102年9月號

2019-08-01

第四十二卷 第三期 總442 中華民國102年9月
Vol.42 No.3 September 2013

《中外文學》九月號刊登五篇一般論文,以及一篇深度書評。「一般論文」部分,黃宗慧以當代藝術家卡茨(Eduardo Kac)的科技藝術作品為例,探討其臆想「異類」的方式如何改變人類中心的視野,並發展出後人文的倫理觀;梁一萍剖析北美混血原住民作家歐溫斯(Louis Owens)對偵探小說、原住民神話與現代主義經典的混寫,不僅顛覆純種原住民迷思、開創混血文本,也翻轉了艾略特的荒原意象;孫松榮分析蔡明亮受羅浮宮邀約進駐拍攝的影片《臉》,如何雜揉並超越不同的記憶、文化、語言,開創出一種特殊的跨影像性;陳允元檢視「後現代主義/後現代詩」在八0年代中期台灣的現身及正典化過程,主張後現代理論在台灣的發展,既是全球化知識流動的例證,也是一種在地化的「台灣後現代」;徐禎苓從醫藥與醫養兩個面向切入,見出《西遊記》中暗藏的政權諷諭與宗教辯證,及其獨特的醫療表述。在學術書評部分,張志維則對黃道明的著作《酷兒政治與台灣現代「性」》做出精彩評析。

中外文學九月號目錄
Contents

黃宗慧╱後現代的戲耍或後人文的倫理? 以卡茨的臆/異想世界為例

後現代的戲耍或後人文的倫理?
以卡茨的臆/異想世界為例

黃宗慧*

摘要

當代藝術家卡茨(Eduardo Kac)除了以媒體藝術聞名,也因為經常在作品中使用不同的生物體而頗具話題性,雖然其中不少作品乍看之下都像是迎合後現代風潮的戲耍之作,也不無以「讓觀者參與作品的完成」為噱頭的嫌疑,但長期投入動物研究的貝克(Steve Baker)認為卡茨的作品可以引領觀者去思考自身對他者的責任,提倡「後人文主義」思維的沃夫(Cary Wolfe)更表示,卡茨挑戰了人/動物二元對立的既定觀點,展現出後人文主義的關懷。卡茨的作品是否確如對他大加肯定的論者所言,並非只是譁眾取寵的後現代戲耍?本論文將以其數件運用了不同生物體的科技藝術作品為例,分兩大軸線進行論述:一方面探討卡茨如何回應「動物能否企近世界?」、「人如何企近動物經驗?」等傳統哲學所提出的質問;另一方面則思考卡茨的作品如何與「自生發」的概念對話,從而跳脫傳統再現手法的困境、開啟對於主客體的不同思考。透過本論文的探討,我們將能得知卡茨臆想「異類」的方式如何改變了人類中心的視野,乃至發展出後人文的倫理觀。

◎關鍵詞:卡茨,生物藝術,後現代,後人文主義,自生發,倫理

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Tsung-huei Huang╱Postmodern Play or Posthumanist Ethics? Eduardo Kac’s Bioart as a Case in Point

Postmodern Play or Posthumanist Ethics?
Eduardo Kac’s Bioart as a Case in Point

Tsung-huei Huang*

Abstract

Emerging in the early 90s with his media art, Eduardo Kac is also well-known for employing different life-forms in his creative process. Some of
Kac’s artworks, at first sight, may appear to be spectacular or even gimmicky. Nevertheless, Steve Baker argues that Kac’s bioart is serious and meta-ethical rather than deliberately provocative. In a similar vein, Cary Wolfe contends that Kac actually destabilizes our received views of the human/animal dichotomy. In what sense can Kac’s art be exempted from the clichéd postmodern play? Isn’t his employment of animals a stratagem designed to attract attention? Exploring some of his technological artworks which utilize life-forms from germs to bats, this paper seeks to answer how Kac’s creative envisioning of the alien others eventually leads the viewer to reflect upon ethical issues. In short, this paper covers two main sections. In the first section, I investigate how Kac addresses questions such as “Does the animal only have a limited access to the world?” and “Can we know what experiences the non-human animals may have?.” The second section shows how Kac’s works, remaining open to the viewers’ behaviors, come into productive dialogue with the theory of autopoiesis. Even though we cannot claim that all is necessarily well in the world of Kac’s bioart, I conclude that his attempts to conceptualize a more ethical relationship with non-human others open up the possibilities for different sentient beings to co-exist and co-evolve.

◎Keywords: Eduardo Kac, bioart, postmodern, posthumanism, autopoiesis, ethics

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

梁一萍╱混血荒原:《至銳目光》中的通俗與經典

混血荒原
《至銳目光》中的通俗與經典

梁一萍*

摘要

本文旨在闡述北美混血原住民作家歐溫斯(Louis Owens)混用偵探小說通俗文類、原住民神話與現代主義經典,經由三者的交織對話,不但顛覆純種原住民迷思,新創混血文本(mixedblood texts),且進而翻轉艾略特的荒原意象。文分五部。第一部份整理文獻,說明當代北美原住民文學理論將混血身份視為原住民文學的出發點。第二部份以第一本北美原住民小說《禾阿進歷險記》(The Life and Adventures of Joaquín Murieta,
the Celebrated California Bandit
, 1854)為例,說明北美原住民作家因為帝國殖民,混用白人文化的廉價小說通俗文類,進而析論北美原住民文學的混血(寫)屬性。第三部份轉向歐溫斯小說《至銳目光》(The Sharpest Sight, 1992),探討原住民偵探小說的文類混雜。第四部份分析《至銳目光》對現代主義經典荒原意象的運用。第五部份結論,指出歐溫斯身為混血原住民作家,不但將原住民神話、通俗文類、現代主義接枝混寫,並且以混血原住民身份重訪荒原,對艾略特的荒原意象有所新解,本文因稱「混血荒原」。

◎關鍵詞:瑞基,歐溫斯,艾略特,偵探小說,現代主義,原住民神話

★國立臺灣師範大學英語學系教授。

Iping Liang╱Mixedblood Wasteland: The Popular and the Canonical in The Sharpest Sight

Mixedblood Wasteland
The Popular and the Canonical in The Sharpest Sight

Iping Liang*

Abstract

Instead of fundamentalist insistence on species purity, mixedblood Native American writer Louis Owens adopts the Bukhtinian notion of polyphonic dialogism and contends that Native American literatures, as a result of the encounter between European settlers and indigenous peoples, are bound to be “mixedblood texts,” a heterogeneous mixture of “crosswritings.” I argue that Owens in the thriller novel, The Sharpest Sight (1992), not only searches for the meaning of the Indian, but also revises the modernist canon of The Waste Land (1922) by blending the popular genre of the detective fiction, the indigenous mythology, and the modernist imagery of the wasteland. This paper is divided into five parts. Part one provides a literature review of the Indian blood discourse by incorporating the works of Cook-lyn, Pulitano, Erkkila, Allen, Krupat, and Owens. Part two discusses the dialogism between Native American literatures and the popular genre of the dime novel by focusing on the first Native American novel, The Life and Adventures of Joaquín Murieta, the Celebrated California Bandit (1854). Part three concerns the generic impurity of the Native American detective fiction by paying attention to the textual features of The Sharpest Sight. Part four analyzes Owens’ revision of Eliot’s canonical imagery in the novel. Part five makes the conclusion that Owens not only mixes the dialogic inheritances of the indigenous cultures and the Euro-American canon, but also revisits the modernist wasteland in the American west, which is hence reclaimed as “the mixedblood wasteland” in this paper.

◎Keywords: John Ridge, Louis Owens, T. S. Eliot, detective fiction, modernism, indigenous mythology

★ Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

孫松榮╱蔡明亮的《臉》,或跨影像性的華語影片

蔡明亮的《臉》,或跨影像性的華語影片

孫松榮*

摘要

電影的當代境況變化急速,其物質媒介與展演形式不斷推陳出新。近年來,國內外各大現當代美術館紛紛投入動態影像藝術的展演乃及影片的委製與典藏,皆為意義深長也是非比尋常的跨界行動。蔡明亮的《臉(2009)受羅浮宮邀約進駐拍攝,成為首部被收藏的影片。身為堅守藝術性與理想性的藝術家,蔡明亮這一部跨國創作尤其藉電影藝術與記憶、東西方文化典故及跨語際實踐等方略,形構電影如何以迥異其他藝術範型的影像形體,創造出一種既是影片生成為繪畫、也是繪畫幻化為影片的動靜遷徙。再者,在雜糅各種不同的記憶、文化及語言並對之進行重新組裝與配置之際,作為博物館-影片的《臉》不僅活化了現代電影與當代電影之間的歷史與美學遺贈,更開闢出一種以摻和與超越東西方影音文化構成的非純音像視域,作為建構電影記憶與嶄新生命的未來。換言之,《臉》超脫單一語系、族裔或文化共同體的華語影片概念,形塑了一座因結合跨文化圖像、跨媒介及跨藝術體制而湧現特殊性與造形性、異質性與生成性動能的跨影像之境。

◎關鍵詞:蔡明亮,《臉》,華語影片,博物館-影片,跨語際,跨媒介,跨藝術,跨影像性

★國立臺南藝術大學動畫藝術與影像美學研究所副教授。

Song-yong Sing╱Tsai Ming-liang’s Visage, or Chinese-Language Film of Trans-Imageness

Tsai Ming-liang’s Visage, or Chinese-Language Film of Trans-Imageness

Song-yong Sing*

Abstract

The contemporary cinematic landscape is changing vigorously in terms of its material/media development and means of presentation. Recently several modern and contemporary museums started to hold moving image exhibitions and to commission artists to create moving artworks. This trend has intriguing border-crossing implications. For example: Tsai Ming-liang’s Visage (2009), sponsored by the Louvre Museum, is the first film registered on the inventory of art collections. Tsai approaches this transnational project from three perspectives: (1) cinema as a form of memory, (2) Eastern/Western allusions, and (3) translingual practice. Visage therefore distinguishes itself from other artistic forms and defines itself as a filmic figural: a varying form of constant migration, and a process of everlasting becoming made possible by the interplay between painting and cinema. By mixing and reconfiguring various memories, cultures and languages, this museum-film not only revitalizes the historical and aesthetic heritage within the modern-contemporary cinemas but invents an impure vision blending the Eastern/Western audiovisual and cultural conventions and capable of constructing the cinema’s past and future. It transcends the Chinese-Language film category, and creates a field of trans-imageness in which several “trans-” discourses converge—transcultural icon, trans-media and trans-artistic regime—and where several energies emerge—speciality, plasticity, heterogeneity, and generativity.

◎Keywords: Tsai Ming-liang, Visage, Chinese-Language film, museum-film, translingual, trans-medium, trans-art, trans-imageness

★Associate Professor, Graduate Institute of Animation and Film Art, Tainan National University of the Arts.

陳允元╱問題化「後現代」:以八0年代中期台灣「後現代詩」的想像建構為觀察中心

問題化「後現代」
以八0年代中期台灣「後現代詩」的想像建構為觀察中心

陳允元*

摘要

本文以「後現代主義/後現代詩」在八0年代中期台灣現身並逐步被接受、正典化的過程為研究對象。八0年代中期,「後現代主義」之引進係以「後現代詩」為前導,首次在台灣登場。而「後現代詩」這個文類範疇的成立,是為了催生、合理化「台灣後現代狀況」的存在,而由羅青、林燿德、孟樊等人透過論述逐步「建構」而成的一個「新文類」。值得注意的是,在台灣「後現代詩」創建之初,與其透過國外作品的譯介,引介者更用力於從「現有的」「台灣戰後世代」的作品中去找尋所謂的「後現代詩/後現代狀況」。而「後現代」在台灣的引介並形成風潮,可視為台灣戰後出生世代作家崛起之初所搭的「順風車」,用以宣稱世代的新、世代的合法性,並試圖在僵固的文壇權力結構中突圍,重組文學版圖。其係一種對於「影響焦慮」的「超克」。藉著回顧八0年代中期「後現代」在台灣現身並逐步被正典化的過程,我們將發現:後現代理論在台灣的傳播,既是全球性知識流動的一個例證,同時也接枝上八0年代台灣社會經濟結構的轉型、戰後文學世代的崛起、以及解嚴後面臨的後殖民情境,成為一種在地化的「台灣後現代」。

◎關鍵詞:後現代詩,新世代,都市文學,林燿德,羅青,孟樊,夏宇

★國立政治大學台灣文學研究所博士候選人,國立政治大學中國文學系、真理大學台灣文學系兼任講師。

Yun-Yuan Chen╱The Problematization of “Post-Modernism:” A Study on the Imaginary Construction of “Post-Modern Poetry” in Taiwan of the 1980s

The Problematization of “Post-Modernism”
A Study on the Imaginary Construction of “Post-Modern Poetry” in Taiwan of the 1980s

Yun-Yuan Chen*

Abstract

This article focuses on the appearance, acceptance and canonization of “post-modern poetry” in Taiwan in the mid-1980s. The establishment of “postmodern poetry” as a literary genre was constructed by Luo Ching, Lin Yao-te, and Meng Fan to demonstrate and explain that the “post-modern condition” also existed in Taiwan. Notably these introducers tried to construct a new genre of post-modern literature not by translating foreign post-modern poetry into Chinese, but by finding the post-modern spirit in the existing poetry of young poets in Taiwan, which were born after W.W.II. In fact, the postmodern discourse of Taiwan in this period was connected to the rise of a new generation of writers and urban writings. The younger generation adopted this as a strategy to fight against their elders, making a rupture between generations and overcoming their “anxiety of influence” towards the modernists and realists. The spread of “post-modernism” in Taiwan was therefore not just an example of global knowledge flow, but also a localization process that chimed with the transformation of social and economical situation, the rise of younger generation writers, and the post-colonial condition after the lift of martial law in 1987.

 

◎Keywords: post-modernist poetry, new generation, urban writing, Lin Yao-te, Luo Ching, Meng Fan, Hsia Yu

★Ph.D. Candidate, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi University; Adjunct Lecturer, Department of Chinese Literature, National Chengchi University, and Department of Taiwanese Literature, Aletheia University.

徐禎苓╱醫者意也:《西遊記》的醫療表述

醫者意也
《西遊記》的醫療表述

徐禎苓*

摘要

明代醫療系統完備,建立起醫藥與食療論述,轉化為《西遊記》情節。誠然,小說頻頻歪讀醫療要旨,看似謬悠之說,但從醫者意也的視角,卻暗合多重隱喻。本文擬從醫藥與醫養兩方面進行探究,從中勾連身體觀,推廓出兩種指涉,其一為政治、社會層面的身體,由國王的病體,輻輳出官僚、社會的頹敗,醫藥儼然為治體/國處方;其二為長青文化的養生觀,無論是席宴中仙藥仙果作為諸仙裝備身體的贈禮,或是唐僧本身在食和性的系統體現長生意涵,以調笑之姿詮釋醫養敘事。由醫療戲言,映照出小說家含藏政權諷諭與宗教辯證的策略,允為文史醫學具表徵性的一種書寫。

◎關鍵詞:《西遊記》,醫療,養生,身體,權力

★國立政治大學中國文學研究所博士生。

Chen-Ling Hsu╱The Image of Medicine: Medical Representations in The Journey to the West

The Image of Medicine
Medical Representations in The Journey to the West

Chen-Ling Hsu*

Abstract

By the Ming dynasty, the system of medicine was complete and included
discussions on medicine and diet. This medical system was adapted into the
plot of The Journey to the West. Although the novel looks absurd and deliberately mocks the purpose of the medicines, it draws multiple meanings from the image of medicine. There are two dimensions to consider in relation to the body, whose concrete referents are: (1) the political and societal body and (2) health in terms of the macrobiotic culture. The writer also creates political satire and religious dialogue in its medical parodies, illustrating the symbolic function of medicine in literature and medical writing.

 

◎Keywords: The Journey to the West, medical treatment, self-cultivation, body, power

★Ph.D. Student, Department of Chinese Literature, National Chengchi University.

議題與討論
Polemics and Discussions

  • 張志維╱憂鬱書寫:評黃道明《酷兒政治與台灣現代「性」》
    Chang Chih-wei╱Melancholic Writing: A Review of Hans Tao-Ming Huang’s Queer Politics and Sexual Modernity in Taiwan (The Chinese Edition)
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