104年12月號

2019-07-23

第四十四卷 第四期 總451 中華民國104年12月
Vol.44 No.4 December 2015

《中外文學》十二月號收錄了四篇精彩的學術論文,以及一篇學術書評。余君偉挪用禮物與社會交換理論,討論香港小說家李碧華《胭脂扣》中的禮物交換與情債等問題;朱衣仙耙梳現當代文學中以園林為意象的文本,主張「園林史」同時可轉化為「知識份子心史」,並展現其悖論美學;張雅蘭以辛哈(Indra Sinha)的小說《據說,我曾經是人類》(Animal’s People)為例,藉由跨物質理論與毒物論述之觀點,探究「緩慢暴力」與跨物質倫理之相關議題;馮冬則以策蘭(Paul Celan)的詩為著眼點,思索災難對詩歌言說主體的變異作用,以及當代思想變異的可能途徑。學術書評部分,張嘉如對李育霖的著作《擬造新地球:當代臺灣自然書寫》做出精彩評析。

中外文學十二月號目錄
Contents

編輯室報告
Editorial Note

  • 蕭立君╱編輯室報告
    Li-Chun Hsiao╱Editorial Note

余君偉╱問世間情為何物: 李碧華《胭脂扣》中的禮物交換與愛情

問世間情為何物:
李碧華《胭脂扣》中的禮物交換與愛情

余君偉*

摘要

《胭脂扣》是香港小說家李碧華最重要的作品之一,相關評論大多試圖發掘文本跟九七回歸相關的政治與文化意涵,甚少就人物互動及心理進行深入的研究。本文借用禮物和社會交換理論探討主要人物間的關係,剖析故事中有形與無形的禮物交換及情債等相關主題,以說明當中複雜矛盾的感情經驗,並探索情人的付出與回報之間隱含的心理機制和倫理面向。本文分為三個部分,首先以十二少送給如花的禮物為例,解釋禮物行為的弔詭及如何成為求愛的藝術,然後闡述二人愛戀中有關犧牲、寄生和情債的主題,並特別就殉情的橋段提出愛情的倫理問題。最後焦點轉往袁永定和如花的「霧水情緣」,討論永定的施恩如何糾纏於欲望的蠢動與壓抑之間並涉及權力的向度。本文指出李碧華透過小說中兩段感情的描述,讓讀者深刻地體會愛情的複雜曖昧性。

◎關鍵詞:李碧華,《胭脂扣》,禮物,愛情藝術,寄生蟲,情債

★香港教育學院文學及文化學系教授兼系主任、人文學院副院長。

Kwan-Wai Eric Yu╱Gift Exchange and Love in Lillian Lee’s Rouge

Gift Exchange and Love in Lillian Lee’s Rouge

Kwan-Wai Eric Yu*

Abstract

A prominent novel by Lillian Lee, Rouge has attracted a lot of critical attention. However, most critics focus mainly on the allegorical dimension of this work, paying insufficient attention to the characters’ curious interactions and subtle psychology. To address this apparent neglect, this paper seeks to explore the complexity of love and the psychic mechanisms involved by analysing the closely related themes of gift, social exchange, and the “debt of love” in the novel. The article is divided into three parts. The first explicates the paradoxical nature of gift and how gift-giving becomes an “art of love.” The second discusses the ideas of sacrifice, parasitism, and the “debt of love” with reference to the difficult amatory relationship between Fleur and Shier Shao, attending particularly to the suicide episode that bears significant ethical implications. Finally, the article enquires how Yuan Yongding’s relation with Fleur is caught between hospitality and repressed sexual desire. The article concludes that the author, through the two sub-plots, allows readers to better appreciate and reflect on the rich and ambiguous experience of love.

◎Keywords: Lillian Lee Pik-wah, Rouge, gift, ars amatoria, parasite, the debt of love

★Professor and Head, Department of Literature and Cultural Studies; Associate Dean, Faculty of Humanities, The Hong Kong Institute of Education.

朱衣仙╱餘園中的「殘紅新綠/如意天香」:中國知識份子的啟蒙心史與悖論美學圖景

餘園中的「殘紅新綠/如意天香」
中國知識份子的啟蒙心史與悖論美學圖景

朱衣仙*

摘要

園林自魏晉以來即為文人寄託情志的場域,這個充滿文化符號的空間,一直彷如中國文人的化身。民國以降,士大夫階層瓦解,文人失去搆園、居園的條件,身份也被迫轉變為無所依憑的知識份子,成為「多餘的人」,一如當時成為廢園的諸多園林。1920 年代,知識份子發展出「向民間去」、「為工農兵服務」的左翼論述,為自己爭取社會位置,卻也因而逐漸被邊緣化與有罪化,終致在大躍進時期被打為「小資產階級」;與之同命的園林則承擔「小資產階級情調」的罵名,許多被改為廠辦。文革期間,知識份子淪為「牛鬼蛇神」,被拘禁於已成「牛棚」的舊園中。然而園林景物所蘊含的文化意象,卻給了知識份子療癒的力量。在此創傷與療癒並構的空間中,知識份子透過「因景生情,寓情於景」的體會,了解到:有情則為人,無情者方為牛鬼蛇神,階級身份的二元對立其實是錯誤的;並繪想出「知識份子與勞動人民之間應相生相成,以悖論狀態的社會關係共存」之圖景。園林與文人在民國後的平行命運,使得「園林史」同時得以寄寓「知識分子心史」。由於自古文人即意識到園易就荒,書寫長存的道理,民國後的知識份子也同樣藉由筆下園林意象的經營,將其所遭遇的這段園林/文人同命的歷史寄諸筆墨,本文因此得以透過現當代文學中以園林為場景或意象的文本,梳理出這部共構的歷史。全文以〈如意〉與《天香》為主徑,劉心武在文革初結束時為了重構知識份子的社會身份而寫作的〈如意〉,通過小說中的園林意象,為我們導向了民國後一篇篇寄寓有這段園林史與心史的文本,並展現何為「悖論並存」的理想。三十年後,王安憶不忘「前世舊緣/園」,寫作《天香》,透過晚明天香園林的興建、繁華、到化為民居、園圃的故事,在啟蒙語境上塑造出菜蔬花影共搖曳的園圃與種作田間、務虛也務實的知識份子;並在與《紅樓夢》的互文/借景中,跨代連結出晚明至今文人的一脈心史,也為當代中國搆設出在雅與俗、道與器等相對元素之間,發展出相生相成、和諧並存、雙向同構、動態流轉狀態的悖論美學圖景。

◎關鍵詞:中國園林,知識份子,文革,悖論,〈如意〉,《天香》

★東海大學中文系副教授。

I-Hsien Chu╱The Flowers Pursued in the Residual Garden: Scenes and Imagery of the Chinese Intellectuals’ Quest for Identity and the Correlative Paradox

The Flowers Pursued in the Residual Garden
Scenes and Imagery of the Chinese Intellectuals’ Quest for Identity and the Correlative Paradox

I-Hsien Chu*

Abstract

For the ancient Chinese literati, the Chinese garden is an eremitic enclave or a representation of their willingness to become a recluse. The Chinese garden is also a space for literati to present their thoughts. However, the garden’s social role has changed along with the political development of China since the twentieth century, especially during the Cultural Revolution. Although the transformation of roles is hardly documented or studied, some garden themes or imagery-embedded Chinese literary works do depict the changes. From these works, it can be noticed that the Chinese intellectuals’ identity seems to parallel the fate of the Chinese garden. From the Cultural Revolution up to present-day, some authors/intellectuals also propose the ideal scenery of a “New China” through the aesthetics of “correlative paradox”, which is an important aspect of Chinese garden. Liu Xinwu’s fiction “Ru-Yi” (1980) and Wang Anyi’s Tian Xiang (2011) are two of the most representative works in this regard. “Ru-Yi” allegorizes the Chinese garden’s paradoxical role during the Cultural Revolution as a place that imprisons the literati and consoles their spirit with its natural scenery, aesthetic elements, and cultural memories. “Ru-Yi” also shows the pursuit of integration of the elite and working class, while the communists were prosecuting the literati class and praising the working class. Tian Xiang, with a story set in a garden of the Late Ming dynasty, follows “Ru-Yi”’s pursuit of “correlative paradox” between social classes and between aesthetic styles, but with a more contemporary concern. By presenting these “scenes” and the “imagery” of related literary works since 1911, this article has implications for both the history of the Chinese garden and the history of the Chinese intellectuals’ spiritual pursuits.

◎Keywords: Chinese garden, intellectual, Cultural Revolution, correlative paradox, “Ru Yi,” Tian Xiang

★Associate Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, Tunghai University.

張雅蘭╱毒鄉生存:論辛哈的《據說,我曾經是人類》中的毒物、暴力、與跨物質倫理

毒鄉生存
論辛哈的《據說,我曾經是人類》中的毒物、暴力、與跨物質倫理

張雅蘭*

摘要

文學的功用之一,對於哈特曼(Geoffrey Har tman)而言,是幫助健忘的人們記憶起大災難事件。辛哈(Indra Sinha, 1950-)的小說《據說,我曾經是人類》(Animal’s People, 2007)聚焦於名為「動物」的十九歲少男,以幽默詼諧、諷刺的口吻道出遭到化學工廠毒氣吞噬的印度小鎮人民對抗美國公司的環境正義議題,並以「動物」代表當地人民殘缺的身體、破爛的生活以及賤斥的第三世界。本文欲探討生存在毒鄉中的人民,其身體與所處環境是遭受怎樣的暴力對待?毒物如何從陳屍遍野的末世景觀演變成肆虐其日常生活的「毒物魅影」?希望藉由探討跨物質理論探討毒鄉的人民該如何自處與自保才能捍衛其基本生活權力,以在毒鄉中繼續堅強的生活。因此,本文主要以阿萊默(Stacy Alaimo)的「跨物質性」(trans-corporeality)對物質與環境關係的看法,依照論文主題分為下列三個子題:首先探討小說中所呈現的毒物論述,以及毒物籠罩下的「地方」、「自然」的各種變形以及與身體的關係。繼而借用尼克森(Rob Nixon)的詞彙,討論毒物肆虐再加上政治、經濟糾葛的後殖民生態語境下所產生的「緩慢暴力」的關係。末節觸及在毒物所引發的緩慢暴力下,毒鄉中的子民該如何自我定位與繼續生存。本文主張,他們所聚集的環境正義力量正是阿萊默所主張的跨物質倫理的展現。

◎關鍵詞:毒物論述,緩慢暴力,跨物質倫理

★華梵大學外國語文學系副教授兼系主任。

Yalan Chang╱Toxicity Survival: Toxicity, Violence, and Trans-Corporeal Ethics in Indra Sinha’s Animal’s People

Toxicity Survival
Toxicity, Violence, and Trans-Corporeal Ethics in Indra Sinha’s Animal’s People

Yalan Chang*

Abstract

One of the functions of the literature, according to Geoffrey Hartman, is to help us “read the trauma” through the power of words. In this essay, I will “read the trauma” through the words of Mumbai-born British writer Indra Sinha’s novel Animal’s People (2007). Based on the Bhopal chemical plant disaster in India in 1984, the novel focuses on the life of a nineteen-year-old young boy named Animal and tells a story about how the people devastated by corporation’s power defy the global north and work to achieve social and environmental justice for their city and region. The novel reveals that after a lapse of twenty years, the residents of Bhopal (pseudonym Khaufpur) are still fighting the long battle with the US company (pseudonym Kampani). I analyze how Sinha reveals basic concepts such as “nature,” “place,” “body,” “animal,” and “human,” to mean quite different things after an apocalyptic event has occurred. The release of invisible chemicals sets off a “slow violence,” to use postcolonial critic Rob Nixon’s now famous phrase. Based on Nixon’s influential work and that of material ecofeminist, Stacy Alaimo, who proposes a theory of “trans-corporeality,” or the notion that invisible, but material entities, such as chemicals are free to pass among and through bodies, I focus on three key elements for this study: toxicity, slow violence, and transcorporeal ethics.
The essay develops a discourse about toxicity, which explores how toxic places, toxic bodies and toxic life-styles are entangled in complicated ways. Then, I focus on the ways that Sinha dramatizes and politicizes the slow violence caused by the local government and the transnational chemical company in postcolonial ecologies. Finally, I ask how post-apocalyptical survivors, such as Animal, recognize a network of the political, economic, social, cultural, and ecological systems that position them outside harmful dualisms in western thought, such as human/animal, insiders/outsiders, profane/sacred. This will reveal the ways that Sinha is repositioning human-nonhuman actors in a more just and ethical relation to social political and ecological systems.

◎Keywords: toxic discourse, slow violence, trans-corporeal ethics

★Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Huafan University.

馮冬╱石頭開花:策蘭與詩歌的(不)可能性

石頭開花
策蘭與詩歌的(不)可能性

馮冬*

摘要

因奧斯維辛之後重要德語詩人保羅‧策蘭(Paul Celan, 1920-1970)作品對西方詩學內部產生的斷裂性衝擊,本文將採取一個較為迂迴的討論策略,不直接詮釋策蘭詩歌,而是致力於思考災難對詩歌的言說主體/我產生的變異作用,以及當代思想把握此種表象變異的可能途徑。本文第一部份通過考察斯坦納、斯叢狄等研究者對策蘭詩歌的置放與解讀,嘗試勾勒策蘭災難之詩對詩歌與思想這一古希臘以來的雙面體所給予的內在界限、劃痕,描述策蘭詩學內生於當代思想與話語的絕境態勢。第二部份討論災難之思與災難之詩的相互啟發,嘗試著去理解後奧斯維辛藝術與詩如何突破納粹對世界的過度表象,突破詞與對象一一對應的關係,走向先驗統覺破裂之後的表象自身的間距。策蘭對陌異者的期許,暗示災難之後的詩歌要求言說主體摒棄對災難的自然態度,從話語法則的變更入手進行詩化創造。

◎關鍵詞:策蘭,表象,災難,奧斯維辛,陌異性

★中國青島大學英語系講師。

Dong Feng╱The Flowering Stone: Celan and the (Im)possibility of Poetry

The Flowering Stone
Celan and the (Im)possibility of Poetry

Dong Feng*

Abstract

Considering the decisive interruption within Western poetics introduced by Paul Celan’s work, this essay takes a devious path in discussing Celan’s importance for contemporary thought. I avoid direct engagement with interpretation of any poem by Celan but try to think through the alterations of the speaking subject caused by the historical disaster of the Holocaust. Examining how critics like George Steiner and Peter Szondi situate Celan’s work, the first part of the essay delineates the inner limit/cut that Celan’s poetry of disaster has inflicted upon the double face of poetry-thought, which can be traced back to its Greek origin. The second part is focused on the thinking and poeticizing of disaster as a direct response to the Nazi’s excessive representation of the world. Celan’s poetics, I will argue, originates in the fissure of Kantian transcendental apperception, or the inner spacing of representations. Celan’s calling to “the strange” urges post-Auschwitz art and poetry to abandon any natural attitude towards disaster and to address the alterations of representational discourse in the form of poetic aporia.

◎Keywords: Celan, representation, disaster, Auschwitz, strangeness

★Instructor, Department of English, Qingdao University, China.

中外書評
Chung Wai Book Review

  • 張嘉如╱書寫生命:評《擬造新地球:當代臺灣自然書寫》
    Chia-ju Chang╱Writing Life: Reviewing Yulin LeeThe Fabulation of a New Earth: Contemporary Taiwanese Nature Writing

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