103年3月號「專輯:我們的歐美」

2019-08-01

第四十三卷 第ㄧ期 總444 中華民國103年3月
Vol.43 No.1 March 2014

《中外文學》三月號推出「我們的歐美」專輯,收錄了五篇精彩的論文與四篇圓桌論壇短文。「專輯論文」部分,蕭立君探討理論知識在外文建制中的位置及其實踐的議題;李秀娟以亞美研究在台灣的發展為切入點,反思台灣外文學門媒介西方文化思潮的策略;卓玉芳著眼於亞美邊緣聯結政治在台灣的願景與挑戰,特別是以國族歷史為基礎的區域聯結想像;王智明以顏元叔的著作為中心,探究西方或歐美作為知識客體在冷戰時期台灣的意義,以及顏元叔的文學批評對當今的外文(歐美)研究產生何種影響;康利(Christopher L. Connery)則思考1960年代以降,西方人文與社會科學領域的知識生產政治與位置之相關議題。「圓桌論壇」部分,則由Alexa Huang、張淑麗、馮品佳、單德興等四位學者撰文,各自從不同角度出發,探討「歐美」與「我們」之相關論題。在學術書評部分,蕭立君則對史書美的著作《視覺與認同:跨太平洋華語語系表述‧呈現》做出精彩評析。

中外文學三月號目錄
Contents

弁言
Introduction

  • 王智明(專輯主編)╱弁言
    Chih-ming Wang, Guest Editor╱Introduction

蕭立君╱批評的常識/常識的批評:理論、常識與改革

批評的常識/常識的批評
理論、常識與改革

蕭立君*

摘要

     本文將以回應晚近外文學者對外文研究領域之知識生產與學門建制的反思為切入點,來探討理論知識在外文建制中的位置及其實踐的議題。藉由這些最新關於外文學門建制歷史的爬梳及對外文研究對象的提問,筆者試圖將當代不限定對象的「理論」放在「外文研究」如何回應一波波西方思潮的歷史脈絡下,以「改革」這個議題連結不同時間點的反思:「理論」在成為合法的研究對象之後,亦即理論知識在外文學術建制中佔有一席之地後,是否已失去其前瞻性及現實的議題性?「理論」在台灣是否仍具有引介歐美思潮之餘的「批判與改造自身」之歷史意識?「理論」究竟是個清楚的標籤、屬性、和學院位置,還是一個「依稀模糊的方向與理想」?而除了思索「何謂理論」的問題外,我們是否也需面對「為何理論」的提問?本文也將檢視在改革浪潮中以「進步」力量自許的「理論」與「常識」之間的關係,探討理論介入、回應現狀常識、催生新常識的可能。透過這些議題的探討,本文最終嘗試提出以下對理論的看法(或說是願景):首先,理論曾經是、也應該是一種改革論述。再者,理論不應僅僅是一個外文研究的對象(雖然它當然是眾多研究對象之一);理論既逸出既定之研究對象之外,故可以是促使新研究對象、領域和典範冒現之思維與驅力。理論的生產與實踐繫於本地知識主體折衝各方思想衝擊,跨越不同文化與認知型態間的翻譯和比較,其批判與回應之對象同時是本土也是外來。

◎關鍵詞:理論,改革論述,常識,葛蘭西,問題化,建制化

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系副教授。

Li-Chun Hsiao╱Theoretical Thinking on the Fault Lines of Theory, Commonsense, and Reform

Theoretical Thinking on the Fault Lines of Theory, Commonsense, and Reform

Li-Chun Hsiao*

Abstract

Starting from critical responses to both the series of debates on the “death of theory” in Western academia and the latest efforts in Taiwan to rethink the conditions of local (re)production of knowledge, this essay reflects on the current status of “theory” in Taiwan by reexamining the historical context in which “theory” was first introduced, disseminated, and appropriated by local intelligentsia in the early years of post-martial law Taiwan. The relentlessly selfproblematizing penchant in Western theory and the urgent call for reform in the greater socio-political milieu converged to give rise to the “theory boom” in Taiwan in the 1990s, thereby rendering the dominant strain of theoretical thought a “reformist discourse.” It is on account of theory’s potential for being a reformist discourse within and outside the academy that we should rethink the relationship between theory and its unlikely ally, common sense. Taking my cue from Gramsci’s somewhat paradoxical conception of the continuum between common sense and theory, I argue that theory emerges from the inherently porous, inconsistent, even contradictory field of common sense. Rather than suturing the latter’s constitutive fissures, theory should perform the difficult task of “witnessing” the history of the present—the often forgotten meaning of theoria—on their intersecting fault lines.

◎Keywords: theory, reformist discourse, commonsense, Antonio Gramsci, problematization, institutionalization

★Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

李秀娟╱「歐美」與「我們」之間:從亞美研究看美-亞的距離與傳會

「歐美」與「我們」之間
從亞美研究看美-亞的距離與傳會

李秀娟*

摘要

本文以亞美研究在台灣的發展為例,思考台灣外文學門(暫稱「我們」)媒介西方文化思潮(暫稱「歐美」)的策略。論文從台灣學生與學者對亞美的認同(或誤認)談起,主張「亞美」雖然在名號上讓「亞」、「美」連體,移民與混血的過程在物質與身體歷史上讓「亞」、「美」難分彼此,亞美故事其實不斷延展與複雜化「亞」、「美」的距離和想像,亞美論述的發展,也從強調美-亞連繫,轉而鋪陳「亞」與「美」之內與之間的離心張力與「反同」(anti-sameness)潛力。為了釐清「距離」與「反同」在論述建構上的意義,筆者挪用了精神分析「同」中延「異」的立論方法,特別是「傳會」(transference)在談話治療裡讓自我與他者互相傾聽創傷,開展彼此感知時空的概念,探索亞美研究在「美」、「亞」之間建構的「弱勢傳會」路徑:除了具體的亞美移民、遷徙、與離散經驗形構了「亞」、「美」個人情感聯結,亞美研究作為一個論述場域,還介入了「我們」與「歐美」競合及協商的過程,從美國研究的一支,逐漸延展與分化為亞際與跨太平洋認知網絡開展的介面。論文最後提出「創傷歐美」的想像,企圖將「歐美」從台灣外文學門的強勢他者,轉化為一個類似亞美的動態複元場域,思考「我們」與「歐美」在彼此的弱勢經驗中,建立傳會聯結的可能。

◎關鍵詞:台灣外文學門,亞美,歐美,距離,傳會,弱勢聯結

★國立臺灣師範大學英語學系教授。

Hsiu-chuan Lee╱Between “Euro-America” and “Us:” Asian American Studies in Asia/America Distance and Transference

Between “Euro-America” and “Us”
Asian American Studies in Asia/America Distance and Transference

Hsiu-chuan Lee*

Abstract

This essay takes the development of Asian American studies in Taiwan as an example for exploring the shifting role of Western cultures (tentatively generalized as “Euro-America”) in Taiwan’s foreign literary studies (tentatively generalized as “us”). The first part traces and unravels Taiwan academia’s “special affinity” toward Asian American studies. Though linking “Asia” and “America” in its name and contributing to racial mixture and cultural creolization, “Asian America,” as this essay suggests, does not necessarily bridge the distance, much less set up a point of convergence, between Asian and American cultures and histories. Instead, the increasingly diversifying Asian American population and their diverging itineraries cast into relief the centrifugal propellant and antisameness potential of Asian America. Drawing on the psychoanalytic dialogic model of transference that pushes open the affective contours of selves and others, this essay further probes the transferential time-space evoked by Asian America: not only do Asian American traumatic experiences of immigration, migration, and diaspora compel differentiations of selves through encounters with others but Asian American studies have intervened into the power hierarchy between “Euro-America” and “us,” forcefully generating unprescribed minor networking across Asia and the Pacific. This essay ultimately proposes a minoritizing transformation of “Euro-America”: to comprehend “Euro-America” not as a hegemonic and static entity but as a minor and centrifugal “other” that Taiwan’s foreign literary studies could possibly converse with through transferential affects.

◎Keywords: foreign literary studies in Taiwan, Asian America, Euro-America, distance, transference, minor connection

★ Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

卓玉芳╱當我/們同在一起:亞美邊緣的聯結想像

當我/們同在一起
亞美邊緣的聯結想像

卓玉芳*

摘要

自九○年代以來,美國族裔文學研究在台灣的興起,代表的不僅是自八○年代以來台灣英美文學界對美國學術知識一貫的積極引介和平行輸入,更似乎與當時漸成風氣的新興英語文學和後殖民文化研究,一同為台灣與「歐美」間的關係帶來轉變。美國族裔文學研究對文學傳統做為國家機器、白人中心主義和殖民主義工具所提出的挑戰,為台灣英美文學界開啟了不同的知識路徑和視角,成為反思歐美知識生產霸權的重要對話對象。然而,這樣的視角,是否已然根本轉化成台灣批判知識主體的一部分,而它又如何斡旋近年來與「國際接軌」的學術政策下不斷深化的美規知識系統和思維?本論文從2010 年「亞美研究在亞洲:國際工作坊」出發,探討亞美邊緣聯結政治立足於台灣的願景和挑戰,尤其是以國族歷史為基礎的區域聯結想像。透過顧玉玲的在台移工書寫與古巴裔美籍作家葛西亞拉美華工書寫的文本對照閱讀,本論文進一步探討亞美邊緣不同「她者」的交會,如何呼應近來美國比較族裔研究對邊緣聯結政治的理論反思,為台灣英美文學研究在新殖民主義的夾縫間開展另類想像的可能。

◎關鍵詞:知識生產,亞美, 聯結政治,國族歷史,比較族裔研究

★美國邁阿密大學英文系和性別研究系副教授。

Yu-Fang Cho╱Our Other Encounters: Mapping Emergent Asian America

Our Other Encounters
Mapping Emergent Asian America

Yu-Fang Cho*

Abstract

The call for papers for “Our Euro-America” symposium highlights one urgent concern for researchers of European and American Literary Studies in Taiwan: what new questions emerged from our research as we strove to
negotiate the tensions between neoliberal logics of knowledge production and local knowledge formations? In responding to this question, this essay first begins with a discussion of the “Asian American Studies in Asia” workshop held at the Institute of European and American Studies at Academia Sinica in 2010. Specifically, the essay discusses how this timely and ambitious project negotiates the internal differences that intersecting formations of (neo) colonialism and ethnic nationalism have reproduced among minoritized subjects in the context of America’s Inter-Asia and Pacific. The second half of the essay provides a succinct comparative discussion of Ku Yu-ling’s Our Stories (2008) and Cuban American writer Cristina García’s Monkey Hunting (2003). By situating this discussion in dialogue with recent theorization of comparative racialization that debunks persistent cultural nationalism in U.S.-based coalition projects, the essay explores how the new transnational imaginaries about Asian America emerging from the juxtaposition of these two texts point to possible alternative frameworks to comprehend, reimagine, and practice European and American Literary Studies in Taiwan differently.

◎Keywords: knowledge production, Asian America, coalition politics, national history, comparative racialization

★Associate Professor, English Department; Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Program; Asian/Asian American Studies Program Affiliate; Miami University, USA.

王智明╱冷戰人文主義:顏元叔及其批評實踐

冷戰人文主義
顏元叔及其批評實踐

王智明*

摘要

台灣的外國文學研究約莫是在1960 年代末期逐漸成形。回顧這段歷史過程,顏元叔是不可繞過的里程碑,不僅僅因為他是戰後台灣外國文學研究的前行者與開拓者,更因為他的批評範式與後來的「反西方」轉向巧妙地延續著五四一代學者的矛盾與張力,放在風雲丕變的1970 年代與中國崛起前的1990 年代,顯得極為特出。透過新批評的引介與比較研究的開展,他的文學評論、雜文與短篇小說一方面與冷戰時代的文化景觀與文學品味相扣連,另一方面又在人文主義的思想路徑上開展出一條以民族意識為根底的社會寫實路線:一邊批評中國文學的「印象式批評」傳統,另一邊深化現代主義的批判意識,進而形成了一條在文化內涵上植根於西方、卻在意識型態上反西方的批評進路。顏氏獨特的批評實踐一方面折射了冷戰構造的文化政治以及文學批評的建制過程;在與西方的接軌和交鋒中,它同時提出了極為重要的在地命題:文學的目的何在?研究西方所為何來?在台灣的我們究竟該如何看待西方文學以及文學批評的作用?文學與社會(或曰「人生」)的關係又該如何理解和架接?這篇文章試圖以顏元叔的著作為中心來探索,西方或歐美作為一個知識客體,究竟在冷戰時代的台灣意謂著什麼?顏元叔文學批評的基底與方向何在?他的批評遺產對今日的外文(歐美)研究提供了什麼樣的反省?我們又該如何概括、評價與繼承?

◎關鍵詞:顏元叔,新批評,冷戰,人文主義,反西方,社會寫實主義,在地立時性

★中央研究院歐美研究所副研究員。

Chih-ming Wang╱Cold War Humanism: Yan Yuanshu and His Critical Practices

Cold War Humanism
Yan Yuanshu and His Critical Practices

Chih-ming Wang*

Abstract

Foreign literature studies in Taiwan were gradually formalized in the 1960s. In revisiting this history, Yan Yuan-shu represents a landmark that can neither be missed nor ignored. It is not merely because Yan was a pioneer of the field, but rather because his critical practice, and his eventual anti-Western stance, cogently rearticulated the paradoxical legacy of the May Fourth generation in relation to the West. His standpoint was thus unique in the stirring 1970s when Taiwan was still under a repressive regime and at the advent of the burgeoning 1990s as China began its “peaceful rise.” By introducing New Criticism and comparative literature to Taiwan’s academy, Yan’s writing not only was replete with the literary aesthetic of the Cold War but also explored a social realist approach that was based on national consciousness and local sensibility. His critical practice refracted the cultural political formation of the Cold War and the institutionalization of literary criticism in Taiwan by posing important questions for us: What is the function of literature and why do we study the West and its literature? How should we, as scholars and students in Taiwan, look at Western literature and understand the function of literary criticism as a Western import? What is the relationship between literature and society? By revisiting Yan’s critical writings, this article attempts to explain what the West—as an object of knowledge and an epistemic position—means to us during the Cold War era, and explore how we can inherit and advance Yan’s critical legacies for thinking about foreign literary studies today.

 

◎Keywords: Yan Yuanshu, New Criticism, Cold War, Humanism, anti-Western, social realism, local immediacy

★Associate Research Fellow, Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica.

克里斯托弗‧康利( 譯:陳春燕)╱在危機年代思索知識生產的政治與位置

在危機年代思索知識生產的政治與位置

克里斯托弗‧康利*( 譯:陳春燕**)

摘要

1960 年代的社會、政治及文化運動,對西方人文與社會科學領域的知識生產政治,留下了深遠的影響:從學科形塑的基礎、知識生成的主體、知識研究的對象、到知識發生的所在,無一不受到挑戰、撼動;「西方」所據佔的霸權位置不斷遭到質疑;而新興學科、次學科則漸次崛起(例如文化研究、女性主義、及各樣「身份」研究),並在各地以不同的體制形貌出現。例證之一,是美國加州大學聖塔克魯茲分校於1980 年代末成立的「世界文學與文化研究」學程,其目的不僅是要促成學科分類的重組,更在於嘗試新穎的教學方法,反思智識權威的課題。然美國大學教育面臨的財務危機,囿限了這些嘗試的發展;過去這二十年來,許多學校被迫調整定位,越發往經濟邏輯靠攏,也因此大大壓縮了稍早年代的創意與自由空間。不過,這幾年經過大規模學生抗議活動之後,另類的教學方法再度受到矚目。而更多人對這些議題施以關注、積極參與,或許正可有效回應此刻的高等教育危機。

◎關鍵詞:文化研究,經濟危機,基進教學法,世界

★美國加州大學聖塔克魯茲分校文學系教授。★★國立臺灣師範大學英語學系副教授。

Christopher L. Connery (Translated by Chun-yen Chen)╱Reflections on the Politics and Location of Knowledge Making in a Time of Crisis

Reflections on the Politics and Location of Knowledge Making in a Time of Crisis

Christopher L. Connery* (Translated by Chun-yen Chen**)

Abstract

The politics of knowledge making in the humanities and humanistic social sciences were profoundly impacted by the social, political, and cultural movements of the 1960s. Disciplinary foundations, including the subjects and objects of knowledge, as well as the locations of knowledge, were questioned and shaken. The hegemony of “the West” was subject to sustained critique. New disciplinary and sub-disciplinary formations arose, including cultural studies, feminist studies, and various “identity”-based studies, and these were institutionalized in various ways in various locations. One such project that arose in the late 1980s, the World Literature and Cultural Studies program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, not only sought to intervene in disciplinary character, but also experimented with new approaches to pedagogy and intellectual authority. The fiscal crisis in US universities tempered many of these experiments, and over the course of those two decades universities increasingly adapted themselves to a more purely economic logic, greatly narrowing the imaginative and liberatory field of possibility that the earlier trajectory had unleashed. In the wake of massive student protests in recent years, however, new pedagogical practices are once more on the agenda. Greater attention to and participation in these developments might prove to be a useful response to the current crisis.

 

◎Keywords: cultural studies, economic crisis, radical pedagogy, world

★Professor, Department of Literature, University of California, Santa Cruz, USA. ★★Associate Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

想像歐美‧認識我們:圓桌論壇
Imagining Euro-America(s) and Knowing Ourselves:
A Roundtable Discussion

  • Alexa Huang╱文化認同與知識生產的地方性:來自前現代領域的觀察
    Alexa Huang╱The Locality of Cultural Identity and Knowledge Production: Observations from Early Modern Studies
  • 張淑麗╱誤讀與歪讀:解構「歐美」
    Shuli Chang╱Misreadings: Deconstructing “Euro-America”
  • 馮品佳╱批判的自我:「我們」何在?
    Pin-chia Feng╱The Critical Self: Where are “We”?
  • 單德興╱理論的旅行:建制史的任務與期待
    Shan Te-hsing╱Traveling Theories: The Tasks and Goals of Institutional History

議題與討論
Polemics and Discussions

  • 蕭立君╱跨國知識生產的時差:讀史書美《視覺與認同:跨太平洋華語語系表述‧呈現》
    Li-Chun Hsiao╱(Un)timely Reflections: Reading the Chinese Translation of Shu-mei Shih’s Visuality and Identity: Sinophone Articulations across the Pacific
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