105年12月號「德希達與我們的時代」

2019-07-18

第四十五卷 第四期 總455 中華民國105年12月
Vol.45 No.4 December 2016

《中外文學》十二月號推出由洪世謙、黃涵榆共同擔任專輯主編的「德希達與我們的時代」專輯,收錄了四篇精彩的專輯論文。此外,本期也收錄兩篇一般論文、一篇學術書評、以及「理論系列訪談」的第三篇。專輯論文部分,郭家珍以翁達傑(Michael Ondaatje)的《菩薩凝視的島嶼》(Anil’s Ghost)為例,透過德希達(Jacques Derrida)關於見證、虛構與哀悼的思考,探討文學文本作為證詞所肩負的重要工作;姚智中透過德希達思考語言活動、認識活動及建制活動的「準先驗」圖式,闡述解構的「倫理-政治」意涵;洪世謙以德希達「可能-不可能」的「雙重纏繞」為起點,討論在不-可能的概念下,其倫理-政治哲學的相關議題;蔡偉鼎則闡釋德希達對海德格(Martin Heidegger)哲學的政治性詮釋,指出其政治性的解構策略不但能揭露海德格在晚期迴避的政治態度,還能在政治性脈絡中揭露出海德格的哲學「轉折」。一般論文部分,陳春燕以淡水河畔獨立書店「有河book」的「玻璃詩」為討論對象,參照當代媒介理論,由此思考文學生產的幾項命題;謝筱玫則檢視八零年代北美日裔劇作中的拘禁營書寫,透過山內若子、潮見瑞、五反田寬三位日裔作家,分析其作品中的拘禁營印象,以及不同世代的作家如何轉化此歷史傷痕。學術書評部分,紀大偉對劉亮雅的著作《遲來的後殖民:再論解嚴以來台灣小說》做出精彩評析。訪談部分,則由本刊總編輯蕭立君與廖炳惠深入討論理論現況的轉變與發展。

中外文學十二月號目錄
Contents

郭家珍╱《菩薩凝視的島嶼》中的文學見證與哀悼

《菩薩凝視的島嶼》中的文學見證與哀悼

郭家珍*

摘要

透過耙梳德希達(Jacques Derrida)關於見證、虛構與哀悼的思考,本論文認為文學文本作為證詞肩負三個重要的工作。第一、它能藉著虛構提出虛擬的真相,呈現一些雖未實際發生、但卻真實存在的經驗。換句話說,文學證詞不同於歷史證詞,並不需要和史實相對照,但卻能在其所開展出的虛構居所裡,讓一些虛擬的可能性存在。第二、此「虛擬的可能性」即指涉死亡-事件糾纏不去的鬼魂性,讓即將到來的死亡與早已發生的死亡在文學證詞裡相遇、縫合。第三、文學證詞不只揭露、估量角色自己的死亡,還必須哀悼那些已經不在場的他者/逝者,尤其是那些沒有名字、無法在歷史中確認身分的他者/逝者。
透過此角度閱讀翁達傑(Michael Ondaatje)的《菩薩凝視的島嶼》(Anil’s Ghost),我們可以發現,帕利帕拿(Palipana)的「狂舉」的爭議性不在於他偽造任何歷史文獻,而在於他以自己的角度詮釋未被任何典籍註記的岩畫。所以一方面,他創造出的虛構文學證詞和歷史事件相平行(見證已死亡的歷史事件──六世紀的岩畫),但另一方面,這平行拉出的虛擬空間,容留了未能在歷史上驗明正身的人物與事件。這重要的伏筆提醒了我們文學證詞所需肩負的文本政治與倫理工作,所以翁達傑再透過安南達(Ananda)重建「水手」的臉龐告訴我們:這個虛構的創作/文學,作為安南達的證詞,依然可以傳遞虛擬的真實,並向正義的第三方(讀者、國際勢力……)呼求協助;更重要的是,它得以讓更多的他者/逝者,尤其是那些沒有名字、辨識不出身分的他者/逝者,都能在文學書寫死亡的熱情場所中安息。

◎關鍵詞:見證,文學證詞,哀悼,麥可‧ 翁達傑,《菩薩凝視的島嶼》,德希達

★淡江大學英文系助理教授。

Chia-chen Kuo╱Literature as Testimony and Mourning in Michael Ondaatje’s Anil’s Ghost

Literature as Testimony and Mourning in Michael Ondaatje’s 
Anil’s Ghost

Chia-chen Kuo*

Abstract

By drawing on Jacques Derrida’s conceptions of witnessing, writing, and mourning, this paper argues that we can regard literature/fiction as testimony to convey “real and virtual, or real as virtual” truth. The task that literature undertakes includes rendering any unexperienced experiences, allowing the immemorial death of the witness/character to encounter his/her imminent death, and passionately mourning for those unidentified deaths in history. Reading Michael Ondaatje’s Anil’s Ghost in this way, we discover that Palipana’s “gesture” is controversial not due to the fact that he forges any historical material but because he uses his own perspective to interpret it. Palipana’s literary fiction/creation as testimony which is parallel to history reminds us of the textual politics and ethical task that literature has to undertake, and it becomes an important prefatory to Ananda’s reconstruction of Sailor’s face. This reconstruction is a fiction, but it becomes not only Ananda’s testimony, testifying to the massacre prevalent on this island, but also his work of mourning, mourning passionately for the dead.

◎Keywords: witnessing, literature, testimony, mourning, Michael Ondaatje, Anil’s Ghost, Jacques Derrida

★Assistant Professor, Department of English, Tamkang University.

姚智中╱也許⋯⋯ :解構的「倫理-政治」意涵

也許⋯⋯
解構的「倫理-政治」意涵

姚智中*

摘要

部份學者指出,自1980 年代開始,由於德希達關注一連串關於民族主義、女性主義、死刑、民主、好客等議題,因此認為「解構」的晚期發展與德希達早期著作的風格有所不同,而將此視為「解構」的倫理或政治轉向。在這脈絡上,有別於認定解構分別呈現出倫理意涵或政治意涵,甚至存在所謂「轉向」,本文主要工作在於闡釋解構的「倫理-政治」意涵。透過德希達思考語言活動、認識活動及建制活動的「準先驗」圖式,本文將其曾反覆論述的「延異」、「痕跡」、「絕境」等語彙,編織成不同的引線,進而闡釋解構的「倫理-政治」意涵。藉由反覆強調作為準先驗的「延異」,一方面德希達重新置換了傳統對於「倫理」、「政治」概念的內涵,另一方面則轉化傳統對於「可能/不可能」的思考。其試圖藉由「他者」的「殊異性」以非辯證的方式調合西方形上學中關於普遍性與特殊性衝突與對立,本文認為這正是解構的「倫理-政治」意涵之底蘊。然而,這卻需要一種關於「也許」的嶄新體驗或思想。

◎關鍵詞:解構,到來的民主,準先驗,延異,痕跡,德希達,也許

★國立台北藝術大學美術學院藝術實踐與批判研究博士生。

Chih-Chung Yao╱Perhaps… The “Ethico-Political” Significance of Deconstruction

Perhaps…
The “Ethico-Political” Significance of Deconstruction

Chih-Chung Yao*

Abstract

According to some scholars, since the 1980s Jacques Derrida made a deviation from his early-stage works, and engaged in a series of issues such as nationalism, feminism, death penalty, democracy, and hospitality, which represented the ethical turn or political turn of deconstruction. Intending to counter this sort of interpretation, the major task of this essay is to elaborate the “ethico-political” significance of deconstruction through the expressions of “differance,” “trace,” and “aporias,” which are precisely the quasi-transcendental schema in Derrida’s understanding of linguistic, cognitive, and institutive systems. Emphasizing “differance” as “quasi-transcendental schema,” Derrida displaces traditional understandings of “ethics” and “politics,” and transforms the dichotomy of “possibility / impossibility” in traditional thinking. Along with the “quasi-transcendental schema,” Derrida discusses the “singularity” of “the other,” through which he reconciles the traditional conflicts between universality and particularity in a non-dialectical way. Through this interpretation, this essay argues that deconstruction is in itself “ethicopolitically” significant. However, to understand this, it requires the experience or the thought of the perhaps.

◎Keywords: deconstruction, democracy to come, quasi-transcendental schema, differance, trace, Jacques Derrida, perhaps

★Ph.D. Student, School of Fine Arts, Taipei National University of the Arts.

洪世謙╱可能-不可能的基進倫理-政治

可能-不可能的基進倫理-政治

洪世謙*

摘要

本文將以德希達談論的「可能-不可能」的「雙重纏繞」為起點,說明「可能-不可能」是向他者的開放與邀請,不-可能與疑境,以及由此而產生關於無條件,是作為德希達倫理政治哲學的核心,德希達正是在不-可能的這個概念下,開展了它有關於無條件好客、友愛政治學、寬恕、禮物、將臨的民主、解構的正義等有關倫理-政治的哲學。
「不-可能」的重點不在於成為可能,而在於必須改變或轉換對於所謂的「可能」的概念。德希達想做的就是解構可能與不可能的經驗界線。「可能-不可能」這種在二者之外的可能,這種以不-可能亦如同可能的可能,德希達賦予了它一種基進性。他認為唯有在可能性中持續著不可能性,才讓可能性不斷進行,而這種不中止,這種以幽靈形式存在的不可能性,才讓事物超越了原有的結構和經驗。不可能性作為可能的最前沿,讓事物永遠處於將臨,不可能作為一種補充或幽靈,朝向未來的開放,而這將有助於我們思考,面對他者時,是否有一種超越現有法律與制度,更加正義與民主的可能。

◎關鍵詞:不-可能,無條件好客,友愛政治,將臨的民主,倫理-政治

★國立中山大學哲學所副教授。

Shih-chian Hung╱The Im-possible Radical Etho-politics

The Im-possible Radical Etho-politics

Shih-chian Hung*

Abstract

The paper departs with Derrida’s discussion of the im-possible double bind that explains the im-possible as an opening and invitation to the Other, im-possible and aporetic, which produces the unconditionality as Derrida’s etho-political core. With the concept of im-possible, Derrida forges his own etho-political philosophy, including the concepts of unconditional hospitality, politics of friendship, forgiveness, gift, democracy to come, and deconstructive justice.
The stake of the im-possible does not suggest that it will become possible, but that it will change and transform the notion of possible. The project that he aims to carry out is to deconstruct the limit of experience between the possible and the impossible: Derrida endows this dichotomy with the radical sense that the im-possible lies beyond the possibility of the two, i.e., the im-possible as—comme/en tant que—possible. Only in the possible that constantly strives for the impossible can the possible be made incessant going. The incessant going, as the impossible of a spectral form, can transcend the existing structures and experiences. The impossible as the possible front makes something always to-come, or the impossible as a supplement or a specter, towards the opening to come or of the future (avenir). This helps us think whether there is a possibility beyond the existing law and institutions, with more justice and democracy.

◎Keywords: im-possible, unconditional hospitality, politics of friendship, democracy to come, ethico-political

★Associate Professor, Institute of Philosophy, National Sun Yat-sen University.

蔡偉鼎╱迴避之不可能:論德希達對海德格哲學的政治性詮釋

迴避之不可能
論德希達對海德格哲學的政治性詮釋

蔡偉鼎*

摘要

有關海德格政治思想的議題向來是個眾說紛紜且充滿激情反應的研究領域。以往不時有海德格的批評者力圖將其哲學思想與納粹主義給掛勾起來,但總會立即激起另一些研究者指責其批評牽強附會或不夠嚴謹。主要的原因正是在於其缺乏充份的文獻資料可供佐證。
德希達係在1987 年的《論精神》一書中以一迂迴的方式處理此一難題。他抽絲剝繭地追蹤海德格宣稱應當避用、卻又仍在其文本中不時使用的“Geist”(精神)概念,從而揭露出海德格如何試圖透過區分“geistlich”(屬靈的)與“geistig”(精神的)這兩個德語形容詞來自圓其說,以及海德格在其思想發展過程中如何曾一度與納粹主義之精神有合拍處。本文試圖闡明德希達對海德格的詮釋,並指出其政治性的解構策略不但能揭露出海德格在晚期迴避公開談及的政治態度,更還能在一政治性脈絡中揭露出海德格的哲學「轉折」。故德希達傑出的海德格詮釋實可作為一例以令吾人重新思考一經典的詮釋難題。

 

◎關鍵詞:德希達,海德格,《論精神》,納粹主義,「精神」,「轉折」

★東海大學哲學系助理教授。

Wei-DIng Tsai╱The Impossibility of Avoiding: On Derrida’s Political Interpretation of Heidegger’s Philosophy

The Impossibility of Avoiding
On Derrida’s Political Interpretation of Heidegger’s Philosophy

Wei-Ding Tsai*

Abstract

Issues surrounding Heidegger’s political thought have generated a research field rife with different opinions and passionate reactions. Formerly, Heidegger’s critics occasionally tried to link his philosophical thought with Nazism, but this aroused almost the same level of attacks from other researchers who declared such criticisms to be far-fetched or not rigorous enough. The main reason for this ongoing disagreement lay in the lack of adequate evidentiary documentation.
Derrida deals with this problem in a roundabout way in his book Of Spirit (1987). He makes a painstaking investigation to pursue Heidegger’s usage of the concept “Geist” (spirit), which, according to Heidegger, should be avoided yet which still appears in his texts from time to time. Derrida thus reveals how Heidegger tries to justify himself by distinguishing two German adjectives—i.e. “geistlich” and “geistig”—and how Heidegger’s thought had once been in tune with the Nazi spirit in its developmental process. The present article article attempts to explain Derrida’s interpretation of Heidegger and point out that his political strategy of deconstruction can not only reveal Heidegger’s political attitude, which the later Heidegger avoided to mention in public, but also Heidegger’s philosophical “turn” within a political context. Therefore, Derrida’s outstanding Heidegger-interpretation could be an example that prompts us to rethink this classical hermeneutical problem.

◎Keywords: Derrida, Heidegger, Of Spirit, Nazism, “Geist”, “the turn”

★Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, Tunghai University.

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陳春燕╱文字、影像、媒介:淡水河畔的玻璃詩

文字、影像、媒介
淡水河畔的玻璃詩

陳春燕*

摘要

淡水河畔的獨立書店「有河book」創立十年來,已舉辦近二百場「玻璃詩」活動。書店主人邀請文字創作者在店內面河的玻璃窗上寫詩,並以攝影及文字側記方式記錄過程,製成網頁。而每隔幾年,書店又另將玻璃詩集結成冊出版。玻璃詩在出版資本化時代護衛文學的空間,幾乎讓所有事物皆成為文學的載體:不僅印刷、玻璃、書寫、攝影、網路是媒介,身體、風景、動物亦然。其基進之處,不在人與山水景色的相融相輔,而是各式媒介對文字接力傳介所產生的主體性外翻效果:媒介的物理屬性交相作用之下,不是烘托出一個有機整體,而是暴露每一種媒介各自的界限。本文將參照當代媒介理論幾個重點,借玻璃詩思考關於文學生產的幾項命題,包括「作者」及「原創性」概念的重新整理、書寫與書寫主體內在性的扣連或斷裂問題、文學的媒介性等等。簡言之,本文企圖思索傳介概念在媒體研究之外更宏觀的理論可能性,尤其是對文學人可能的啟迪。本文主張將「傳介」理解為關係本身,而非僅是關係當中的中介。以玻璃詩為例,各媒介透過物理層次特殊性所傳介的,除了是文字信息,更是各種文學關係。然此關係性亦包括了「非關係」:詩人的身體與文字、環境之間的交疊並置,在科技媒介效應之下,並非彼此再現、指涉,而是相互鄰近、穿透,甚至消失在彼此之間。媒介特殊性曝顯媒介界限,卻也直指溝通的真義。

 

◎關鍵詞:有河book,玻璃詩,媒介,傳介,物理性,物質性,關係性,外部性

★ 國立臺灣大學外國語文學系副教授。

Chun-yen Chen╱Word, Image, Medium: The Glass Poetry of an Independent Bookstore

Word, Image, Medium
The Glass Poetry of an Independent Bookstore

Chun-yen Chen*

Abstract

“Youhe book” is an independent bookstore located in Tamsui, Taiwan. Since its opening in November 2006, the bookstore has invited nearly two hundred writers to stop by and handwrite verse on the floor-to-ceiling glass windows of its riverside premises. With a few exceptions, the words written on the glass are something the invited guest has already published. The owners of the store record the process through the camera lens and descriptive notes about the guest and the work selected, and create webpages for what has come to be known as Glass Poetry. The verse on glass further materializes in print publication. Glass Poetry, thus, involves multiple relays of word: previously published work in print, the author’s handwriting, photography, digitized rendition of the writing process, and materialization in print again. Glass Poetry is at the same time a dynamic intersection of images: what the camera typically captures is the superimposition on transparent glass of Chinese characters visualized, the body of the poet writing, the surrounding landscape, and scores of stray cats the bookstore has been looking after over the years. This article offers an account of Glass Poetry as a manifold and ongoing event of mediation: mediation not only between word and image, but also of various relations contributing to or generated by literary production. The article draws on some important current lines of inquiry in media theory, in particular the argument that media technologies come to shatter interiority by taking in sense and non-sense altogether. The “non-sense” aspect of Glass Poetry consists, among other things, in the presence of landscape and animals in the photographic images: while their integration into the cultural agenda of Glass Poetry may seem random and superficial, these non-sensical elements, or what the article would like to call non-relations, are constitutive of the ethos of communicability that initiatives like Glass Poetry help to articulate.

◎Keywords: “Youhe book” Bookstore, Glass Poetry, medium, mediation, physicality, materiality, relationality, exteriority

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

謝筱玫╱北美日裔劇作中的拘禁營書寫

北美日裔劇作中的拘禁營書寫

謝筱玫*

摘要

隨著美國正式投入第二次世界大戰,日本移民之忠誠度也遭質疑,民間仇日情緒高漲。1942 年,美國與加拿大政府以國家安全之名,分別大規模強制遷移境內的十一萬餘與兩萬餘日裔居民。這些一世與二世日裔被發配至拘禁營區集中監督管理。此事件在日裔族群的平反運動努力下,終於在八零年代末獲得國家道歉。儘管如此,在當局的歷史敘述中,拘禁營事件仍被塑造為在當時不得不然的措舉;官方的歷史敘述致力淡化這段往事,而日裔社群則以不同方式記錄與回應這個集體創傷。
本論文檢視八零年代北美日裔劇作中的拘禁營書寫,透過山內若子、潮見瑞、五反田寬三位日裔作家,分析其作品中流露出的拘禁營印象,以及不同世代的作家如何轉化此歷史傷痕。1924 年生的山內若子在事發當時為十七歲左右的少女,有切身經歷,而在戰爭結束數十年後,其作品仍充滿孤絕隔離意象,其劇《12-1-A》直接描寫營內的生活,歷史見證意味濃厚。1947 年次的潮見瑞,其《黃熱》寫的是冷硬派偵探辦案過程,亞裔偵探在舞台上雄姿英發、展現智謀;調查當中牽扯出70 年代加拿大民間殘留的反日情緒,「前事不忘」成了破案關鍵。1953 年生的五反田寬,其家庭劇《洗》寫一對老年面臨離婚危機的日裔夫婦,老夫老妻壓抑的情感回憶中,也點出拘禁營的過往。本文並置三個不同世代的日裔劇作,試圖呈現不同世代的日裔在八零年代如何以不同的方式回憶、想像、塑造、傳承這段過往。在美國官方尚未為此事件正式認錯道歉之前,這些劇作的出現別有一種迫切性,劇場也成了觀眾與劇場工作者集體回憶、癒療、折衝的場域。

 

◎關鍵詞:美國亞裔戲劇,日裔美國拘留營,山內若子,潮見瑞,五反田寬

★國立臺灣大學戲劇學系助理教授。

Hsiao-Mei Hsieh╱Representing Internment Camps on Stage in North America

Representing Internment Camps on Stage in North America

Hsiao-Mei Hsieh*

Abstract

In the wake of the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor, the loyalty of Japanese Americans and Japanese Canadians was called into question and anti-Japanese sentiments in North America ran high. In March 1942, over 110,000 people of Japanese descent in the U.S. and over 20,000 in Canada were forcibly relocated to internment camps. The injustice was redressed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with the governments offering national apologies and reparations. Nevertheless, the national narrative of the interment continues to depict it as a regrettable step that appeared necessary in its time.
While the historical account of the internment tries to whitewash the event, people of Japanese descent in North America still strive to recall, record, and respond to the collective trauma by various means. This paper discusses three plays written by Japanese Americans/Canadians during the height of Redress Movement, 12-1-A by Wakako Yamauchi (b. 1924), Yellow Fever (1982) by Rick Shiomi, and The Wash (1985, 1987) by Philip Kan Gotanda. Yamauchi was seventeen when she was sent to the camp, and thus her semiautobiographical 12-1-A serves as her personal testimony. Although Shiomi and Gotanda did not personally experience the internment themselves, their plays call attention to this historical event that harshly impacted their parents and continues to influence the Japanese American/Canadian community. By juxtaposing three plays of succeeding generations, we see how the incident had been remembered, imagined, narrated, and passed on to consolidate community identity. Before the injustice was officially corrected, the emergence of these plays in the ’80s was charged with political urgency since many of the victims were still alive. The paper compares the narrative strategies playwrights of succeeding generations employed in treating the memory of the internment.

◎Keywords: Asian American theatre, Japanese American internment camp, Wakako Yamauchi, Rick Shiomi, Philip Kan Gotanda

★Assistant Professor, Department of Drama, National Taiwan University.

中外書評
Chung Wai Book Review

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    Ta-wei Chi╱The Aftershocks of Colonial Modernity: On Belated Postcoloniality: Post-Martial Law Taiwanese Fiction by Liang-ya Liou

訪談
Interview

  • 蕭立君╱小故事、大理論:訪廖炳惠談理論
    Li-Chun Hsiao╱Tales of the Forking Paths of Theory: An Interview with Liao Ping-hui on the Question of Theory
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