103年6月號「專輯:薩德二00」

2019-08-01

第四十三卷 第二期 總445 中華民國103年6月
Vol.43 No.2 June 2014

《中外文學》六月號推出「薩德二○○」專輯,收有論文三篇,在薩德侯爵(Marquis de Sade)逝世兩百周年之際,重新思考如何看待這位具爭議性的作家與思想家。沈志中以拉岡(Jacques Lacan)的閱讀角度切入,重新檢視薩德與康德(Immanuel Kant)的關係,以及薩德的「二度死亡」與佛洛依德(Sigmund Freud)的「死亡欲力」玄想;楊凱麟探索薩德透過書寫在語言平面上從事何種思想事業,及其僅能由實踐證成的「惡的實踐理性」;賴軍維試圖從薩德對數字與細節的執迷出發,剖析薩德「反象徵主義」之情色書寫與文學風格。本期除了專輯論文,也刊登了三篇一般論文,以及一篇學術書評。「一般論文」部分,賴俊雄挪用德勒茲/瓜達希(Gilles Deleuze / Felix Guattari)與列維納斯(Emmanuel Levinas)的理論,探析二十一世紀離散生命的差異政治、共群倫理,以及兩者「協商空間」內交織生成的欲望結構;朱惠足以朱點人的〈脫穎〉、真杉靜枝的〈南方的語言〉、庄司總一的《陳夫人》,以及川崎傳二的〈十二月九日〉為對象,探討小說中的台灣漢人與日本人異族通婚書寫如何呈現日本帝國下國族與性別的邊界協商;林克明則以侯孝賢的《珈琲時光》和德尼(Claire Denis)的《巴黎日和》這兩部對小津安二郎的致敬之作為例,討論致敬電影的意義。學術書評部分,蘇子中則對鍾明德的著作《藝乘三部曲:覺性如何圓滿?》做出精彩評析。

中外文學六月號目錄
Contents

專輯:薩德二00
Special Issue: Sade 200

賴俊雄╱當代離散:差異政治與共群倫理

當代離散
差異政治與共群倫理

賴俊雄*

摘要

在全球化多元與流動文化的情境下,「離散」一詞更顯歧義與爭議──特別是當我們將其置放於當代生命「差異政治」與「共群倫理」的交織系譜論述時。有別於傳統離散,當代離散有其新型態的結構複雜性、高度流動性與內部矛盾性,也正在世界各地族裔間生成「來臨人民」(the coming people)的新形態欲望機器部署與連接。緣此,若當代離散主體意欲形塑並佔有此種「來臨」的特定文化範疇與發言位置,可經由一種「生成他者」的(becoming-Other)政治與倫理「協商」來達成。此種「政治-倫理」的協商結構,必須有能力面對與處理當代離散底蘊不斷繁衍生長的矛盾拉扯欲望:一方面當離散主體恐懼被約化納編於多樣整體時,會渴望與整體保持一定程度的批判與距離;另一方面在此多樣分離中,卻又渴望與「他者」維繫一定程度的親密與友善關係。本文將借用德勒茲/瓜達希與列維納斯的洞見,探討二十一世紀離散生命的差異政治、共群倫理以及兩者「協商空間」內不斷交織生產的欲望結構與具體現象。

◎關鍵詞:離散,德勒茲,瓜達希,列維納斯,政治,倫理

★國立成功大學外國語文學系教授。

Chung-Hsiung Lai╱Contemporary Diaspora: Difference Politics and Community Ethics

Contemporary Diaspora
Difference Politics and Community Ethics

Chung-Hsiung Lai*

Abstract

One controversial concept that contemporary debates on difference politics
and community ethics have spotlighted and thereby influenced contemporary cultural criticism is the re-vision of diaspora. Unlike traditional diaspora, contemporary diaspora tends to be structured by complex configurations, high mobility, and internal contradictions. It has contributed greatly to the ongoing desiring machine disposition of “the coming people” due to its structural invention and promises of “becoming-Other.” Yet, if diasporic subjectivity is structured to articulate a normative position to come, it should be “negotiated” between politics and ethics. Such an ethico-political desiring structure must be able to cope with contemporary paradoxical double desires of the diasporic subject per se—the fear of totality being transformed into a desire for separation as the infinite rupture of totality while, at the same time, separation being a desire for the very possibility of intimate relationships with the Other. By using Deleuze and Guattari’s political theory and Levinas’s ethical theory, this paper explores the “negotiated space” of contemporary diasporic double desires as well as its structure and examples in terms of difference politics and communal ethics in the 21th century.

◎Keywords: diaspora, Deleuze, Guattari, Levinas, politics, ethics

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Cheng Kung University.

朱惠足╱日本帝國下國族與性別的邊界協商:日治時期小說中的台日通婚書寫

日本帝國下國族與性別的邊界協商
日治時期小說中的台日通婚書寫

朱惠足*

摘要

本文以台灣作家朱點人的漢文小說〈脫穎〉(1936)、日本作家真杉靜枝的〈南方的語言〉(1941)、庄司總一的《陳夫人》(1940/1942)、川崎傳二的〈十二月九日〉(1944)等日文小說為對象,探討小說中的台灣漢人與日本人異族通婚書寫如何呈現日本帝國下國族與性別的邊界協商。首先討論不同民族與性別身份作者的台日異族通婚書寫,如何回應各時期日本民族國家與帝國的時代需求,藉由血緣、語言、情感、精神等差異的收編與排除,重新劃定帝國內部的國族與性別邊界。藉此,本文分析各個作者如何透過台日通婚的政治寓言,協商現代民族國家統合與帝國多民族組成之間的矛盾,以建構自我、民族國家與帝國等認同。本文並進而關注在此過程中,被殖民者、女性、國內地方差異、大東亞架構下的民族差異等帝國與國族的內在異質性,如何突顯日本「純正」帝國主體的建構性與內在矛盾。

◎關鍵詞:日台共婚,帝國,性,國族認同,性別認同

★國立中興大學臺灣文學與跨國文化研究所副教授。

Huei-Chu Chu╱Negotiating National and Gender Borders under the Japanese Empire: Literary Representations of the Inter-Ethnic Marriages between Japanese and Taiwanese in the Colonial Period

Negotiating National and Gender Borders under the Japanese Empire
Literary Representations of the Inter-Ethnic Marriages between Japanese and Taiwanese in the Colonial Period

Huei-Chu Chu*

Abstract

This article deals with the literary representations of inter-ethnic marriages between Japanese and Han Chinese in colonial Taiwan by focusing on Taiwanese author Zu Dien-ren’s Chinese short story “Standing Out in a Crowd” (1936), Japanese female writer Masugi Shizue’s “The Southern Tongue” (1941), and Japanese male writers Shoji Soichi’s Madame Chin (1944) and Kawasaki Denji’s “December 9th” (1944). It explores how these works reveal the complex process through which writers of different ethnicities and genders negotiate national and gender borders under the Japanese Empire. The analysis is concerned with how national and gender borders are redrawn, in correspondence with the different imperatives of the Japanese Empire, through various ways of inclusion and exclusion of interior ethnic others as decided by ethnic blood line, language, etc.; as well as how these processes contribute to the Japanese constructions of self, national and imperial identities by negotiating the conflicts between the national discourse of single ethnicity and the polyethnic composition of the empire. Eventually, it is argued that the heterogeneities of women, domestic diversities of the local, and ethnic differences (of the colonized) in Greater East Asia that are represented in the texts unintentionally reveal the constructedness and self-contradictions of the “pure” Japanese imperial subject.

◎Keywords: inter-ethnic marriages between Japanese and Taiwanese, empire, sex, national identity, gender identity

★ Associate Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Literature and Transnational Cultural Studies, National Chung Hsing University.

林克明╱向大師致敬:在《珈琲時光》和《巴黎日和》中尋找「致敬電影」的意義

向大師致敬
在《珈琲時光》和《巴黎日和》中尋找「致敬電影」的意義

林克明*

摘要

在電影史上,「向大師致敬」的電影比比皆是,然而對於此一類型的研究並不多見,目前僅見賴奇和庫茲羅維兩人的論文。然而兩者的研究僅著重於電影的分類方式,缺乏對於致敬意義的探討,因此無法掌握「致敬電影」如何才能確實呈現導演的致敬之意這個問題。而德希達對於他自己如何向列維納斯致敬的思考,則提供解決這個問題的可行路徑。德希達指出,要避免與他所真正想對列維納斯所致敬的列維納斯的倫理結構相衝突,就無法依循傳統的敬意表達方式,而必須去嘗試召喚產生敬意時的原初經驗。唯有如此,才能有效達到真正的致敬。這個論點成為本文理解致敬電影的起點。此外,本文亦嘗試對於侯孝賢的《珈琲時光》和德尼的《巴黎日和》這兩部對小津安二郎的致敬之作進行討論。這兩部致敬電影都不適用於賴奇和庫茲羅維對致敬電影的認定。因此,藉由從德希達出發的對致敬電影的理解,本文試圖掌握這兩部電影所具有的致敬意涵。

◎關鍵詞:致敬電影,德希達,列維納斯,小津安二郎,侯孝賢,德尼

★ 國立聯合大學台灣語文與傳播學系助理教授。

Ke-Ming Lin╱Homage to the Master: Homage Film, Hou Hsiao-Hsien’s Café Lumière , and Claire Denis’s 35 Shots of Rum

Homage to the Master
Homage Film, Hou Hsiao-Hsien’s Café Lumière , and Claire Denis’s 35 Shots of Rum

Ke-Ming Lin*

Abstract

What is a homage film? Although there are many films which pay homage to a master in the history of cinema, very few researchers focus on this specific genre. Thomas Leitch and Anton Karl Kozlovic are two pioneers in this new field of genre analysis, but they are interested only in the classification of homage film and thus ignore the genre’s main question, that is, how a film expresses the director’s intention to pay homage. To answer the question, this paper borrows Derrida’s idea of homage. In his discussion of how to pay homage to Levinas, Derrida offers a new way to conceptualize the issue: a homage text proposes to recall the primordial experience in which the Other caused one’s respect. The paper discusses in detail two films that pay homage to Yasujirō Ozu—Hou Hsiao-Hsien’s Café Lumière and Claire Denis’s 35 Shots of Rum—in order to examine and explore the value of this new approach, that is, a Derridian understanding of homage film.

◎Keywords: homage film, Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas, Yasujirō Ozu, Hou Hsiao-Hsien, Claire Denis

★Assistant Professor, Department of Taiwan Language and Communication, National United University.

弁言
Introduction

  • 賴軍維(專輯主編)╱弁言
    Jun-Wei Lai, Guest Editor╱Introduction

沈志中╱薩德與精神分析

薩德與精神分析

沈志中*

摘要

薩德(Marquis de Sade)的著作影響法國文壇至深,他對變態行為的描述無疑也是佛洛依德(Sigmund Freud)的先驅。然而,薩德的變態幻想並不止於想像,而是背後有著某種堅定的意志所支持。而拉岡(Jacques Lacan)對薩德的閱讀則試圖找出這個晦澀力量背後的「理性」根據。在拉岡眼中,薩德的《寢室裡的哲學》(La philosophie dans le boudoir)不僅符合康德(Immanuel Kant)《實踐理性批判》(Kritik der praktischen Vernunft)的理性精神,甚至補充並道出了其中的真理,因而彰顯出其顛覆性的精華。於是,在精神分析所開啟的慾望向度中,拉岡讓薩德和康德一起走在佛洛依德的前面,讓薩德繼承了代表傳統倫理學之轉捩點的康德,繼而開啟了精神分析的倫理學顛覆。而在拉岡之前,薩德這個人的經驗以及其著作的重要性從來沒有以其倫理學面貌被發掘。本文隨著拉岡的閱讀,一一檢視薩德與康德彼此依存的一體性、道德律法與「絕爽」(jouissance)的關係,以及薩德的「二度死亡」(seconde mort)與佛洛依德的「死亡欲力」玄想。

◎關鍵詞:薩德,康德,佛洛依德,拉岡,倫理學,絕爽,死亡欲力

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系副教授。

Chih-chung Shen╱Sade and Psychoanalysis

Sade and Psychoanalysis

Chih-chung Shen*

Abstract

In the literary world of France, the impact of Marquis de Sade’s works has long held sway. Sade is undeniably the pioneer in the writings on perverse behavior, and only much later did Sigmund Freud appear. Sade’s perverse fantasy is something beyond imaginary: an unfaltering willpower seems to stand behind the fantasy. Jacques Lacan’s reading of Sade, however, is an attempt to probe for the “rational” base behind such obscure force. For Lacan, Sade’s La philosophie dans le boudoir is itself a rational assertion written in response to Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason. Sade goes even further to supplement and illustrate the truth of rationality, thus making his book completely and innovatively subversive. Thus, in his psychoanalytic study of “desire,” Lacan puts Sade and Kant together instead of Freud. His assigning Sade as the successor of Kant as well as the critical turning point of traditional ethics has led psychoanalysis, as a result, on the road to a subversion of ethics. Before Lacan, the experiences and works of Sade were never weighed and considered in an ethical light. This paper traces Lacan’s reading of Sade together with Kant by inspecting their symbiotic relationship, the connection between moral principles and jouissance, and finally the mystic analogy between Sade’s “second death” and Freud’s “death drive.”

 

◎Keywords: Sade, Kant, Freud, Lacan, ethics, jouissance, death drive

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

楊凱麟╱薩德,200 年後:惡的實踐理性批判

薩德,200 年後
惡的實踐理性批判

楊凱麟*

摘要

薩德書寫的不可化約核心並不是色情而是觀念,不是欲望而是真理,不是故事而是實踐,本文討論薩德如何由經驗描敘到先驗觀念,由色情到色情學,或由虛構到真理。主要的問題是:薩德透過書寫在語言平面上所從事的思想事業究竟是什麼?薩德的作品中總是有一個必須而且僅能由實踐證成的「惡的實踐理性」,強勢的界限經驗與遽烈的辯證翻轉形構了此實踐的最主要特徵。薩德書寫的賭注並不是浪蕩,不管其小說如何充滿著淫穢、犯罪或瀆神,其最終要迫顯的仍是作為觀念的惡。正是在此有書寫的一切困難,以及由此困難所激生的各種語言的雄辯與思想的拗折。他的每一個故事都述說著某一變態者的特異存有,但這些存有在彰顯其差異的同時也都共鳴著「單一與相同意義」,這便是薩德作品裡的「惡的單義性」。

◎關鍵詞:薩德,界限,惡,單義性,越界,當代法國哲學

★國立台北藝術大學藝術跨域研究所教授。

Kailin Yang╱Sade, 200 Years After: Critique of the Practical Reason of Evil

Sade, 200 Years After
Critique of the Practical Reason of Evil

Kailin Yang*

Abstract

The irreducible goal of Sade’s work does not concern erotism but the Idea, not desire but truth, not history but practice. This paper focuses on the passage from the empirical description to the transcendental Idea, from pornography to “pornology,” or from fiction to truth. The central problem is: what is the enterprise of thought that Sade attempts to build through his writings? In Sade, the “practical reason of evil” is characterized by the experience of limit and the dialectical transformation. The stake of his writings, however, do not pertain to debauchery, crimes, profanation and so forth; the most essential for Sade is the idea of evil—the idea from which all difficulties are derived, and through which the extraordinary movements of Sade’s philosophy emerge. Sade’s tales reveal the singular existence of the pervert, but each resonates with the “one and only sense” while representing its own differences, thus suggesting the univocity of evil in his work.

 

◎Keywords: Marquis de Sade, limit, evil, univocity, transgression, French contemporary philosophy

★Professor, Graduate Institute of Trans-disciplinary Arts, Taipei National University of the Arts.

賴軍維╱薩德侯爵之反象徵主義:數字與細節之執迷

薩德侯爵之反象徵主義
數字與細節之執迷

賴軍維*

摘要

本論文之主旨在於探討薩德「反象徵主義」(anti-symbolisme)之情色書寫與文學風格。巴特(Roland Barthes)曾說過薩德是個情色圖像的偉大修辭學家,原因是薩德創造了一種在文學領域中極為少見的話語(discours)典範,也就是一種完全「透明」的書寫:沒有任何隱喻(métaphore)或換喻(métonyme)。因此巴特認為薩德的情色書寫是一種「反象徵主義」:反對任何曖昧不清的話語;而薩德之所以是個偉大的作家,是因為他創造了一種新的情色語言。事實上,薩德反對隱喻式的書寫與「無所不談」(tout dire)的哲學理念息息相關。薩德透過對「數字」和「細節」的仔細描述,對人類的情慾進行了窮盡分析(exhaustion)。薩德「反象徵主義」的情色書寫解放了情慾,也解放了古典話語,讓情色話語可以在既有的文字範圍外去命名「不可命名」之物,去窮盡所有「可能」的極限。因此,為了釐清薩德反象徵主義之本質,本文預計先從他對數字的執迷(obssession)和無所不談的細節書寫出發,然後探討薩德以「反象徵主義」為本的情色話語與文學風格。

◎關鍵詞:數字,細節,象徵,情色,踰越

★國立宜蘭大學外國語文學系副教授。

Jun-Wei Lai╱Marquis de Sade’s Anti-Symbolism: The Obsession with Numbers and Details

Marquis de Sade’s Anti-Symbolism
The Obsession with Numbers and Details

Jun-Wei Lai*

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to study the anti-symbolism of Marquis de Sade’s erotic writings and literary style. Roland Barthes remarks that Sade is a great rhetorician in erotic imagery because he creates an incredibly rare discursive paradigm, namely a type of transparent writing that does not contain metaphors and metonyms and which he sees as a form of anti-symbolism. In fact, Sade’s refusal of a symbolic style of writing is relevant to his philosophical idea of “saying everything.” Manifest in thick description, scrupulous attentions to numbers and details, Sade’s anti-symbolic writing has allowed sexuality-based discourse to name objects that used to be unnamable within the conventional linguistic limits and to name them exhaustively to all possible limitations. This study will thus focus first on Sade’s “saying everything” obsessions with numbers and details, before moving on to a more general characterization of the anti-symbolism of his writings.

◎Keywords: number, detail, symbolism, eroticism, transgression

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Ilan University.

議題與討論
Polemics and Discussions

  • 蘇子中╱「藝乘」書評三部曲
    Tzu-Chung Su╱A Tripartite Review of Mingder Chung’s A Trilogy of Art as Vehicle: How Can Total Awarenes Be Achieved?

向上滑動