103年9月號

2019-08-01

第四十三卷 第三期 總446 中華民國103年9月
Vol.43 No.3 September 2014

《中外文學》九月號收錄了六篇精彩的論文及一篇學術書評。論文部分,廖咸浩以侯孝賢的電影《海上花》為對象,探討侯如何以之為借鏡讓觀眾反省台灣面對全球化挑戰時自我封閉的現實;黃宗儀取徑文化研究,借用親密性(intimacy)的概念,分析彭浩翔的電影《低俗喜劇》建構的香港本土意識與電影業北進的合拍片想像;汪俊彥透過解讀賴聲川「相聲劇」的風格與形式,思考賴對於「中國」作為民族國家的認識與挑戰;劉鳳芯及施敏惠以臺灣兒童文學創作者蔡宜容的小說為對象,討論童書如何直探兒童與成人的不可能關係;劉人鵬、宋玉雯及鄭聖勳借用葛林(Andre Green)所提出的「死媽媽」(the dead mother)一詞,轉化用來分析討論日本動漫及台灣小說文本所再現的、離開正典母職母愛狀態的「死媽媽」形象;莊坤良則從佛洛依德「詭異」(uncanny)的概念及德希達的「悅納異己」論述來解讀喬伊斯的經典短篇〈死者〉,分析它如何透過詭異的雙重性來檢視人世的溫情與虛情,並對殖民情境下近乎死亡的心理麻痺進行批判。學術書評部分,王惠珍則對崔末順的著作《海島與半島:日據臺韓文學比較》做出精彩評析。

中外文學九月號目錄
Contents

廖咸浩╱一場遊戲一場夢:《海上花》‧ 生命共同體‧ 超現代性

一場遊戲一場夢
《海上花》‧ 生命共同體‧ 超現代性*

廖咸浩*

摘要

侯孝賢改編自小說《海上花》(1894)的電影《海上花》(1998),與其過往的電影風格大異其趣,描寫的世界與台灣在時空上都極為遙遠。身在二十世紀末台灣的侯孝賢何以對十九世紀末描寫上海妓女的小說如此著迷?事實上,侯孝賢一絲不苟地重建《海上花》的小說世界,目的是以之為借鏡讓觀眾反省台灣的現實:因受到國族主義的誘惑,台灣有如戲中人一樣日漸陷溺於一種「自我催眠」的封閉性「愛的遊戲」。而且,一如十九世紀末上海租界的倌客關係所形成的假性「愛的社群」,電影中的「愛的社群」徒然只是一個「利益社群」,因為支撐其存在的不是「愛」而是「欲」。但與小說不同的是,電影以「欲」暗喻對新自由主義全球化的執迷,藉以點出新自由主義經由全球化的網絡強銷全球,已誘使包括台灣在內的不少地區自外於進步性的「批判性普世胸懷」,而汲汲於「帝國式普遍主義」。侯孝賢以此片提醒我們,欲避此陷阱唯有參考杜塞爾的建議,「再創造」被現代性排拒在外的傳統文化,以追求「超現代性」的可能。

◎關鍵詞:《海上花》,生命共同體,國族主義,遊戲,批判性普世胸懷,現代性,超現代性,全球化

★國立台灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Hsien-hao Sebastian Liao╱The End of the Game: Flowers of Shanghai, Organic Community, and Transmodernity

The End of the Game
Flowers of Shanghai, Organic Community, and Transmodernity

Hsien-hao Sebastian Liao*

Abstract

Adapted from Han Ziyun’s The Sing-song Girls of Shanghai (1894), Hou Hsiao-hsien’s Flowers of Shanghai (1998) seems to portray a world which is both temporally and spatially remote from Taiwan society. Why did Hou make this film, which apparently departs abruptly and considerably from his former realistic style and socially minded themes? By means of meticulously reconstructing the world of the novel, Hou in fact holds up a mirror for the audience of Taiwan to reflect on their own society which, increasingly seduced by nationalism, is gradually absorbed in a self-hypnotizing, close-circuited “game of love.” Much like the “community of love” created in the late 19th century Shanghai by the prostitutes and their customers, the “community of love” in the film is but a “community of interests” because what props up the community is not “love” but “lust.” Using “lust” as a metaphor for obsession with neoliberal globalization, the film critiques neoliberalism, which by hardselling its values, makes a swath of the world, not least Taiwan, blindly submit to “imperial cosmopolitanism” at the expense of “critical cosmopolitanism,” its progressive counterpart. By means of the film, Hou admonishes that it is only through “re-creating” traditional cultures, which are “exterior” to modernity, in the way Enrique Dussel suggests, that we can hope to arrive at “transmodernity” to overcome the pitfalls of neoliberal globalization.

◎Keywords: Flowers of Shanghai, organic community, nationalism, game, critical cosmopolitanism, modernity, transmodernity, globalization

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

黃宗儀╱「襟兄弟」與「自己友」: 從親密性談《低俗喜劇》的本土主義與中港合拍片想像

「襟兄弟」與「自己友」
從親密性談《低俗喜劇》的本土主義與中港合拍片想像

黃宗儀*

摘要

本文將在特區新浪潮電影的脈絡中,取徑文化研究,借用親密性(intimacy)的概念,分析彭浩翔導演之《低俗喜劇》影片建構的香港本土意識與電影業北進的想像,說明香港的主體性如何因應中港的文化產業關係而被(再)生產,以釐清文化文本在資本流動與區域合作的情境下對形塑本土身份的影響。影片以人獸交等低俗情節陳述電影業北進的故事,提供思考港片面對內地市場與轉型的可能性,以及觀察香港近年本土意識變化的視角。本文將說明《低俗喜劇》以性及粗口(髒話)操作的「低俗」,結合了兩種類型的親密經濟(intimate economy),在虛構與現實中形構的兩個北進敘事:一是影片中呈現的中港電影產業合作關係所開拓的合拍片模式,二是在現實中放棄內地、但香港票房大放異彩的本土市場。前者由男性情誼與地緣親密性所促成,後者的操作邏輯則為召喚在地主體,訴求文化親近性與族群意識,進而號召支持本土電影。而這兩種親密經濟的成功,皆有賴於將性別政治隱藏於本土主義中,並將保守的男性中心意識型態轉化吹捧為激進的族裔政治。

◎關鍵詞:香港喜劇,低俗,親密性,親密經濟,中港關係,北進,本土主義

★香港中文大學文化及宗教研究系副教授/臺大地理系副教授。

Tsung-yi Michelle Huang╱Male Bonding and Cronyism: The Intimate Economies of Vulgaria

Male Bonding and Cronyism
The Intimate Economies of Vulgaria

Tsung-yi Michelle Huang*

Abstract

This essay attempts to contribute to an understanding of the recent shifts in the Sino-Hong Kong relationship, towards one in which they are economically inseparable yet emotionally detached, through an examination of the political subtext of one particular Hong Kong film. Since the signing of the Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA), more and more joint-venture films have been telling stories about Hong Kong whilst simultaneously attempting to appeal to Mainland audiences, as well as towing the line in terms of China’s censorship policy. This essay focuses on the film Vulgaria (2012) by Hong Kong director Pang Ho-cheung, a film which emerged against this backdrop but claims to have forsaken the Mainland market to cater exclusively to local audiences. Drawing on Ara Wilson’s work on “intimate economies,” this essay analyzes the strategies of representation and promotion in an attempt to demonstrate how nativism, entangled with vulgarity, is (re)discoursed and mobilized to boost the local box office, whilst the film simultaneously constructs an image of the Mainlander as “an intimate other” in the geopolitics of the Pan Pearl River Delta to tell the story of a “successful” co-production between the Mainland and Hong Kong. By employing multiple effects of intimacy (linguistic, geopolitical and cultural) and capitalizing on the power of rising nativism in Hong Kong, the film negotiates the tension between taking advantage of the Mainland economic benefits and asserting Hong Kong’s subjectivity.

◎Keywords: Hong Kong comedy, vulgarity, intimacy, intimate economy, Sino-Hong Kong relationship, northbound, nativism

★Associate Professor, Department of Cultural and Religious Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong / Associate Professor, Department of Geography, National Taiwan University.

汪俊彥╱翻譯「中國」:賴聲川的相聲劇

翻譯「中國」
賴聲川的相聲劇

汪俊彥*

摘要

本文透過解讀賴聲川「相聲劇」的風格與形式,思考賴聲川對於「中國」作為民族國家的認識與挑戰。本文首先以邱貴芬思考戰後臺灣文學生產的「翻譯驅動力」觀點,將賴聲川脈絡化在此框架中,並以「傳統」、「鄉土」這兩個概念來分析以中國與臺灣作為支撐民族國家的文化想像。然後再透過酒井直樹的翻譯理論,分析賴聲川「相聲劇」的美學形式與內容。最後試圖回答,在鄉土文學論戰之後的賴聲川,如何以不連續的傳統與歷史,挑戰了民族國家的主體想像?這個挑戰又如何在臺灣的歷史情境中,提示並回答作為問題的「中國」?

◎關鍵詞:賴聲川,相聲劇,鄉土,傳統,文化翻譯

★ 國立中興大學臺灣文學與跨國文化研究所助理教授。

Chun-yen Wang╱Translating China: Identity Politics in Stan Lai's Xiangsheng Plays

Translating China
Identity Politics in Stan Lai’s Xiangsheng Plays

Chun-yen Wang*

Abstract

The article looks into the way in which Stan Lai challenges the concept “China” as the nation-state by examining the style of his xiangsheng plays. In an attempt to shed light on Chiu Kuei-fen’s notion of the “translation drive,” the article starts with an investigation of the cultural production of so-called “tradition” and “native soil” (xiang-tu), which has supported the cultural imagination of the nation-state in post-war Taiwan. It goes on to analyze Lai’s xiangsheng plays in relation to these two concepts. Finally, inspired by Naoki Sakai’s notion of translation, it argues that the “China” in Lai’s xiangshengplays presents an alternative to the nation-state by their articulation of the discontinuity of history and the deconstruction of the national subject.

◎Keywords: Stan Lai, the xiangsheng play, native soil, tradition, cultural translation

★Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Literature and Transnational Cultural Studies, National Chung Hsing University.

劉鳳芯、施敏惠╱兒童文學不能說的祕密:論蔡宜容兒童小說中的情與愛

兒童文學不能說的祕密
論蔡宜容兒童小說中的情與愛

劉鳳芯*、施敏惠**

摘要

英國精神分析暨文化研究學者蘿絲(Jacqueline Rose)在其專書《彼得潘個案研究:論兒童文學的不可能》(The Case of Peter Pan; or, The Impossibility of Children’s Fiction)中主張「成人與兒童之間存在不可能純真的關係」;蘿絲所謂不可能純真的關係,指的並非成人對兒童實際的情慾作為,而是成人對兒童的慾望。蘿絲認為「兒童文學顯然就在講這種關係,卻總是顧左右而言他,不願直指核心」。本論文同意蘿絲的觀點,但也認為在當代,童年的真相與成人情慾或許不必然是童書寫作的禁忌。越來越多童書直探兒童與成人的不可能關係,而臺灣兒文創作者蔡宜容的小說便是一例:蔡宜容作品《中美五街,今天20 號》(2010)、《癡人》(2011)主題皆圍繞成人如何戀物兒童、戀棧童年。本論文首先將爬梳和釐清蘿絲的論點,接著分析蔡宜容的小說如何刻畫成人對兒童的愛戀以及與兒童之間的情慾流動,並討論蔡宜容如何與兒童文學書寫傳統對話、協商,使其作一方面另闢書/殊途,另一方面卻仍保有童書況味。

◎關鍵詞:蔡宜容,兒童文學,臺灣兒童文學,童年研究,賈桂琳‧ 蘿絲

★國立中興大學外國語文學系副教授、★★彰化縣湖北國小三年級教師。

Fiona Feng-Hsin Liu and Min-Hui Shih╱The Unspeakable Love and Desire for and of Children: A Reading of Yi-Rung Tsai's Novels for Children

The Unspeakable Love and Desire for and of Children
A Reading of Yi-Rung Tsai’s Novels for Children

Fiona Feng-Hsin Liu* and Min-Hui Shih**

Abstract

Jacqueline Rose in The Case of Peter Pan; or, The Impossibility of Children’s Fiction (1984) contends that adults’ relations with children are never innocent. By making such a controversial statement, Rose does not suggest the existence of any actual sexual deeds, but emphasizes how children become adults’ objects of desire. Rose further argues that children’s literature apparently is about these relations of desire; nevertheless, by insisting on the innocence of childhood, it always shies away from acknowledging the truth. This essay agrees with Rose’s views; however, it also argues that adults’ desire for children may no longer be a taboo issue. More and more children’s books nowadays openly tackle this issue; for example, the novels written by Yi-Rung Tsai, a contemporary children’s books writer in Taiwan, reflect exactly this trend. Tsai’s recent works, The Obsessed (2010) and It Is the 20th on Zhongmei 5th Street (2011) both deal with adults’ fetishization of children. Focusing on these two novels, the essay attempts to enact a dialogue between Tsai’s novels and Rose’s view on childhood. Furthermore, it analyzes how Tsai negotiates with children’s literature conventions to remain within the familiar parameters of children’s literature while manages to stake out a distinctive style of her own.

 

◎Keywords: Yi-Jung Tsai, children’s literature, children’s literature in Taiwan, childhood studies, Jacqueline Rose

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chung Hsin University. ★★Year 3 Class Teacher, Hu Pei Elementary School, Changhua.

劉人鵬、宋玉雯、鄭聖勳╱心不在焉的母親與家庭親密關係想像:動漫與文學作品中的「死媽媽」

心不在焉的母親與家庭親密關係想像
動漫與文學作品中的「死媽媽」

劉人鵬*、宋玉雯**、鄭聖勳***

摘要

本文借用葛林(André Green, 1927- )所提出的結構性概念「死媽媽」(the dead mother)一詞,轉化用來分析討論日本動漫及台灣小說文本所再現的、離開正典母職母愛狀態的「死媽媽」形象。本文指出:在許多通俗文化動漫文本以及學院或文學愛好者閱讀的小說作品中,當「死媽媽」狀態的描述出現時,不論創作或閱讀,文化想像不必然以「國家未來主人翁」為中心,不盡然是現代「保護兒童」基調單面向地對於出軌失序、情感缺席或非正典母親之厭惡、驚嚇與擔憂,相反的,可能有一種與「死媽媽」之間的情感依附,對於「死媽媽」愛恨交纏的依戀,才是眾多「死媽媽」文本的生產動力所在。

◎關鍵詞:死媽媽,動漫,憂鬱,情感政治,負面情感

★國立清華大學中文系教授。★★國立清華大學中文系博士候選人。★★★重慶大學人文社會學科高等研究院助理教授。

Jen-peng Liu, Yu-Wen Sung, and Sheng-Xun Zheng╱Absent-Minded Mothers and the Politics of Intimacy: The Cultural Representations of "The Dead Mother" in Manga/Anime and Fiction

Absent-Minded Mothers and the Politics of Intimacy
The Cultural Representations of “The Dead Mother” in Manga/Anime and Fiction

Jen-peng Liu*, Yu-Wen Sung**, and Sheng-Xun Zheng***

Abstract

Inspired by French psychoanalyst André Green’s structural concept “the dead mother,” this paper transforms and expands its meaning literally and metaphorically to refer to the physical and psychical dead mother, including the melancholic mother, or any non-normative mothers with bad feelings or negative cultural implications. We analyze the complicated politics of affects in such cultural products as Japanese manga/anime (originated in Japan but widely read and consumed in Taiwan) and Taiwanese novels from the 1950s to the present. We suggest that an attachment to “the dead mother” is a productive dynamic for the various representations of the dead mother and their social, affective implications. In this attachment, the politics of everyday affects goes against the grain of the normative discipline or fantasy of a “good” family. Through the melancholic eyes of “the dead mother,” we can then reread those texts and trace queer feelings internal to the symbolic and explore the melancholic politics of intimacy.

 

◎Keywords: the dead mother, manga/anime, melancholia, politics of affect, negative emotions

★Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Tsing Hua University.★★Doctoral Candidate, Department of Chinese Literature, National Tsing Hua University. ★★★Assistant Professor, Institute for Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, Chongqing University.

莊坤良╱〈死者〉:喬伊斯的生死學

〈死者〉
喬伊斯的生死學

莊坤良*

摘要

喬伊斯《都柏林人》的最後一篇〈死者〉說的是一個年度的聖誕節派對及旅店裡一段夫妻告白的故事,但卻引出一段喬伊斯對生與死的辯證,別有啟示。本文將從佛洛依德「詭異」(uncanny)的概念來解讀喬伊斯的兩手策略,分析它如何一面建構、一面顛覆愛爾蘭的好客傳統,如何透過詭異的雙重性來檢視人世的溫情與虛情,並對殖民情境下近乎死亡的心理麻痺進行批判。同時也將挪用喬伊斯著名的「書寫如鏡子」論述,說明他如何利用光影變化與人物對照的描繪,來詮釋自我與異己的互相建構關係,來解構主角賈伯瑞的虛榮與自戀,並以音樂的力量來催化他在心境上的轉變與精神上的解放,因而開啟他的「西行」悟道之旅。最後本文將以悅納異己所彰顯的包容力來討論真愛的救贖力量。從生到死,從死到生,〈死者〉以迂迴的方式再現了喬伊斯的生死情懷。

◎關鍵詞:《都柏林人》,詭異,悅納異己,頓悟,愛爾蘭

★逢甲大學外國語文學系教授。

Kun-liang Chuang╱"The Dead:" A Study of Life and Death in Joyce's Writing

“The Dead”
A Study of Life and Death in Joyce’s Writing

Kun-liang Chuang*

Abstract

Though seemingly just a simple story, “The Dead” that ends James Joyce’s Dubliners inspires for it reveals a dialectical relationship between life and death at an annual Christmas party. By referring to Freud’s idea of the “uncanny,” this paper on the one hand aims to decode Joyce’s dual strategy in writing and analyze how he constructs and deconstructs at the same time the Irish hospitality, how he reviews the sentiments and insincerity of people via the doubleness of the uncanny, and how he criticizes the psychic paralysis of the Irish people under the British colonial rule as living death. On the other hand, Joyce’s idea of “writing as mirroring” will be appropriated to illustrate how light and shadow are deployed to debunk Gabriel’s vanity and narcissism and to explicate the mutually constituted self and other, and how Gabriel’s psychological transformation and liberation are triggered by the power of music during his journey to “the west.” To conclude, the unconditional acceptance of the other out of the Derridean spirit of hospitality highlights the redemption of love in the struggle of life and death as represented in Joyce’s oblique yet revealing authorship of the story.

◎Keywords: Dubliners, uncanny, hospitality, epiphany, Ireland

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Feng Chia University.

議題與討論
Polemics and Discussions

  • 王惠珍╱從海島回望半島:評崔末順《海島與半島:日據臺韓文學比較》
    Hui-chen Wang╱Looking back at the Peninsula from the Island: A Review of Mal-Soon Choi’s Island and Peninsula: A Comparative Study of Taiwanese and Korean Literatures in the Japanese Colonial Period

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