作家對於其權力/能力之缺的高度自覺。《慢人》透過保羅‧ 雷蒙特三方面的失去──失根(多次移民經驗)與失能(包括失去行走的能力,與失去的敘述權利)──以及他對「義肢/增補」的反思、對移民議題的重新理解、對自己「被論述」之人生的反抗,得以成型。失能經驗與移民情境於小說中的相輔相成提供了身份認同這一主題一個得以深究的方向。

◎關鍵詞:失能,移民,義肢/增補空間,敘述權,照片

★國立中山大學博士。

Kai-su Wu╱The Disabled Subject, the Sense of Migrant Belonging and the Novelistic Prosthetic Space in J. M. Coetzee’s Slow Man

The Disabled Subject, the Sense of Migrant Belonging and the Novelistic Prosthetic Space in J. M. Coetzee’s Slow Man

Kai-su Wu*

Abstract

Throughout his writing career, Coetzee has paid close attention to his disabled characters. However, he portrayed these characters in his novels before Slow Man as disabled objects that reflect the immense silencing mechanism of colonialism or of Apartheid in South Africa. This paper shows that Slow Man was a major watershed in the writer’s career for being the first-time he presented a disabled character actively searching for his subjectivity. Instead of presenting the imbalanced power relations between strong and weak sides as in Coetzee’s earlier pieces, Slow Man examines dialogues among the abled and the disabled, the author and the authored, and migrants from different places. The unique form of the book lies in its paradoxical employment of “loss” as the element of multilayered prosthetic space in the novel. This gesture of constituting a novel in terms of loss embodies the writer’s sharp consciousness of authorial destitution. Formed by Paul Rayment’s three folds of loss—uprootedness (repeated migrations) and disability (amputation of one leg and deprivation of the ability to narrate one’s own life)—and his reflection upon prosthesis, his reconsideration of migration issues and his resistance of being authored, Slow Man comes into being. The complementarity between disability and migrant experiences in the novel gives us a new direction concerning the thorny question of identity.

◎Keywords: disability, migrant, prosthetic space, right of narration, photos

★Ph.D., National Sun Yat-sen University.

曾佳婕╱透明迷宮:電影《玩樂時光》中的觀看模式與城市經驗

透明迷宮
電影《玩樂時光》中的觀看模式與城市經驗

曾佳婕*

摘要

本文以電影《玩樂時光》為例,探討玻璃對視覺文化、公私空間及都市人觀看模式之影響。玻璃在都市生活中扮演多重角色,既是連結內外的媒介,也可能是比有形的牆更難對付的藩籬。玻璃帶來更多能見度的同時,也強化了其他感官經驗的隔離,造就一種既親近又疏遠的弔詭城市經驗。本文探討導演塔提如何透過玻璃框架的概念與影音不同步等安排,討論透明空間與觀看模式、人我間無形隔閡、人與空間的主客關係等議題。本文也藉由班雅明對都市空間心神渙散(distraction)感知模式的探討,討論《玩樂時光》的觀影經驗如何與都市生活經驗如出一轍,如一面鏡子映照出觀影者在城市空間中必須面對及適應的瞬間即逝、變幻莫測、破碎切割並難以捕捉的都市現代性。除了對玻璃空間的批判外,塔提也巧妙運用玻璃的特殊物質性(透明及反射),精準捕捉都市現代性中真假虛實難辨、若即若離的浮光掠影。電影結尾似乎對玻璃能夠賦予視覺空間與都市意象的再現新的可能性與創造力,抱有正面期待。

◎關鍵詞:都市空間,玻璃,觀看方式,心神渙散,疏離,窗戶,框架,塔提,《玩樂時光》,班雅明

★臺北醫學大學通識教育中心及語言中心專任助理教授。

Chia-chieh Tseng╱A Transparent Labyrinth: Ways of Seeing and Urban Experience in Playtime

A Transparent Labyrinth
Ways of Seeing and Urban Experience in Playtime

Chia-chieh Tseng*

Abstract

In this essay, I examine how glass is played and how urbanites are “played” by glass in Jacques Tati’s film Playtime, in which the protagonist Hulot and a group of American tourists get lost in a world of transparency and reflection. Since its emergence in the late 19th century, glass has transformed our cityscapes, our perceptions of space, and our interactions with the material world. Glass is unique in the sense that it can be both medium and barrier, and thus conveniently becomes a rich source of metaphors that refract the complexities and paradoxes of modern urban life. Using glass as a device and a trope, Tati criticizes the unpleasant uniformity of the cityscape and how glass contributes to further the ambiguity of space and produces false impression and misrecognition. Drawing on Benjamin’s “reception in the state of distraction,” I discuss how the viewing experience of Playtime parallels the urban experience full of unfocused chaos, making the film itself mirror-like. Despite Tati’s critique of the transparent glass labyrinth in Playtime, he seems to acknowledge the productive nature of glass, which is a perfect medium for capturing the transience and the uncanny in the modern urban experience.

◎Keywords: urban space, glass, ways of seeing, distraction, alienation, window, framing, Tati, Playtime, Walter Benjamin

★Assistant Professor, Center for General Education and Language Center, Taipei Medical University.

林璄南╱老哈姆雷特新詮:從藏傳佛教「中陰身」論述看《哈姆雷特》中的鬼魂

老哈姆雷特新詮
從藏傳佛教「中陰身」論述看《哈姆雷特》中的鬼魂

林璄南*

摘要

莎翁名劇《哈姆雷特》中的鬼魂一角,也就是哈姆雷特的父王──老哈姆雷特的亡靈,為莎學者經常關注的議題。本文則另闢蹊徑,以藏傳佛教的「中陰身」論述來重新探討此一角色,並對現存早期《哈姆雷特》主要版本中的相關對白、場景與舞台指示進行文本分析、比較與探討。中陰,藏文的原義是「中介境界」。藏傳佛教論述裡的中陰,指的多是死有中陰。按藏傳佛教的法教,當人過世,生命進入了死亡與另一期生命之間的「受生中陰」階段。此時心識已擺脫肉體,再加上業力的作用,因此具備了生前所未曾有的能力或神通。此一介於「臨終中陰」與「投身中陰」階段的實相中陰,為一種意識所生的慾望之身,和血肉之軀畢竟有別。而令人稱奇且值得探究的是,早期《哈姆雷特》主要版本中,鬼魂一角有諸多特性和能力,竟和中陰論述不謀而合。全文除導論與結語之外,將包含(一)中陰的定義與分析(二)《哈姆雷特》中的鬼魂與中陰比對,(三)《哈姆雷特》中的鬼魂與輪迴思想,以及(四)鬼魂與凡夫我執等面向。

◎關鍵詞:《哈姆雷特》,中陰,心識,業力,輪迴思想

★國立台灣師範大學英語學系助理教授。

Alan Ying-nan Lin╱A New Interpretation of Old Hamlet: Reading the Ghost in the Light of Sipa Bardo of Tibetan Buddhism

A New Interpretation of Old Hamlet
Reading the Ghost in the Light of Sipa Bardo of Tibetan Buddhism

Alan Ying-nan Lin*

Abstract

The Ghost of Hamlet has long been the focus of Shakespearean scholars. The present essay seeks to reinterpret this figure in the light of Sipa Bardo of Tibetan Buddhism. Along the way it will also shed new light on relevant major characters, dialogues, scenes, and stage directions of the play’s early printed texts. In Tibetan Buddhism, “Bardo” originally means “intermediary realm.” According to Tantric teachings, when a person dies, his or her mental continuum will leave the physical body. As the consciousness breaks free from the restrictions of the physical body, coupled with the effects of karma, the consciousness will have supernatural powers during the Interim Bardo. The mental continuum, also known as “the mental body,” however, differs from the physical body. Interestingly, a few features and capabilities of the Ghost, as found in the early printed texts of Hamlet, coincide with those of bardo as taught in Tantric Buddhism. The entire essay is divided into six parts. The main body includes the following sections: (A) A Definition and Analysis of Bardo (B) The Ghost of Hamlet and Bardo (C) The Ghost and Samsāra in Hamlet, and (D) The Ghost and Human Ego.

◎Keywords: Hamletbardo, consciousness, karma, Samsāra

★Assistant Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

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葉金輝╱文學的國籍、有國籍馬華文學、與「入臺」(前)馬華作家:兼與黃錦樹和張錦忠商榷

文學的國籍、有國籍馬華文學、與「入臺」(前)馬華作家
兼與黃錦樹和張錦忠商榷

葉金輝*

摘要

被指稱為「有國籍」與「無國籍華文文學」的馬華文學,其國籍該以何為判准?馬華旅臺、「在臺」文學與臺灣文學維繫著怎樣的交集關係,它們之間的邊際線為何?過去論者淺涉輒止,令它們處於模棱兩可的迷糊與曖昧地帶。本文取狹義的文學定義立論,以國籍作為文學的身份座標,以便妥當地界定並解答這些疑惑。文學國籍最大的含義是作家的語言與地域語境,作家身世能指的相應所指。此種身份隱喻並非集體編碼或政治掛帥,而是探掘國籍之於文學不可免除的影響,而翻譯馬華文學就是國籍賦予文學意義之歸位。馬華旅臺文學是臺灣週邊或外緣文學,而「在臺」文學也不是臺灣文學。旅臺、「在臺」文學與臺灣文學是歷時性關係,與馬華文學是共時性(又含小部分歷時性)關係,臺灣文學與馬華文學則是共時性關係。入籍臺灣的前馬華作家作品不能再視作馬華文學,否則等於挾臺灣文學劫持馬華文學。唯有強調文學的國籍、去離散精神與去悲觀現代主義,馬華文學方免於迷失方向。

◎關鍵詞:文學的國籍,旅臺文學,「在臺」文學,週邊或外緣文學,離散

★馬來西亞華人教研機構副執行祕書。

Kam Fai Yap╱Literary Nationality, Ma Hua Literature with Nationality, and (Former) Ma Hua Writers with Taiwanese Citizenship: Cum Discussion with Ng Kim Chew and Tee Kim Tong

Literary Nationality, Ma Hua Literature with Nationality, and (Former) Ma Hua Writers with Taiwanese Citizenship
Cum Discussion with Ng Kim Chew and Tee Kim Tong

Kam Fai Yap*

Abstract

What are the criteria of nationality when Ma Hua literature is known as Chinese-language literature “with nationality” and “without nationality”? What is the intersection among the literature of Ma Hua sojourners in Taiwan, Ma Hua literature in Taiwan, and Taiwanese literature per se? These questions have been examined inconclusively. The present study proposes that conclusions might be reached if a narrow definition of literature is brought to bear, i.e. literary nationality. Literary nationality means the personalized language and regional context of a writer. It deigns to explore the inevitable influences that nationality exerts on literature—but not in political respects. Thus, translation of Ma Hua literature into Malay language marks a significant return to literary nationality. The literature of Ma Hua sojourners in Taiwan might just be considered a peripheral or exotic part of Taiwanese literature, while Ma Hua literature in Taiwan is not an integral component of Taiwanese literature due to their diachronic relationship. As for the writers who became citizens of Taiwan, their works can no longer be called examples of Ma Hua literature, lest Ma Hua literature be appropriated by Taiwanese literature. The only way to prevent Ma Hua literature from losing its direction is by emphasizing its literary nationality, versus diasporic emotion and pessimistic modernism.

◎Keywords:  literary nationality, literature of Ma Hua sojourners in Taiwan, Ma Hua literature in Taiwan, peripheral or exotic literature, diaspora

★Deputy Executive Secretary, a Malaysian Chinese education and research organization.

中外書評
Chung Wai Book Review

  • 葉德宣╱追憶綺豔年華:評許維賢《從豔史到性史:同志書寫與近現代中國的男性建構》
    Te-hsuan Yeh╱In Search of Lost Erotic Time: A Review of Wai Siam HeeFrom Amorous Histories to Sexual Histories: Tongzhi Writings and the Construction of Masculinities in Late Qing and Modern China

訪談
Interview

  • 蕭立君╱理論的生續/生續的理論:與廖咸浩談理論
    Li-Chun Hsiao╱Life of Theory / Theory in Life: An Interview with Hsien-hao Sebastian Liao on the Question of Theory
向上滑動