101年3月號

2019-08-14

第四十一卷 第一期 總436 中華民國101年3月
Vol.41 No.1 March 2012

《中外文學》三月號收錄了五篇精彩論文:李秀娟透過二戰期間日裔美國人被強迫遷徙集中居住的歷史,探討既有的遷徙營敘述,也企圖建立一個以創傷理論為核心的新敘述模式;王智明討論赴美成長的越南難童與韓國養女「回歸故土」的敘事,主張跨國親密關係的重組與替置是九○年代後亞美文學的重要議題;吳懷晨以陳映真三篇小說〈賀大哥〉、〈山路〉及〈趙南棟〉為例,探索其作品中的基督教救贖思想;蔡淑玲以左拉的小說《作品》對真實感的捕捉出發,企圖重新建立左拉與德勒茲的關連;秦嘉嫄則嘗試從劇場空間的角度,重探當代表演作品中的觀演關係。

中外文學三月號目錄
Contents

李秀娟╱歷史記憶與創傷時間:敘述日裔美國遷徙營

歷史記憶與創傷時間
敘述日裔美國遷徙營

李秀娟*

摘要
      這一篇論文爬梳日裔美國遷徙營(relocation camp)敘述的歷史,討論既存的遷徙營敘述,也試圖建立一個以創傷理論為核心的遷徙營敘述模式。論文主張不只將日美遷徙營視為一樁發生在過去的歷史事件,並將其視為一個歷史創傷:作為歷史事件,遷徙營有其發生的特定時空,敘述遷徙營是為了回到歷史過去以還原史實;作為歷史創傷,遷徙營記憶的「時間後延性」(temporal belatedness)則足以連繫不同時空,敘述遷徙營的重點也不再只是史實挖掘,而是透過不斷的歷史敘述與傳衍的過程,去延伸事件的衝擊力與渲染力。論文第一部分先勾勒出一個日美遷徙營的敘述史,了解遷徙營歷史在不同論述情境下被賦予的不同意義,並討論這些不同敘述模式帶來的論述意涵與侷限。接著,筆者援引拉卡柏(Dominick LaCapra)、卡露思(Cathy Caruth)、凱普蘭(E. Ann Kaplan)、以及班涅特(Jill Bennett)等學者對創傷結構與歷史書寫的見解,特別是創傷如何締造記憶時延的動能,思索創傷時間如何能被挪轉為有意義的文化批判時間,並藉此導引出一個敘述遷徙營的新模式。論文最後一部份從創傷跨界與時延的角度閱讀史塔吉(John Sturges)執導的《黑岩喋血記》(Bad Day at Black Rock; 1954),透過對日美遷徙營歷史一種創傷式的閱讀,探索遷徙營創傷效應穿越時間與族裔邊界的可能。

◎關鍵詞:日裔美國遷徙營,創傷,時間,歷史,記憶,種族,《黑岩喋血記》

★國立臺灣師範大學英語學系副教授。

Hsiu-chuan Lee╱Historical Memory and Traumatic Time: Narrating Japanese American Relocation Camps

Historical Memory and Traumatic Time
Narrating Japanese American Relocation Camps

Hsiu-chuan Lee*

Abstract
      Investigating the narrative history of Japanese American relocation camps, this paper studies the changing modes of relocation narratives and seeks in the efforts of activating the relocation’s traumatic contagious force a new model and ethics of writing history. I propose to read the Japanese American relocation not simply as an event that occurred in a historical past but as a trauma. In the case of the former, the relocation studies call for a return to a specific time and place and a restoration of the Japanese American internees’ experiences. In the case of the latter, emphases are shifted to the impact of the relocation, whose transferential potential is not confined to any singular time, place, generation, or ethnic group. The first part of the paper surveys the significance and limitations of existing narratives that give the relocation different meanings. The second part draws on Dominick LaCapra, Cathy Caruth, E. Ann Kaplan, and Jill Bennett to explore the temporal belatedness of trauma and locate in “traumatic time” a space of critical negotiations and conceptual innovations. The last section analyzes John Sturges’s Hollywood feature Bad Day at Black Rock (1954) as a textual example to illustrate the contagiousness of relocation memories across time and beyond the Japanese American community.

◎Keywords: Japanese American relocation, trauma, time, history, memory, race, Bad Day at Black Rock

★Associate Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

王智明╱混血難童與跨國養女:亞美「回歸」敘事裡的帝國親密

混血難童與跨國養女
亞美「回歸」敘事裡的帝國親密

王智明*

摘要
      這篇文章聚焦在越南難童與韓國養女的「回歸」敍事,以指出跨國親密關係的重組與替置乃是九○後亞美文學的重要關切。回家與尋母的故事不只突顯亞美主體想像家國的困境,同時也指向對於帝國歷史與亞洲現代性的批判與反省。借鏡美國西語裔學者對於「邊境」經驗與「混血」意識的討論,我試圖以「邊境混血」的概念來承接與翻譯「跨國性」,一方面藉以鬆動跨國主義的階級預設,另一方面強調親密關係之於跨國想像與實踐的重要性。在這裡,跨國性不僅指涉了資本主義的文化邏輯以及既有的跨國網路和行動,它更確切地指向親密關係的跨國破壞與生產。透過這樣的跨文化轉譯,我們可以建立起「帝國親密」這個批判概念來理解難童與養女的跨國經驗,並將亞美文學的論述焦點從文化認同與「肯認美國」轉向「亞/美關係」的批判性重構。我的基本論點是:亞美文學的「亞洲轉向」不該被看作是一種文明主義式的亞洲回歸、認同與擁抱。相反的,我們應該批判地將亞美文學的亞洲再現視為反省亞美社群與亞洲關係的契機與場域。在越南難童與韓國養女的回歸敍事裡,我們可以看見「回歸敍事」裡的帝國親密如何承載著愛恨交織的「亞/美關係」,以及邊境混血的批判意識如何突顯親密關係的地緣政治與種族邊界。更重要的,難童與養女苦澀卻幸運的跨國生命,不僅幫助我們掌握種族歧視與國族羞恥的連結,演繹「移民/異民、遺民/憶民」的辯證思考,它更敦促我們重新思索家國的意義,進而深入了解移民與帝國在亞洲現代性裡的關連。

◎關鍵詞:跨國性,帝國親密,回歸敍事,混血難童,跨國養女

★中央研究院歐美研究所助研究員。

Chih-ming Wang╱Mix-raced Refugees and Transnational Adoptees: The Imperial Intimacy in Asian American Return Narratives

Mix-raced Refugees and Transnational Adoptees
The Imperial Intimacy in Asian American Return Narratives

Chih-ming Wang*

Abstract
This article focuses on the return narratives of refugees and adoptees in Asian American writing. It argues that intimacies across borders and races have been a critical concern in contemporary Asian American writing and the stories of “return” bespeak the difficulty of imagining home in the intersections of U.S. imperialism and Asian modernity. In this paper, I borrow the ideas of la frontera and mestiza from Chicano studies to describe the experience of refugees and adoptees and to establish “imperial intimacy” as a critical category to examine and recast such banal terms as transnationality and transnationalism which have thus far centered on middle-class immigrants. The transnational biographies of refugees and adoptees allow us to better understand the immigrant, dialectically, not only as an alienated and displaced subject, but also as a subject of memory. In doing so, Asian American discourse can begin to reflect critically on the “Asian/Asian American relations” as the ground on which the notion of home is complexly articulated with and against empire and modernity, as Asian American literature travels to other destinations and reach other audiences.

◎Keywords: transnationality, imperial intimacy, return narrative, mix-raced refugee, transracial/transnational adoptee

★ Assistant Research Fellow, Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica.

吳懷晨╱快樂的罪行:陳映真救贖三部曲結構中的罪與聖

快樂的罪行
陳映真救贖三部曲結構中的罪與聖

吳懷晨*

摘要
      本文旨在討論陳映真作品中的基督教救贖思想,選擇〈賀大哥〉、〈山路〉、〈趙南棟〉三篇小說為研究文本。主要論證有三:1.鋪陳出這三篇小說的共同結構。2.論述三篇以「犧牲-封聖」之邏輯標榜人之崇高,從而建立陳映真式的「人格等級表」。3.更甚,本文將論證這三篇作品,個別隱藏著陳映真思想的祕密核心,即「快樂的罪行」的荒謬性,與陳映真的社會主義思想實則還是籠罩在基督教的彌賽亞歷史主義底下。本文之分析並非是一種標新立異或文本拆毀,僅是要論證出陳映真隱藏的罪觀與救贖精神,並說明陳映真思想的矛盾,及有時堅持意的牢結的令人匪夷不解之處。

◎關鍵詞:陳映真,救贖三部曲,罪,神聖,快樂的罪行

★國立台北藝術大學共同學科助理教授。

Huai-Chen Wu╱Happy Fault: Sin and the Sacred in Chen Ying-Zhen’s Salvation Fictions

Happy Fault
Sin and the Sacred in Chen Ying-Zhen’s Salvation Fictions

Huai-Chen Wu*

Abstract
      This article discusses Chen Ying-Zhen’s ideas of salvation in three of his works of fiction: “Brother He”, “Mountain Road”, and “Zhao Nan Dong.” First, it analyzes the common structure of these three fictions. Secondly, it investigates the writing strategy of Chen’s “sacrifice-canonization” logic, which unveils how he establishes “personality scale” for his protagonists. Thirdly, the case is made that each of these three works exhibit hidden secrets of Chen’s ideology, i.e. “Mountain Road” implies the absurdity of “happy fault (Felix culpa)” and Chen’s socialist ideology but in fact is merely a substitute for Christian Messiah historicism.

◎Keywords: Chen Ying-Zhen, salvation, sin, happy fault, the sacred

★Assistant Professor, Department of General Education, Taipei National University of the Arts.

蔡淑玲╱生活塑模與生命未形之間:從真實感的捕捉論左拉與德勒茲的關連

生活塑模與生命未形之間
從真實感的捕捉論左拉與德勒茲的關連

蔡淑玲*

摘要
      左拉的自然主義自十九世紀以來一直受制於所謂生物/基因/環境決定論的解讀。本文意旨在生活塑模與生命未形之間重新建立左拉與德勒茲的關連。德勒茲指出左拉的自然主義解釋了兩種遺傳:本能與縫隙。前者乃是生活塑模反覆固定本能與慾望之物的僵固關係所致。當前者不斷重複形成塑模之本同,後者則是塑模成型過程當中,永恆超溢的「未形」,在主體本同侷限的邊界上,因迴譯而改變生命意義生產的模式與方向。本文以左拉的小說《作品》為主要文本,連結德勒茲為《人獸》所寫的序言,以「捕捉真實感」為起點分析兩者思想上的關連。

◎關鍵詞:左拉,德勒茲,自然主義,侷限書寫,鏡幕理論,攝化

★淡江大學法文系教授。

Shuling Stephanie Tsai╱The Borderline Between the Perpetual Mode of Lives & Life in Terms of the Unfigured: On Zola’s Naturalism vis-a-vis Deleuze’s Subject Formation

The Borderline Between the Perpetual Mode of Lives & Life in Terms of the Unfigured
On Zola’s Naturalism vis-a-vis Deleuze’s Subject Formation

Shuling Stephanie Tsai*

Abstract
      It is on the borderline of the perpetual mode of lives and life in terms of the “Non-figured” that Zola’s conceptualization of naturalism deserves reevaluation in relation to the contemporary issues of subjective-formation as proposed, for example, by Foucault and Deleuze. Deleuze distinguishes between two cycles coexisting in the work of Zola: inheritance of instincts and inheritance of fracture; the first determines the condition of every person’s “nature” as the synthesized instinct-object relation reproduced incessantly in a given mode of life; and the latter, transcending all modes of life, transmits nothing but itself. Based on Zola’s work L’œuvre and Deleuze’s preface to Zola’s novel La bête humaine, the present study enquires into Zola’s art theory on “capturing the sense of the real” vis-a-vis Deleuze’s version of capturing the force of Life.

 

◎Keywords: Zola, Deleuze, Naturalism, Ecriture de la limite, theory of the screen, becoming

★Professor, Department of French, Tamkang University.

秦嘉嫄╱重塑空間:「觀演關係」研究之新途徑

重塑空間
「觀演關係」研究之新途徑

秦嘉嫄*

摘要
      本篇論文擬從劇場空間的角度,探討當代表演作品中的觀演關係。本文的研究重點將不是文字劇本、不是角色塑造、也不是舞台設計或場面調度,而是一種存在於表演與觀眾之間的流動空間,以及此空間對劇場美學的影響、對觀眾研究的啟發。全文分成三大部分,第一部分把劇場視為如同祭儀一般的中介空間,第二是具有改變力量的對抗空間,第三是權力流動的你我之間,通過這三種角度的結合,並以「嘴塊特攻隊」(Gob Squad)和「背對背劇場」(Back to Back Theatre)的作品為代表例子,探討觀演關係對空間的感知與創造,如何生產出多層次空間,帶起視覺流動,成就了觀演關係作為劇場的深刻連結與其無盡的開放力量,並啟發了一條研究觀演關係的新實驗性途徑。

◎關鍵詞:觀演關係,中介性,劇場空間,觀眾研究,特納,謝喜納,列斐福爾

★國立東華大學中國語文學系助理教授。

Tsu-Chung Su╱“Turning and Turning in the Widening Gyre:” Chung Wai Literary Quarterly Wavers Not at Its 40th Anniversary?!

“Turning and Turning in the Widening Gyre”
Chung Wai Literary Quarterly Wavers Not at Its 40th Anniversary?!

Tsu-Chung Su*

Abstract

Turning and turning! Ever since its founding in June 1972, Chung Wai has been undergoing a series of transformations. It inherited the spirit of Humanistic concerns as well as the dual emphasis on creative writing and scholarly research from the two contemporary journals, Wenxue Zazhi (Literary Review) and Xiandai Wenxue (Modern Literature), in the ‘50s and ‘60s. Subsequently, its focus was shifted from literary criticism to critical theory and cultural studies as the New Criticism approach became passe in the ‘80s. In the ‘90s, Chung Wai changed the Editor’s title to “Editor in Chief ” and invited guest editors to organize special issues to promote topics reflecting different concerns or speaking for different schools/approaches of critical theories. The journal redefined its mission in November 2003 and decided henceforth to exclude creative writings and translations of Western literature. In this way, it was made over as a pure scholarly journal and took on the task of building a bastion of literary theory and criticism. It now exudes elitism and continues to promote advanced learning and high theory. Instead of tracing the history of Chung Wai, this paper endeavors to analyze the changes in Chung Wai’s management strategy and their consequences. Further, the paper explores the role of Chung Wai in the Arts and Humanities circles in Taiwan and the journal’s contribution in advancing new waves of critical theory and criticism.

◎Keywords: Chung Wai Literary Quarterly, New Criticism, local turn, literary theory and criticism, academic journal

★Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

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