104年6月號「餘」:第三十六屆全國比較文學會議專輯

2019-07-29

第四十四卷 第二期 總449 中華民國104年6月
Vol.44 No.2 June 2015

《中外文學》六月號推出「『餘』:第三十六屆全國比較文學會議專輯」,收錄了四篇精彩的專輯論文。許綺玲以楓思瓦芃(François Bon)的作品《15021》和《停車場》為例,探討法國當代人類學家歐傑(Marc Augé)所稱之「非地點」與日常生活書寫的各種樣態;楊乃女嘗試從時間性的觀點討論反烏托邦與新末日敘事重疊之處,並以電影《末日浩劫》為例,說明新末日敘事展現了時間的鬼魅性,破除直線的時間觀;黃仕宜援引洪席耶(Jacques Rancière)的理論,探究不同年代的非裔美國人劇作家——威爾森(August Wilson)與帕克斯(Susan-Lori Parks)——如何處理缺席父親的議題,並以劇場達成其政治目的;曾瑞華分析村上春樹創立之詞彙「小確幸」的意涵,並主張以紀傑克(Slavoj Žižek)的唯物神學觀點釐清「小確幸」的真相,避免落入「另類小確幸」的陷阱。本期除了專輯論文,也刊登了一篇非專輯論文,以及一篇學術書評。張小虹探討化學合成染料「陰丹士林藍」如何進入中國,成為1930與1940年代最具代表性流行色彩的「微歷史」與「微政治」,以及如何從「微」所開啟的流變之力突圍「宏觀」政治、經濟、文化的編碼,進而帶出「微觀」分子化運動的無限可能;學術書評部分,梁孫傑則對賴俊雄的著作《回應他者:列維納斯再探》做出精彩評析。

中外文學六月號目錄
Contents

弁言
Introduction

  • 楊乃女、李翠玉(專輯主編)╱弁言
    Nai-nu Yang and Jade Tsui-yu Lee, Guest Editors╱Introduction

許綺玲╱餘地、餘影、餘音:非地點、日常生活書寫,以及楓思瓦芃的《15021》與《停車場》

餘地、餘影、餘音
非地點、日常生活書寫,以及楓思瓦芃的《15021》與《停車場》

許綺玲*

摘要

法國當代人類學家馬克‧ 歐傑(Marc Augé)曾經把現代城市空間裡人們生活中必需經常行經,縱使停下來,也僅暫時停留的各種場所、通路、過道,以「非地點」(non-lieux)名之,如公路、機場、轉運站、大眾運輸工具、超市、大賣場和大型遊樂場等。「非地點」雖然在現代人事物流動頻繁的生活中不可或缺,但其使用上之象徵與情感價值不同於一般空間,帶有矛盾、甚至負面性的意義,每個進入「非地點」的個人都是孤單的,卻又完全融入了無名的群體中,大家為同樣的目的做同樣的動作;個人的身份認同在這些欠缺地域時空特性的場所被暫時放入了括弧,因而感到又自在又焦慮。歐傑認為這些「非地點」的特色表徵了「超現代性」(surmodernité),不同於現代性的是,不再將「過去」和「現代」的事物兼容並存於同一生活時空,而是將「過去」放入「景觀」的地位,並經常僅以文字表述(texte)被識讀,取代了直接從實景取得的經驗。對法國而言,「非地點」經驗之普及伴隨的是「光榮三十年」後的年代。法國的日常生活文學書寫,歷經1950 至1980 年代(約莫等同於「光榮三十年」時期)獲得了深具洞見的多元理論所滋養,加上作家培瑞克(Georges Perec, 1936-1982)各種創意的風格文類實驗,皆對後人形成了一定的影響。1980 年之後,顯見日常生活文學書寫大量地針對「非地點」作為另類描寫文,及準小說或潛小說(romanesque)或者「微敘事」(在此試用新創詞)的主題客體。其中,楓思瓦芃(François Bon, 1953-)的作品《停車場》(Parking),以及他與攝影家舒洛莫夫(Jérôme Schlomoff)合作的《15021》攝影圖文集等,都與「非地點」直接相關。有時他試圖以書寫主體有意識介入的立場,將「非地點」的「不可見性」以文字和影像加倍顯影;或者有時轉換視角與陳述者的位置,不寫過客,而是寫那些直接在「非地點」工作生活的人,即處於「畸零」樣態,可見性和存在感很低的人。在此情況下,他的文本所烘托而出的世界,已不在於反映歐傑所定義的「非地點」,而是相對地,著重在空間之殘餘敗象與寄居其中之餘生。

◎關鍵詞:日常生活,「地點」,「非地點」,餘,培瑞克,歐傑,楓思瓦芃,創作計劃

★國立中央大學法文系教授兼系主任。

Chi-Lin Hsu╱Haunting Place, Image and Sound: Non-lieux, Everyday Life Writing, and François Bon’s 15021 and Parking

Haunting Place, Image and Sound
Non-lieux, Everyday Life Writing, and François Bon’s 15021 and Parking

Chi-Lin Hsu*

Abstract

Marc Augé, contemporary French ethnologist, used the term “non-lieux” to designate all kinds of transitional spaces, such as highways, airports, stations, supermarkets, trains, etc., all of which are indispensable for everyday life nowadays. But unlike other spaces, non-lieux spaces have a contradictory and even negative side. Whoever enters non-lieux is doomed to be alone and somehow lost in anonymous crowd. Here everyone does the same thing for the same purpose and loses for a moment his or her own self-identity in such places without temporal and local specificity that one will be both at ease and in anxiety. For Augé, this situation is precisely characterized by sur-modernity, which, unlike modernity, does not coexist with the past time, but rather, closes the past inside a spectacle frame. One may realize it only through mediated words everywhere around. The common but estranged experiences associated with non-lieux are widely depicted in the everyday life literary writing in the France after the flourishing economic Age of Les Trente glorieuses (1945-75 or 1950-80). Nourished by multiple theories, Georges Perec (1936-1982), who throughout his short life as writer invented many new ways of writing about everyday life, should be considered a forerunner for the generation to come after 1980. New ways of writing are surely experimental in every respect from description to narration. About the subject of non-lieux, we are particularly interested in works of François Bon, such as 15021 (illustrated by photos of Jérôme Schlomoff) and Parking, in which he deals not only with the decadent space viewed inside or outside non-lieux, but also with those who live there as sort of “left-behind”, neglected and almost invisible to society, so they are not just simply ordinary “users” in non-lieux defined by Augé, but remnants of this oblivious part of world in agony.

◎Keywords: everyday life, lieu, non-lieu, ce qui reste, Georges Perec, Marc Augé, François Bon, art project

★Professor and Chair, Department of French, National Central University.

楊乃女╱反烏托邦、後末日敘事與鬼魅時間:以《末日浩劫》為例

反烏托邦、後末日敘事與鬼魅時間
以《末日浩劫》為例

楊乃女*

摘要

世界末日的想像一直是西方文學歷久不衰的主題,這些末日想像的敘事大部分都呈現一種反烏托邦的氛圍,人類歷經大災難,見證了文明的崩毀,而失去律法與秩序的人們,在荒涼的文明殘骸之中求生存。就主題而言,這些故事呈現當代社會的問題,或多或少都帶有反烏托邦(dystopia)的色彩。反烏托邦敘事與現代的末日敘事多有重疊之處。一般的解釋會認為兩者高度的重疊是一種悲觀主義,代表人們對未來越來越不抱希望,世界終將走向毀滅。以電影《末日浩劫》為例,雖然影片中並未說明何種原因造成世界的毀滅,片中的父子在資本主義的殘骸中孤獨的旅行求生存,荒涼的殘骸與現今繁華的美國成為強烈的對比。當代的反烏托邦敘事是否為悲觀主義所淹沒?末日的主題向我們預示絕望的未來亦或是開啟了異時間及抵抗的可能?現代的末日敘事中有無救贖的可能?本文試圖從時間性的觀點討論反烏托邦與新末日敘事重疊所開啟的希望。一般而言,烏托邦和反烏托邦敘事皆是藉由另類的時間或空間建構一個想像的世界或社會,末日敘事打開了未來的時間軸,這個時間軸卻是以一個鬼魅的狀態存在,過去的碎片藉著未來借屍還魂。本文將著重於現代的末日敘事的討論,如同伯洛克(Josef Broeck)的研究顯示,現代的末日敘事已經漸漸脫離聖經《啟示錄》的傳統。雖然伯洛克表示新的末日敘事並無一致的形式與內容,本文認為有一支新的末日敘事展現了時間的鬼魅性,企圖破除直線性的時間觀,《末日浩劫》即是最佳例子。借用德勒茲的詞彙來解釋,《末日浩劫》中呈現的末日世界為原創世界(originary world),以鬼魅的姿態穿梭於現在與過去,並且以衝動-影像揭露過去與現在人性暴力的極致。如鬼魅般的原創世界,以麥科麥娜絲(Susan Mcmanus)的話來說,粉碎了資本主義邏輯下主宰的直線性、量化的時間觀。本文將分成兩個部分探討《末日浩劫》中的反烏托邦、後末日敘事與鬼魅時間:第一個部分將討論新舊末日敘事的差異以及駐足於後末日想像中的時間的鬼魅性,第二部分則探討《末日浩劫》中的鬼魅時間與衝動-影像所營造出來的資本主義垃圾場。

◎關鍵詞:反烏托邦,後末日敘事,衝動-影像,原創世界,鬼魅時間

★國立高雄師範大學英語系副教授。

Nai-nu Yang╱Dystopia, Post-Apocalyptic Narrative and Spectral Time: John Hillcoat’s The Road as an Example

Dystopia, Post-Apocalyptic Narrative and Spectral Time
John Hillcoat’s The Road as an Example

Nai-nu Yang*

Abstract

“The end of the world” has always been a popular theme in the history of Western literature. These apocalyptic narratives often present nightmarish worlds where human beings bear witness to calamities that soon after ruin civilization and leave them hopelessly struggling in the remains of the past. These calamities are actually means of the critique of contemporary social problems in these narratives, which overlaps the themes of dystopian writing. In the recent years, that the development of dystopian narrative is intricately intertwined with new apocalyptic narratives leads us to wonder whether dystopian narrative is overwhelmed by pessimism. The film The Road might serve as a good example. Although the cause of the end of the world is never explicitly stated in the film, the protagonists, a father and his son, travel lonely across the residues of the past capitalist world in their journey to a safer and warmer place, bearing witness to the sharp contrast between the past wealthy America and the present hellish world. Is the modern dystopian narrative flooded with pessimism? Does the theme of the end of the world foretell a hopeless future or open a different register of time with the possibility of resistance? Is redemption attainable in the modern apocalyptic narrative? This paper explores the hope triggered by the mixture of dystopian and post-apocalyptic narratives from the perspective of time and temporality. Generally speaking, utopian and dystopian narratives are concerned with creating an alternative human society or world by means of the imagination of a different time or space. The apocalyptic narrative opens up a different temporal register of future though this temporality is a spectral time whereby the fragments of the past are constantly haunting the future. This paper examines the relationship among dystopia, post-apocalyptic narrative and spectral time. The first section of the paper focuses on the differences between old and new apocalyptic narratives and the spectral time sojourned in the post-apocalyptic scenario. The second section discusses the capitalist swamp extracted by spectral time and the impulse-image in The Road.

◎Keywords: dystopia, post-apocalyptic narrative, the impulse-image, the originary world, spectral time

★Associate Professor, Department of English, National Kaohsiung Normal University.

黃仕宜╱歷史之餘:當代非裔美國人劇場中缺席的父親們

歷史之餘
當代非裔美國人劇場中缺席的父親們

黃仕宜*

摘要

本文探討不同年代的黑人(非裔美人)劇作家,威爾森(August Wilson, 1945-2005)與帕克斯(Susan-Lori Parks, 1963-),如何以劇場來達成政治目的。他們的作品雖均強調種族歧視並批判主流文化,但兩者在處理歷史上黑人被「強迫缺席」的議題上,差異甚大。討論始於文學檔案裡,黑人家庭中缺席父親的刻板印象與事實,繼之探究生理、文化與歷史脈絡下的「父親」。本文援引洪席耶理論中關於「政治」、「感性政體」與「平等」的概念來討論兩位劇作家的主要作品《籬笆》(Fences, 1983)與《美國劇》(The America Play, 1994),並主張帕克斯的觀眾,透過「感性政體的重新分配」, 能得到較大程度的「解放」。

◎關鍵詞:當代非裔美人劇場,《籬笆》,《美國劇》,威爾森,帕克斯,洪席耶,缺席父親,感性政體,被解放的觀眾

★淡江大學英文系助理教授。

Shih-yi Huang╱Leftovers from History: Absent Fathers in Contemporary African American Theatre

Leftovers from History
Absent Fathers in Contemporary African American Theatre

Shih-yi Huang*

Abstract

This article explores how African American playwrights of different generations, August Wilson (1945-2005) and Susan-Lori Parks (1963-), employ theatre to carry out their political aims. While both of their works foreground racial discrimination and are critical of mainstream culture, Parks departs from Wilson in response to African Americans’ forced exclusion from history. My discussion begins by comparing the stereotypes and the facts surrounding absent fathers in African American families in light of literary archives, and then elaborates biological and cultural/historical notions of the “father.” Drawing on Jacques Rancière’s ideas of “politics,” “regimes of the sensible” and “equality” to discuss these two playwrights’ master works, Fences and The America Play, the paper argues that Park’s work has a more emancipating effect on audiences through its “(re)-distribution of the sensible.”

◎Keywords: Contemporary African American Theatre, FencesThe America Play, August Wilson, Susan Lori Parks, Jacques Rancière, absent father, the distribution of the sensible, emancipated spectator

★Assistant Professor, Department of English, Tamkang University.

曾瑞華╱「小確幸」之餘:從紀傑克的唯物神學論「小確幸」商品充斥的文化現象及其出路

「小確幸」之餘
從紀傑克的唯物神學論「小確幸」商品充斥的文化現象及其出路

曾瑞華*

摘要

面對文學語彙「小確幸」一詞因商業行銷之挪用而使現代小資男女不僅無法安於「小確幸」商品所標榜之「確幸」、反而因不斷推陳出新之「小確幸」商品的頻頻召喚而更加窮於奔命於慾望追逐之旅的文化現象,本文除試圖透過文本分析探討村上春樹首創此詞彙所寄予之內涵,以區別村上的「原始小確幸」與市面上到處可見的「另類小確幸」,並嘗試從紀傑克的唯物神學角度,思考深陷於後資本主義慾望迷宮中的現代人如何擺脫不斷增生的慾望召喚,以創造真正的自由與確幸的救贖之道。文章共分四節,首節分析「小確幸」一詞的原始意涵,並概述「小確幸」一詞遭扭曲挪用後所引發之熱烈討論。第二節藉紀傑克對謝林哲學唯物觀點之詮釋探討村上「原始小確幸」的發生,及其聖境如何在主體感知的當下同時遠離主體,以驅使主體轉向象徵系統、在「另類小確幸」的替代系統中尋求慰藉之過程。第三節闡述紀傑克結合基督教神學、巴迪烏(Alain Badiou)之「純粹駁雜」及拉岡(Jacques Lacan)之「陰性邏輯」等唯物觀點所建構之唯物神學,探討內容聚焦於其在詮釋基督透過「降生為人」彰顯神性的過程中所展現的拉岡式「大絕爽」,能否作為吾人跳過資本主義中介、直接面對村上式「小確幸」之途徑。末節則總結本文之論述,並主張世人透過紀傑克所建構之唯物神學來重新審視當前「小確幸」概念商品到處充斥的文化現象,認清村上式「小確幸」可遇而不可求的真相,以免落入「另類小確幸」的陷阱。

◎關鍵詞:小確幸,唯物神學,純粹駁雜,陰性邏輯,剩餘享樂,淺嚐,不全,大絕爽,自我清空,降生為人

★佛光大學外國語文學系副教授。

Jui-hua Tseng╱What Remains after the Enjoyment of the “Small Certain Happiness” A Study on the “Small Certain Happiness:” Cultural Phenomenon and Its Way Out from the Perspective of Žižek’s Materialist Theology

What Remains after the Enjoyment of the “Small Certain Happiness”
A Study on the “Small Certain Happiness” Cultural Phenomenon and Its Way Out from the Perspective of Žižek’s Materialist Theology

Jui-hua Tseng*

Abstract

Confronted with the tricky abuse of the literary expression “small certain happiness” for commercial purposes in Taiwan in recent years, which has inflicted contemporary men and women living on a small income with an even more miserable life full of futile pursuits for the satisfaction of artificial needs created by capitalist society, this paper aims both to explore the term’s original meaning, that is, Haruki Murakami’s original connotation in using the term, distinguishing it from the more popular but distorted usage, and also to find salvation for people who have been trapped in the post-capitalist labyrinth according to Žižek’s materialist theology.
The paper is divided into four sections. In Section One, I explore the original meaning of the term in question against the background of its distorted usages as well as the heated discussions and criticisms over its significance. In Section Two, I explain, based on Žižek’s materialist interpretation of Schelling’s philosophy, how the original (that is, Murakami’s) “small certain happiness” takes place, how it becomes a mystery at the moment of the subject’s awareness of it, and how it is pursued (though fruitlessly) by the subject in the labyrinth of our capitalist society through the function of symbolic structure. In Section Three, I explore Žižek’s materialist theology which is constructed on the bases of Badiou’s notion of “pure multiplicity” and Lacan’s “feminine logic,” or the ontological notion of “not-all,” aiming to see the possibility of applying it to current cultural phenomena. Finally, in the last section, I conclude the paper with the proposition that we must take Žižek’s materialist theology into serious consideration so that further afflictions caused by the infinite desire pursuits in capitalist society can be avoided and the real (that is, Murakami’s) “small certain happiness” can be possibly achieved.

◎Keywords: small certain happiness, materialist theology, pure multiplicity, feminine logic, plus-de-jouir, lichettes, not-all, jouissance, Kenosis, He was made Man

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures, Fo Guang University.

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張小虹╱陰丹士林藍:質量體戰爭與微分子運動

陰丹士林藍
質量體戰爭與微分子運動

張小虹*

摘要

化學合成染料「陰丹士林」出現在上一個世紀之交的歐洲實驗室,不僅成功解畛域化染料-植物、染料-動物、染料-礦物的既有連結,創造出染料-實驗室試管-時尚感性的新流變團塊,並重新編碼民族國家與化學工業集團的配置經營模式,讓「陰丹士林」得以「更新更快」的科學進步性與生產速度,成為享譽國際的「德國靛青」。而本論文則是在此全球歷史脈絡之下,集中探討「陰丹士林藍」如何進入中國成為1930、1940 年代最具代表性流行色彩的「微歷史」與「微政治」。此合成染料分子的切入角度,不僅將凸顯「微物」與「唯物」的常民瑣碎政治與服飾物質文化史,更將構連到當代德勒茲哲學的「質量/分子」概念,以凸顯「分子化」運動的解畛域與開放連結,如何讓「時尚形式」成為「翻新行勢」所能給出的變動可能。
本文將以中國1930 與1940 年代為主要的歷史分析時段,從戰爭作為「惘惘的威脅」到對日抗戰的爆發,從抵制(日本)帝國主義商品的「國貨運動」到身體軍國化的「新生活運動」。一方面從「質量體」的宏觀層次看「陰丹士林藍」染料分子如何進入中國,如何壟斷市場,如何連結兵戰與商戰,如何建構現代視覺政體與國民身體,更如何成功集結出各種時尚現代性的資本與國族編碼,諸如洋行-美女月份牌-現代性消費的編碼,陰丹士林-藍布-旗袍-愛國主義的編碼,學生制服-戰爭時尚的編碼等。另一方面從「分子運動」的微觀層次看「陰丹士林藍」染料分子如何滲透浸染棉紗棉布,如何給出鮮豔明亮的情動力強度,讓慣常聚焦於時裝面料與時裝款式的「宏觀」尺度,調轉為身體膚表-染色面料-視網膜-大腦皮質界面觸受的變化異動,亦調轉為顏色(藍色)在色相-彩度-明度上的差異微分,讓「翻新」不再只是資本主義時尚工業推陳出新的靈活動態,也不再只是國族主義在建構新服制、新國民、新軍民的權力佈局,而能回到「流變-陰丹士林藍」作為分子化運動在身體觸受關係中的動靜快慢與強度變化,回到歷作為「力史」的流變動量與情動感受。

◎關鍵詞:德勒茲,戰爭,染料,旗袍,時尚,現代性

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Hsiao-hung Chang╱Indanthrene Blue: Molar Wars and the Molecular Movement

Indanthrene Blue
Molar Wars and the Molecular Movement

Hsiao-hung Chang*

Abstract

The chemical dye of Indanthrene was invented in European laboratories at the turn of the last century. It helped to deterritorialize the linkage between dye and plants, animals and minerals by creating a new bloc of becoming among dyes, lab tubes, and fashion sensibility. It also brought in the scientific progress and production speed of “newer and faster” and re-coded the assemblage of nation states and chemical industry conglomerates that ultimately made Indanthrene well-known as “the German Indigo” world-wide. Under the context of this global history, this paper attempts to explore the microhistory and micropolitics of the chemical dye of Indanthrene blue when it entered China and became the most representative and fashionable color during the 1930s and 1940s. With the focus on this single chemical molecule, the paper plans not only to foreground the politics of details in everyday life and material culture, but also to bring in the concept of the molar and the molecular chiefly developed by Gilles Deleuze to theorize fashion as a folding force of deterritorialization, becoming, and open connectivity.
Therefore, the paper will take the historical period of the 1930s and 1940s as its point of departure to map out the imminence and the final outburst of the Sino-Japanese war and the social, political movements enacted in-between, including the “National Product Movement” that boycotted imperialist commodities and the “New Life Movement” that militarized the body of the national subject. On the one hand, it will start with the macroscale of the “molar” to see how the dye of Indanthrene blue entered China, how to monopolize the market, how to connect the military war and the commodity war, how to construct the modern visual regime and the body of the national subject, and how to assemble successfully various capitalist and nationalist coding, such as importing company-beauty calendar-modern consumption, Indanthrene blue-cotton clothes-cheongsam-patriotism, and student uniform-war fashion. On the other hand, it will disclose the microscale of the “molecular” to see how the dye of Indanthrene blue infiltrates the cotton fiber, how to give the affective intensity of brightness, how to shift the focus from fabric and style to the changing contact surface of skin-clothesretina-cerebral cortex, and also to the subtle differentiation of color in hue, colorfulness, and brightness. It will thus make “fashion” less the fleeting novelty manipulated by capitalist industry, less the strategic construction of the new uniform and the new subject in the power deployment of nationalist ideology, than the molecular movement of “becoming-Indanthrene blue” that can make the body as the relations of movement and rest, speed and slowness, the increase of decrease of intensity, and finally make history a force field of becoming and affectivity.

◎Keywords: Gilles Deleuze, war, dye, cheongsam, fashion, modernity

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

中外書評
Chung Wai Book Review

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