105年3月號

2019-07-23

第四十五卷 第一期 總452 中華民國105年3月
Vol.45 No.1 March 2016

《中外文學》三月號收錄了六篇精彩的學術論文,以及一篇論壇紀錄。廖咸浩將衛勒別克(Michel Houellebecq)的小說《一座島嶼的可能性》(The Possibility of an Island)與伊朗裔美籍作家內加勒斯坦尼(Reza Negarestani)所著的《風暴之書》(Cyclonopedia)、及台灣小說家駱以軍所著的《西夏旅館》並置,經由小說中的末日書寫,探討「真實」與「生命」對人類逃離虛無與毀滅的重要性;楊小濱從拉岡(Jacques Lacan)的精神分析理論切入,探究楊德昌電影中主體異化與現代性象徵他者式微之議題;戴芃儀以《怪獸電力公司》與《怪獸大學》兩部電影為例,剖析皮克斯電腦動畫公司的新經濟美學;高嘉勵從「自然」出發,討論鹿野忠雄的《山、雲與蕃人》一書中台灣自然的現代知識建構與美學表現;黃璿璋以張愛玲的《對照記》對比羅蘭‧巴特(Roland Barthes)的《明室》,探索張愛玲觀看照片時的視覺感知與想像;趙曉彤主張香港作家西西啟發自電影《廣島之戀》的短篇小說〈港島‧我愛〉,借用電影以敘事主體意識「地方」經驗的手法,召喚出以集體歷史經驗為基礎的個人生活記憶,並以經驗「存有」作為地方意向,讓情感得以重新「位居香港」。論壇部分,主持人廖咸浩及兩位與談人楊儒賓和龔卓軍則針對「身體」之相關議題進行深入的跨界對談。

中外文學三月號目錄
Contents

廖咸浩╱如何延遲世界末日? 經《一座島嶼的可能性》窺看《風暴之書》與《西夏旅館》中的後人類視域及重返生命之途

如何延遲世界末日?
經《一座島嶼的可能性》窺看《風暴之書》與《西夏旅館》中的後人類視域及重返生命之途

廖咸浩*

摘要

在衛勒別克新近的小說《一座島嶼的可能性》中,他再一次的耍弄他對生存的曖昧態度,不但大肆的暴露愛情/性愛最終的虛無,甚至死亡的虛無,並經此呈現出一種由科技所造成漫無止境的末日景象。然而,衛氏批判後期資本主義體制不遺餘力,但似乎總缺臨門一腳。但若將另外兩本當代小說與之並置,則可揭露衛氏不足之所在乃是:無法感受到拉崗所言的「真實」或德勒茲所言的「生命」。這兩本小說其一是伊朗裔美籍作者瑞薩‧ 內加勒斯坦尼所著的《風暴之書》,另一是台灣小說家駱以軍所著的《西夏旅館》。雖然這兩本小說有濃重的啟示錄氛圍,但兩者所呈現的黑色視界都不缺對救贖的暗示。它們雖因與「真實」或「生命」這人類存在根柢處的生猛能量遭遇,而衍生近似末日的預言,但兩者都經此而了悟到將「象徵」與「真實」、「人域」與「非人域」重予協商的必要。唯有積極的探勘及運用「真實」或「生命」才能讓人類遠離虛無主義,進而避免將這個雖非完美但仍絕無僅有的世界徹底毀滅。

◎關鍵詞:拉崗,德勒茲,衛勒別克,《風暴之書》,《西夏旅館》,真實,生命,末日,洞孔空間

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Hsien-hao Sebastian Liao╱How to Delay the End of the World? Posthumanist Vision and Re-connection with Life in Cyclonopedia and Hotel Western Xia via The Possibility of an Island

How to Delay the End of the World?
Posthumanist Vision and Re-connection with Life in Cyclonopedia and Hotel Western Xia via The Possibility of an Island

Hsien-hao Sebastian Liao*

Abstract

In Houellebecq’s most recent novel The Possibility of an Island, he once again plays with his ambivalence toward life by exposing the futility of love/sex and for that matter death, thereby adumbrating a prolonged doomsday through a dystopic rendering of the cult of technology. But two other novels, Cyclonopedia by Reza Negarestani, an Iranian American writer, and Hotel Western Xia by Yi-jun Luo, a Taiwanese writer, help modify this vision by laying bare what is lacking in its foundation: an impossibility to feel the Real (as defined by Lacan) or Life (as defined by Deleuze). Apocalyptical though they both seem, these two novels present dark visions with hints of potential redemption. In approximating the doomsday prophecy even further because of their having had direct contact with the Real or Life, that raw force which underlies human existence, they both have arrived at the realization of the need to re-negotiate the Symbolic and the Real, the human and the nonhuman. Only an active engagement with the Real or Life can lead us away from a thorough nihilism or for that matter complete destruction of the world we have been living in, imperfect as it is.

◎Keywords: Lacan, Deleuze, Houellebecq, CyclonopediaHotel Western Xia, the Real, Life, doomsday, holey space

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

楊小濱╱主體異化與現代性象徵他者的式微:以拉岡理論視野探討楊德昌電影

主體異化與現代性象徵他者的式微
以拉岡理論視野探討楊德昌電影

楊小濱*

摘要

本文從拉岡的精神分析理論來研究楊德昌的整體電影創作,觀察他影片中的主體是如何欲望著現代性他者欲望的,而他者又是如何無法實現其社會象徵法則的。在楊德昌的電影中,決定了家庭或社會象徵秩序的現代性大他者往往變異為絕爽的他者,暴露出淫穢或暴力的面貌。楊德昌聚焦在對社會、教育與政治體制的批判上,揭示出它們的殘暴與荒誕。因此,總是有一個欲望的小它物顯露出(拉岡意義上的)真實層的鬼臉,引向象徵構築的崩坍。儘管現代性問題是楊德昌電影的永恆主題,他一直致力於呈現社會或文化現代性所陷入的困境。楊德昌常常試圖探索傳統儒家和現代性社會範式的關係,二者作為文化象徵層卻在當代社會面臨著嚴重的危機。那麼,楊德昌電影中的角色顯示出匱乏主體的面貌,在「穿越幻想」的過程中迫使我們直面內在生命的黑暗核心,對應於現代性象徵秩序的創傷性虛空。

◎關鍵詞:楊德昌,拉岡,象徵他者,現代性

★中央研究院中國文哲研究所研究員。

Xiaobin Yang╱The Alienation of the Subject and the Decline of the Symbolic Other of Modernity: A Study of Edward Yang’s Films from the Lacanian Perspective

The Alienation of the Subject and the Decline of the Symbolic Other of Modernity
A Study of Edward Yang’s Films from the Lacanian Perspective

Xiaobin Yang*

Abstract

This essay examines Edward Yang’s filmic poetics in light of the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan. The purpose is to observe how the protagonists in Yang’s films, as subject, are subject to the authoritative Others, but who demonstrate only their failure to function as the symbolic (social or ethical) law. The big Other of the law, which is supposed to determine the symbolic order of the society or family, often degenerates into the Other of jouissance, as an obscene figure. Yang also focuses his critique of the social, educational and political institutions by revealing their violence and absurdity. His films always display a small object of desire that, in my view, appears as a grimace of the dark Lacanian real, causing the breakdown of the supposedly intact symbolic construct. Even though modernity is a perennial theme of Yang’s films, he strives to show the traumatic predicament in which social and cultural modernity seems destined to be trapped. Yang also attempts to probe the relationship between the Chinese Confucian tradition and the western social paradigm of modernity, both of which, as the cultural symbolic, face serious crisis in contemporary Taiwan. The destitute subject of the characters in Yang’s films is thus often enacted through the “traversing of fantasy” as a critical moment that prompts us to face the dark kernel of inner life, corresponding to the traumatic void of the symbolic order of modernity.

◎Keywords: Edward Yang, Lacan, the symbolic Other, modernity

★Research Fellow, Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, Academia Sinica.

戴芃儀╱《怪獸電力公司》 皮克斯的新經濟美學

《怪獸電力公司》
皮克斯的新經濟美學

戴芃儀*

摘要

在後福特主義中,「新經濟」是一個建立在網絡與資訊科技上的意識型態論述。新經濟支持者宣稱,網絡與資訊科技能成就更多財富與幸福。在工作上,新經濟管理強調以網絡式的同儕平等取代官僚和階層;以社群主義的團體合作取代勞動分工,一舉打破勞動疏離。值得深究的是,大受歡迎的皮克斯電腦動畫公司可謂新經濟論述的最佳代言人。除了總裁凱特莫提出的管理論述與新經濟雜誌相互唱和,皮克斯也提倡同儕分享與工作即玩樂的辦公室文化,以滋養個人創造力。本文認為,以皮克斯身體力行新經濟管理的情況下,大部份的電影又以社群主義為主題,具體演示團隊合作的過程,應視皮克斯電影為一種新經濟美學。更重要的是,皮克斯的新經濟美學應透過新經濟傾斜的生產關係與網絡科技來分析。本文將專注在《怪獸電力公司》與《怪獸大學》兩部電影,以自我反身性來分析,批判新經濟的管理論述與網絡狂熱,解構新經濟所隱含的新自由主義勞動寓言。

◎關鍵詞:皮克斯,迪士尼,動畫,後福特主義,泰勒主義,新經濟,勞動,網絡,新自由主義

★國立中央大學英文系助理教授。

Peng-yi Tai╱Monsters, Inc.: The Pixar Aesthetics of the New Economy

Monsters, Inc.
The Pixar Aesthetics of the New Economy

Peng-yi Tai*

Abstract

The New Economy is a post-Fordist ideological discourse of network and information technology (IT). The proponents argue that the network and IT can create more wealth and happiness. In work, the New Economy claims to end labor alienation with peer-sharing and collaborative communalism. Intriguingly, the Pixar Animation Studios is a model of the New Economy. Besides the fact that Pixar president Ed Catmull actively participates in the construction of the New Economy discourse, the studio promotes a workplace culture of peer-sharing and spontaneous play to nurture creativity. Given that most of the Pixar animated movies also revolve around the kind of communalism the studio professes to provide its employees, they embody the very aesthetics of the New Economy, which I argue should be examined in a way that accounts for problematic production relations and network surveillance. Focusing on Monsters, Inc. (2001) and Monster University (2013), I will read both films as self-reflexive of the studio, explore their cinematic aesthetics, and seek to deconstruct the neoliberal labor allegory of the New Economy.

◎Keywords: Pixar, Disney, animation, Post-Fordism, Talyorism, the New Economy, labor, network, Neoliberalism

★Assistant Professor, English Department, National Central University.

高嘉勵╱鹿野忠雄的台灣高山行旅書寫:日治時期「自然」的現代知識建構與美學表現

鹿野忠雄的台灣高山行旅書寫
日治時期「自然」的現代知識建構與美學表現

高嘉勵*

摘要

鹿野忠雄的《山、雲與蕃人》(1941)主要記錄鹿野1931 年的台灣高山行旅,此部作品現在被認為是台灣現代自然書寫的傑作,於塵封一甲子後再度出版並譯為中文,見證台灣社會複雜的政治、經濟和文化變化。對這部戰前作品的重新評價,反映了在地和全球社群對環境破壞的憂慮、公民社會對資本主義意識形態的反省、台灣內部對召喚歷史記憶的努力、以及自然寫作者對生態問題的終極關懷。本論文從「自然」本身出發,探討鹿野文本中台灣自然的現代知識建構與美學表現,為了瞭解書中自然的各種細微理念,本論文將分兩大部分進行討論:日本帝國的科學發展與鹿野獨特的旅行書寫模式。第一部分討論台灣自然博物學的現代知識形成,與西方和日本的科學發展之間的關係。第二部分著重在鹿野的自然中心思想與文本的美學分析,並探討這樣的思想和美學如何轉化甚至超越殖民者對台灣山林和原住民的「野蠻」想像。

 

 

◎關鍵詞:鹿野忠雄,自然寫作,旅行書寫,博物學,自然中心論,科學發展

★國立中興大學台灣文學與跨國文化研究所助理教授。

Chia-li Kao╱Kano Tadao’s Writing about Traveling in the Mountains of Taiwan: Constructing Modern Knowledge and Expressing Aesthetics of “Nature” during the Japanese Colonial Period

Kano Tadao’s Writing about Traveling in the Mountains of Taiwan
Constructing Modern Knowledge and Expressing Aesthetics of “Nature” during the Japanese Colonial Period

Chia-li Kao*

Abstract

Kano Tadao’s With Mountains, Cloud and Aborigines (1941) is primarily a record of Kano’s travels in the mountains of Taiwan in 1931, and is considered a masterpiece of Nature Writing in Modern Taiwanese Literature. The fact that this text now has been translated, reprinted and republished after having disappeared for sixty years bears witness to the complex political, economic and cultural changes in Taiwanese society during that period. Re-evaluation of this pre-WWII work reflects the local and global communities’ anxiety about environmental destruction, civil society’s introspection on capitalist ideology, Taiwanese society’s efforts to retrieve historical memories, and Nature writers’ ultimate concern with ecological problems. Focusing on “Nature” itself, this paper examines the historical construction of modern knowledge and aesthetic expression in Kano’s writing. To explicate the nuances of nature in his work, the discussion is divided into two parts: the Japanese Empire’s development of science and Kano’s unique travel writing style. The first part examines how modern knowledge of natural history in Taiwan has been formulated in relation to Western and Japanese scientific development. The second part analyzes Kano’s ecocentric approach and literary aesthetic, which finally transforms and transcends the colonial imagination of “barbaric” Taiwanese mountains and aborigines.

◎Keywords: Kano Tadao, Nature Writing, Travel Writing, natural history, ecocentrism, scientific development

★Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Literature and Transnational Cultural Studies, National Chung Hsing University.

黃璿璋╱對照記:從《明室》的攝影現象學看張愛玲對老照相簿的視覺感知與想像

對照記
從《明室》的攝影現象學看張愛玲對老照相簿的視覺感知與想像

黃璿璋*

摘要

張愛玲與羅蘭‧巴特(Roland Barthes)在創作、喜好與對母親的情感具有高度巧合,時賢不乏對兩人的比較論述。但如果要說明張愛玲閱讀照片時的「美感與神祕感」(李歐梵語)等美學與哲學意涵,惟有再對《對照記》與巴特的《明室》二書深入分析,方能釐清張愛玲閱讀照片時的感覺結構生成;尤其當《明室》提供了對相片具現象學式與邏輯式的閱讀方法。
如果巴特《羅蘭‧巴特論羅蘭‧巴特》(Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes)以圖像和照片詮釋自我生命,《對照記》則可視為「張愛玲論張愛玲」的一種欲望與行動。本文首先分析張愛玲在「自己看自己」的活動中,對於其多重陌生、艷異的「神情」和「擺姿勢」的各種解讀;其次則以「知面」與「刺點」討論張愛玲「看」背後的知識系統如何支撐她所注意的,關於衣服的細節。最後則回到張愛玲創作的美學風格,嘗試提出她「超人/凡人」、「瞬間/永恆」的對照美學,此種美學可連結張愛玲觀看照片所產生的死亡與永恆的時間感,亦是羅蘭‧巴特觀看照片時,格外注重之處。

 

◎關鍵詞:張愛玲,《對照記》,羅蘭‧巴特,現象學,《明室》

★國立政治大學中國文學系碩士生。

Hsuan Chang Huang╱Reading Eileen Chang’s Looking at the Old Photos through the Phenomenology of Roland Barthes in Camera Lucida

Reading Eileen Chang’s Looking at the Old Photos through the Phenomenology of Roland Barthes in Camera Lucida

Hsuan Chang Huang*

Abstract

This essay attempts to involve Eileen Chang and Roland Barthes in an encounter through the phenomenology of image in their looking at old photos. Leo Lee claims the “Eileen Chang creates a sense of mystery in a fabulous aesthetic context” in Looking at the Old Photos; however, the sense of Eileen Chang’s look is not a complete mystery. In my opinion, Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida provides a phenomenological approach for understanding the sense of mystery in Looking at the Old Photos.
My comparison of these two books focuses on three main points. First, in the photographic gaze of Eileen Chang looking at herself, in Roland Barthes’ words, the unfamiliarity makes her have a multiple understanding of her countenance and gesture. Secondly, Camera Lucida develops the twin concepts of studium and punctum to explain the attraction of photos. These concepts apply as well to Eileen Chang’s habit of looking by which she always notices the details of clothing at first glance. Finally, just as Camera Lucida is a eulogy to Barthes’s late mother, Looking at the Old Photos can be taken as a eulogy Eileen Chang’ late mother and family members, as well. Roland Barthes and Eileen Chang both hold that the essence of a certain what has been can be revived by looking at photos.

◎Keywords: Eileen Chang, Looking at the Old Photos, Roland Barthes, Phenomenology, Camera Lucida

★MA Student, Department of Chinese Literature, National Chengchi University.

趙曉彤╱作為意向的地方:論西西〈港島‧我愛〉對《廣島之戀》記憶策略的改寫

作為意向的地方
論西西〈港島‧我愛〉對《廣島之戀》記憶策略的改寫

趙曉彤*

摘要

西西發表於1975 年的《我城》是香港文學中的經典,小說以城籍體現地方主體性,但西西在七十年代以前如何通過文學形塑「我城」的地方感,在既有研究中一直從缺。在1968 年,西西曾發表一篇名為〈港島‧我愛〉的短篇小說,是啟發自電影《廣島之戀》的作品。本文先借用現象學以意向性為地方本質的理論,闡述電影利用聲畫剪接反省現實的手法。本文認為,〈港島‧我愛〉適取了電影以敘事聲音召喚地方歷史記憶的技巧,但更著重呈現主體意識經驗的過程。面對香港六十年代末的城市發展,小說敘事者召回了與親人共同生活的記憶,藉此以經驗「存有」作為地方意向,重新連結個人與空間的關係。小說並通過突顯此段記憶為一遷徙經驗,把昔日面對新生活空間的坦然延伸至當下,作為體認當下新城市空間的情感根據。小說以經驗「存有」作為地方意向,亦消解了舊有經驗的負面價值,回應著香港五十年代以來的集體社會經驗。小說藉戰後在港成長一代的南來生活經驗和情感,把發展中的城市體認為地方。這種建構本土意識的獨特手法,在香港文學發展史上具時代價值和代表性。

 

◎關鍵詞:西西,《廣島之戀》,地方,意向,歷史記憶,本土意識

★香港中文大學中國語言及文學系博士生。

Hiu Tung Chiu╱Intentionality as the Place: The Rewriting Memory Strategies of Hiroshima Mon Amour in Xi Xi’s “Hong Kong‧My Love”

Intentionality as the Place
The Rewriting Memory Strategies of Hiroshima Mon Amour in Xi Xi’s “Hong Kong‧My Love”

Hiu Tung Chiu*

Abstract

Xi Xi’s My City, published in 1975, is a classic in Hong Kong Literature. My City takes city as the subjectivity of place, but how the sense of “my city” was shaped in Xi Xi’s writings before the 1970s has not been examined to
date. Xi Xi published a short story titled “Hong Kong‧My Love” in 1968, which was inspired by the famous movie Hiroshima Mon Amour. This paper first makes use of “intentionality,” the essence of place in phenomenology, to discuss how the movie criticizes its reality through sound-and-screen editing. This paper shows that “Hong Kong‧My Love” borrows the technique of reconstructing place through the narrative voice adopted in the movie, but emphasizes the illustration of the subject’s consciousness. Facing the urban
development of Hong Kong in late 1960s, the narrator in the novel invokes the memory of living with his family. A relationship between self and space is then reconnected, as the existence of experience is regarded as the intentionality of place. By highlighting the family memory as a migration experience, the novel extends the space across time, as an emotional reference to identify the new urban space. The intentionality of place also helps to relieve the negative values of the past in the social collective experience of Hong Kong since 1950s. “Hong Kong‧My Love” identifies the developing city as place, by means of the southward migration experience and the emotions of the young generation in postwar Hong Kong. This unique way of constructing local consciousness is both significant and irreplaceable in the history of Hong Kong Literature.

◎Keywords: Xi Xi, Hiroshima Mon Amour, place, intentionality, historical memories, local consciousness

★Ph.D. Student, Department of Chinese Language and Literature, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

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