103年12月號

2019-08-01

第四十三卷 第四期 總447 中華民國103年12月
Vol.43 No.4 December 2014

《中外文學》十二月號收錄了五篇精彩論文以及一篇學術書評。林淑芬解析法國思想家洪希耶(Jacques Rancière)提出的知識與政治創作論,釐清其有別於政治存有論的歷史與政治書寫;潘怡帆以布朗肖(Maurice Blanchot)的作品《從卡夫卡到卡夫卡》為出發點,探討「書寫」與「虛構」間的共謀關係;熊宗慧以巴赫金(Mikhail Bakhtin)的時空體理論切入,分析塔可夫斯基(Andrei Tarkovsky)電影《潛行者》中的冒險旅程;鄧秋蓉挪用德希達的哀悼論述,探究韓裔美籍作家凱樂(Nora Okja Keller)的小說《慰安婦》中的倫理議題;吳明宗則對巴金的小說〈團圓〉與毛烽、武兆堤改編的電影《英雄兒女》進行比較研究。學術書評部分,邱彥彬則對于治中的著作《意識型態的幽靈》做出精彩評析。

中外文學十二月號目錄
Contents

編輯室(卸任)報告
Editorial Note (of Farewell)

  • 朱偉誠╱編輯室(卸任)報告
    Wei-cheng Chu╱Editorial Note (of Farewell)

林淑芬╱創作論:洪希耶的歷史與政治書寫

創作論
洪希耶的歷史與政治書寫

林淑芬*

摘要

許多受到當代政治思想存有論轉向影響的研究者,採取存有論的角度詮釋、檢討法國思想家洪希耶的政治書寫。相對而言,認真思考洪希耶在晚近的書寫中對政治存有論的批評,並進一步透過這些批評探討其歷史與政治書寫獨特性的研究者,則不多見。本文的目的即在於疏理洪希耶的歷史與政治書寫,說明其書寫與政治存有論雖有若干共同關注,但是藉由知識創作論與政治創作論證明平等預設,毋寧才是其書寫的底蘊,也是其抵抗政治存有論誘惑的關鍵。

◎關鍵詞:政治存有論,知識創作論,遊民,人民,政治性,政治,治安,錯誤,政治主體化,平等預設

★國立交通大學社會與文化研究所副教授。

Shu-Fen Lin╱ Poetics: Jacques Rancière’s Historical and Political Writings

Poetics
Jacques Rancière’s Historical and Political Writings

Shu-Fen Lin*

Abstract

There has been considerable attention drawn to French philosopher Jacques Rancière’s works in recent years. Amongst critics inspired by the ontological turn in contemporary political theories, many have lamented Rancière’s failure to provide a sufficient account of the ontological status of the key concepts and presuppositions such as “equality of anyone and everyone” employed in his writings. Yet, by far, only relatively few have noticed Rancière’s open criticism of political ontology, not to mention the fact that Rancière has conceived his works as poetics. This essay is an attempt to investigate the trajectory and dispositive of Rancière’s historical and political writings, seeking to clarify Rancière’s resistance against the temptation of ontology and its further implications.

◎Keywords: political ontology, poetics of knowledge, lumpen, demos, the political, politics, police, wrong, political subjectification, presupposition of equality

★Associate Professor, Institute for Social Research and Cultural Studies, National Chiao-Tung University.

潘怡帆╱《從卡夫卡到卡夫卡》之卡夫卡雙重虛構

《從卡夫卡到卡夫卡》之卡夫卡雙重虛構

潘怡帆*

摘要

在當代哲學思考中,「虛構」被視為思考可能重新展開、並趨近無限運動的界限概念。虛構作為「本源的缺席」,使任何由此展開的論述都同時是轉向他處的另類思考,並使思考陷入無限運動。說明「虛構」如何可能造就差異思考的無限迴圈,便是本篇論文最主要的企圖所在。本文以布朗肖1981年的作品《從卡夫卡到卡夫卡》作為出發點,分析他如何透過評論卡夫卡的作品而鋪展「書寫」與「虛構」間的共謀關係,即卡夫卡的文學虛構如何可能召喚更多虛構的共謀者。全文共分三個部分:第一部分以闡述《從卡夫卡到卡夫卡》的特異處,說明書寫虛構的起點;第二部分針對卡夫卡作品中虛構書寫的可能,提出布朗肖如何具象化卡夫卡之虛構;第三部分透過卡夫卡及布朗肖之間的多重虛構,探討虛構作品及虛構作者間的必然及必要性。本論述以虛構書寫為中軸,透過耙梳布朗肖之《從卡夫卡到卡夫卡》分析法國當代思潮驅力,以期最終導向虛構作為檢證概念思考之思考運動,亦即從「書寫及虛構」到「書寫即虛構」的論證操練。

◎關鍵詞:虛構,書寫,差異,重複,共謀

★巴黎第十大學哲學博士。

Yifan Pan╱Kafka’s Double Fiction in De Kafka à Kafka

Kafka’s Double Fiction in De Kafka à Kafka

Yifan Pan*

Abstract

Fiction has become one of the key concepts in contemporary French philosophy. It is considered the boundary of thought, which makes the act of thinking recommenceable and infinite, because fiction has no origin and any discourse starting from it would end up in an endless exercise. This article attempts to demonstrate how fiction creates this circle of endless thoughts. Taking Maurice Blanchot’s work De Kafka à Kafka as point of departure, it
establishes an accomplice between writing and fiction. The article has three major parts. Part I explores the singularity of this book as a way of thinking about fictional writing. Part II explains how Blanchot realizes the possibilities of Kafka’s fiction by enacting them in his book. Part III dicusses the double fiction of Kafka and Blanchot in order to argue for the indispensability of and causality between fantasy of imaginative author and that of imaginative work. Through Blanchot’s De Kafka à Kafka, this article points to fiction as an indefinite assemblage of imaginative forces in an incessant “thinking, doubting” movement.

◎Keywords: fiction, writing, difference, repetition, complicity

★Ph.D., University Paris Ouest Nanterre la Défense, France.

熊宗慧╱往房間的旅程:塔可夫斯基《潛行者》中的時空體

往房間的旅程
塔可夫斯基《潛行者》中的時空體

熊宗慧*

摘要

《潛行者》(Stalker, 1979)是塔可夫斯基(Andrei Tarkovsky, 1932-1986)在蘇聯拍攝的最後一部作品,情節講的是一趟帶有科幻意味的冒險旅程,實際內容是探討物質文明過度發展所導致的精神失落與心靈危機。在此前提下如何把握影像中的時間關係和空間關係,使其融合在一個能為觀眾認知的具體的整體中,好將電影主旨清晰呈現,是導演最大的挑戰。本文試圖藉由巴赫金(Mikhail Bakhtin, 1895-1975)的時空體理論(chronotope)來分析《潛行者》裡的冒險旅程:它虛虛實實,似真又假,充滿不可思議的艱辛,反映的正是道德真空下心靈危機的圖像。藉由這一趟前往房間(Room)的旅程,塔可夫斯基再次展示了真實和想像邊界的荒謬性,完成了對時間連貫性的訴求,同時開啟了他以電影藝術對抗精神失落之路的起點。

◎關鍵詞:《潛行者》,塔可夫斯基,巴赫金,時空體

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系助理教授。

Tsung-Huei Hsiung╱A Journey to the Room: The Chronotopes in Tarkovsky’s Stalker

A Journey to the Room
The Chronotopes in Tarkovsky’s Stalker

Tsung-Huei Hsiung*

Abstract

Stalker (1979), the last feature film Andrei Tarkovsky completed in the Soviet Union, seemingly depicts a three-man expedition into a surreal Zone, but is actually more concerned about the over-development of material culture and the consequent spiritual loss and mental crisis. How to arrange the time-andspace relationship into a comprehensible narrative in the film that can illustrate this theme becomes the greatest challenge for the director. The end result is a half-true, half-fictional journey that is incredibly tough, mirroring the mental crisis caused by the vacuous state of the characters’ minds. The present study utilizes Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of the chronotope to analyze this adventurous journey and will show that, through the characters’ trip to the Room, Tarkorvsky demonstrates the absurdity of the boundary between reality and imagination, achieved coherence in time if not space, and inaugurates his own journey of battling against the spiritual loss of men with the art of film.

◎Keywords: Stalker, Tarkovsky, Bakhtin, chronotope

★Assistant Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

鄧秋蓉╱生死交界:《慰安婦》中的鬼魅他者與哀悼倫理

生死交界
《慰安婦》中的鬼魅他者與哀悼倫理

鄧秋蓉*

摘要

本文旨在探討韓裔美籍作家凱樂(Nora Okja Keller)著作之小說《慰安婦》(Comfort Woman),關注殖民與戰爭暴力下,歷經性壓迫之逝者與倖存者。小說透過一對母女平行的敘事,揭露二次大戰期間韓國婦女被迫成為日本殖民政府軍隊的性奴隸,在此暴力壓迫中死去的冤魂糾纏著敘事者/母親/倖存者,令她回應其需求,而敘事者/母親/倖存者也因此成為召喚亡魂的靈媒,跨越生死交界。當母親去世之後,另一敘事者/女兒透過逝者/母親遺留下來的錄音帶,藉由已逝母親的聲音,得知其曾是慰安婦的經歷,而女兒的哀悼可視為對逝者/母親的回應。本文挪用德希達對於死亡、逝者、哀悼的討論,將德希達的哀悼論述與小說文本並置,檢視小說中鬼魅他者與哀悼的倫理意涵。一方面小說文本呼應德希達之「不可能的哀悼」,卻又是必要的責任與回應,因之如何理解逝者與鬼魂之無限差異,如何在哀悼中挪出空間以包容死亡帶來之無限差異,成了小說中哀悼者的倫理課題。另一方面,小說文本亦指出不同的鬼魂樣貌與哀悼軌跡,鬼魂不僅是不可知的他者,亦可能具備行動力;而哀悼之中,生者不全然企圖將逝者納入自我的記憶,反而釋放自我的意識,走向逝者/他者之境。

◎關鍵詞:《慰安婦》,逝者,鬼魂,德希達,哀悼

★淡江大學英文學系助理教授。

Chiou-rung Deng╱Between Life and Death: The Spectral Other and the Ethics of Mourning in Nora Okja Keller’s Comfort Woman

Between Life and Death
The Spectral Other and the Ethics of Mourning in Nora Okja Keller’s Comfort Woman

Chiou-rung Deng*

Abstract

This paper analyzes Nora Okja Keller’s novel, Comfort Woman, which focuses on the dead and the survivors of the colonial and sexual violence in Korea during World War II, by applying Jacques Derrida’s discussions on the act of mourning and the alterity of the dead. In Comfort Woman, the narrative alternates between the ex-comfort woman, Akiko, and her daughter, Beccah. After the traumatic experience of sexual violence as a comfort woman, Akiko
has been haunted by the dead and becomes a shaman, reckoning with death and responding to the demands of the dead. Likewise, after her death, Akiko’s daughter Beccah learns, through Akiko’s voice recorded in a tape, to mourn for Akiko’s death and is called to fulfill her responsibility to her dead mother. While mourning is a necessary responsibility, how to understand and respond to the infinite alterity of the dead becomes a duty facing the survivors, and
according to Derrida, it is also a question of “hospitality without reserve” to harbor the dead. However, the text of Comfort Woman also indicates an alternative picture of the ghost, which is not merely an unknown other but also an agent, with a different trajectory, which the work of mourning follows; that is, in the act of mourning, my conscious “I” should yield to the dead, the other, instead of keeping the dead alive within my memory.

 

◎Keywords: Comfort Woman, the dead, ghosts, Derrida, mourning

★Assistant Professor, Department of English, Tamkang University.

吳明宗╱從〈團圓〉到《英雄兒女》: 巴金小說及其電影改編之比較

從〈團圓〉到《英雄兒女》
巴金小說及其電影改編之比較

吳明宗*

摘要

本文以〈團圓〉與《英雄兒女》為討論文本進行比較研究。小說〈團圓〉是巴金在1961年8月於《上海文學》發表之作品,文本的時空背景設定在韓戰時期的朝鮮戰場,內容反映中國抗美援朝戰爭之歷史精神。1964年,毛烽與武兆堤根據〈團圓〉進行改編,並由長春電影製片廠拍攝成電影《英雄兒女》。然而,中國文化大革命開啟後,〈團圓〉被控「鼓吹和平主義」受到批判;《英雄兒女》則被控為「宣傳戰爭之恐怖」。筆者認為,當我們閱讀〈團圓〉時,應將其視為巴金在政治意識與人道主義精神之間的「協商」。相較之下,電影《英雄兒女》則在創作上與當時電影的政治批評顯得密合。不過,在政治環境瞬息萬變的「十七年」與文革時期,文藝創作者似乎難有一套足以安身的創作規則,在巴金與毛烽身上,我們看到那代中國文藝創作者之無奈。

◎關鍵詞:冷戰,韓戰,文革,中國文學,現當代文學,十七年文學

★國立臺灣師範大學臺灣語文學系博士研究生。

Ming-Tsung Wu╱A Comparative Study of Ba Jin’s Story: “Tuanyuan” and Its Film Adaptation Yingxiong Ernu

A Comparative Study of Ba Jin’s Story
“Tuanyuan” and Its Film Adaptation 
Yingxiong Ernu

Ming-Tsung Wu*

Abstract

Ba Jin wrote the story “Tuanyuan” (“Reunion”) in 1961. It describes a family reunion during the Korean War and the spirit of Chinese soldiers who fight in it. Then Mao Feng and WuZhaoti made the film adaptation Yinxiong Ernu (Heroic Sons and Daughters) in 1964. When the Cultural Revolution began, however, both of them were critiqued politically: “Tuanyuan” was denounced as propaganda for pacifism, and Yinxiong Ernu was accused of over-emphasizing the horrors of war. This article compares the two texts in detail and makes the case that while, on the one hand, “Tuanyuan” shows us how Ba Jin painstakingly negotiates with the dominant political ideology to accommodate his longheld humanism, on the other hand, Yinxiong Ernu toes the political line more compliantly but does not manage to save itself from political critique due to its connection with the original author Ba Jin. It is obvious that during the Seventeen Year period (1949-1966) hardly any writers or artists could find a safe place under the Chinese Communist regime.

◎Keywords: Cold War, Korean War, Cultural Revolution, Chinese Literature, Modern and Contemporary Literature, Literature during 1949-1966

★Ph.D. Student, Department of Taiwan Culture, Languages and Literature, National Taiwan Normal University.

議題與討論
Polemics and Discussions

  • 邱彥彬╱意識型態批判之必要:從于治中《意識型態的幽靈》得到的些許發想
    Yen-bin Chiou╱The Necessity of Ideology Critique: Some Thoughts on Chih-Chung Yu’s The Specter of Ideology
向上滑動