101年12月號「四十周年專輯 II」

2019-08-10

第四十一卷 第四期 總439 中華民國101年12月
Vol.41 No.4 December 2012

《中外文學》十二月號延續六月號的「四十周年專輯 I」,推出了「四十周年專輯 II」,有兩篇論文:梅家玲探討《中外文學》對戰後台灣的中國文學研究與後來的台灣文學研究之影響及相互關係;王智明則從外國文學研究的發展與歷史意義來進行討論;另,總編輯朱偉誠亦分析比較文學在台灣的發展,為「四十周年專輯」作結。在一般論文部分,蘇子中討論法國劇場工作者亞陶(Antonin Artaud)因病痛折磨所激發出的創作熱情,除了檢視亞陶作品所展現的病癥效應與驅力外,也指出亞陶的寫作場景是病痛、熱情、情感、身體及文字相遇互動的場域;張雅蘭從日裔美國作家尾關露絲(Ruth Ozeki)的小說《食肉之年》與《天下蒼生》切入,探討食品安全與環境保護議題;陳麗芬則解析近年在大陸文壇頗受矚目的小說《狼圖騰》及其內蘊的自然、文化、地理、歷史想像與政治議題,探索其在當代大陸文學/文化脈絡中的角色與社會意義。在學術書評部分,伍軒宏則對張君玫的著作《後殖民的陰性情境:語文、翻譯和欲望》做出精彩評論。

 

中外文學十二月號目錄
Contents

編輯室報告
Editorial Note

  • 朱偉誠╱編輯室報告
    Wei-cheng Chu╱Editorial Note

蘇子中╱從病痛到細/戲說哲理:亞陶的受難與熱情

從病痛到細/戲說哲理
亞陶的受難與熱情

蘇子中*

摘要

從病痛到細/戲說哲理,亞陶終其一生,如同尼采般,都在與他身體的病痛周旋抗爭,但在此同時,卻又能夠將這些痛楚轉化成發人深省的「哲理」與對劇場與人生的反思與細膩觀察。對亞陶而言,病痛當頭的確讓寫作變得困難重重,但他發展出過人的耐力與毅力,積極擁抱病痛與磨難,並將其視為書寫與人生不可或缺的部分。總而言之,亞陶所受的病痛是他邁向細/戲說哲理與瘋狂書寫的通過儀式。他的病痛轉化為哲理的過程承襲了尼采生命哲學的風格,但他偏離了尼采,發展出其個人獨特的書寫風格與展演方式。可以確定的是,亞陶的受難與熱情(the passion of Artaud)支配了寫作的場景。本論文除將討論亞陶的受難與熱情,檢視亞陶作品中所展現的病癥效應與驅力外,也試圖說明亞陶的寫作場景是病痛、熱情、情感、身體及文字相遇互動的場域。在研究範疇方面,本文打算分析探討亞陶較不受重視的早期與晚期著作,以檢視其早期著作為引子,分析其晚期著作為主要的研究焦點,其目的不外乎重新標示一個亞陶研究的新範疇。本文想要論證的是:亞陶的書寫所表徵/癥的並不只侷限於病痛的症狀與意義,還包括病痛的感染力與情感力量,亦即病痛如何去感染、影響社會與文化,和如何被社會與文化所感染、影響。本論文並不打算從亞陶所痛恨的精神醫學或精神分析的觀點來檢視亞陶的創傷、病痛與書寫,而是從史賓諾沙情感論的角度出發,來感知亞陶的身體書寫與精神狀態,並進一步去探索從亞陶的病痛或瘋狂書寫所演繹的批評理論與哲學思潮,鋪陳亞陶著作的成就與影響力及建立以亞陶為軸心的思想系譜學。

◎關鍵詞:亞陶,病痛,瘋狂,書寫,受難/熱情

★國立臺灣師範大學英語學系教授。

Tsu-Chung Su╱Sickness unto Philosophizing: The Passion of Artaud

Sickness unto Philosophizing
The Passion of Artaud

Tsu-Chung Su*

Abstract

Nietzsche and Artaud both possess great capacity for thought and writing in states of sickness. Whereas Nietzsche came to look upon his fragile health as a unique gift, Artaud recognized his sickness by enacting and embodying it. In the end, the migraines which blinded Nietzsche and the pain which got on Artaud’s nerves paradoxically allowed them to see into the nature of human body, existence, and life in general. For Artaud, writing was particularly difficult in times of sickness. He, nevertheless, developed the stamina to embrace suffering and sickness as essential parts of his creative gift and life. In the end, his suffering was his rite of passage unto delirious writing and philosophizing. How do we interpret the impact of sickness on Artaud’s writings and his tendency toward “philosophizing”? Are Artaud’s writings the rantings of a sickman or is there something genuinely “philosophical” in his “diseased” sensibility? As the passion of Artaud dominates the scene of writing, I first examine the passion of Artaud by exploring his symptomatic manifestations and then to trace his sickness’ transformation into philosophizing and writing. Howeve, I do not intend to examine Artaud’s trauma, sickness, and writing from the perspective of psychiatry or psychoanalysis which Artaud detests. On the contrary, I argue that what his diseased body informs is not just the “meaning” of his sickness but the Spinozian “affect” of his existence which defines the diseased body’s ability to affect and to be affected. In the meantime, this paper will trace and explore the critical theories which are either derived from or appropriating Artaud’s ideas with a view to assessing Artaud’s impact and building up a genealogy of Artaud’s thoughts.

◎Keywords: Artaud, sickness, madness, writing, passion

★Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

張雅蘭╱「食物即訊息」:論尾關露絲小說中的風險論述和環境行動主義

「食物即訊息」
論尾關露絲小說中的風險論述和環境行動主義

張雅蘭*

摘要

氣候變遷與異常是當今二十一世紀人們有目共睹的全球現象,有鑑於其所帶來的災難與危機,各領域學者紛紛提出對應的解決之道。近年來許多關於農食議題的相關環境文學與影片亦逐漸受到大眾關注,環境學者更提出救環境從送入口中的食物開始。由於黑心食品與食物中毒的事件每隔不久就會出現在國內外的新聞報導中,全球化的巨大鎖鍊又將新的不平等風險加諸在每個環境公民身上,因此全球環境風險與食物危機有著密不可分的關係。本文企圖從日裔美籍作家尾關露絲(Ruth Ozeki)的作品《食肉之年》(My Year of Meats; 1999)和《天下蒼生》(All Over Creation; 2003),來探討作品中關於肉品生產問題和基因改造食物的論點、風險論述、以及文本中主人翁們的環境行動主義實踐。小說中呈現了科學如何介入環境保護議題與風險認知,並產生又迎又拒的矛盾情節,專家與大眾因風險認知不同而衍生出的辯論與行動,以及環境行動份子的形象與訴求以及與主流勢力相互角力所引發的激辯,皆為本文討論的重點。藉由檢視尾關在文本中依賴敘事科學來揭露美國食品工業體系如何影響本國與他國人民和大眾的日常生活,主人翁們又如何在這個勢力龐大的食品帝國所製造出來的全球風險社會中生存與抵抗,進而分析環境行動主義藉由食物議題,對於成為環境公民的意識是否提供另一條面對全球食品/環境風險的出路。

◎關鍵詞:風險社會,環境行動主義,敘事科學,尾關露絲,生態女性主義

★華梵大學外文系助理教授。

Yalan Chang╱“Food Is the Message:” Risk Narratives and Environmental Activism in the Works of Ruth Ozeki

“Food Is the Message”
Risk Narratives and Environmental Activism in the Works of Ruth Ozeki

Yalan Chang*

Abstract

Climate change and anomaly are global phenomena in the twenty-first century. Under globalization it is often the case that new inequalities and risks emerge around basic human needs. In view of disasters and crises they bring, scholars have proposed alternative solutions. The public are also concerned about environmental literature and film which focus on the issues of agriculture and food. There is a global environmental food crisis, which shackles the world with a great chain of risk. Japanese-American writer Ruth Ozeki’s My Year of Meats (1999) and All Over Creation (2003) both illustrate the omnipresent risks not only in the meat itself (beef in this case), as produced by the corporate meat industry in which animals suffer and laborers work in miserable conditions, but also in the bioengineered crop plant (for example potatoes).
This essay argues that, aware of the risk created by global industrialized or GM food production, Ozeki in both novels highlights the issues of food and depicts how environmental activists, such as ecofeminist activists or antibiotechnology activists confront the crises. The politics of food and narrative science, as shown in both novels, are not only thoroughly intertwined with ethical, cultural, and environmental disputes over the basic rights of human and nonhuman animals, but also demonstrate the blurring of boundaries between body and environment, natural and unnatural food, and public and domestic sphere. Therefore, through a representation of food activism, Ozeki in her works show how food issues reshape people’s everyday life and make a “global” turn in terms of consciousness raising or engaging ecological citizenship.

◎Keywords: Ruth Ozeki, All Over CreationMy Year of Meats, Ulrich Beck, risk, environmental activism, ecofeminism, narrativizing science

★ Assistant Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Huafan University.

陳麗芬╱野性的姿勢:姜戎《狼圖騰》與中國想像

野性的姿勢
姜戎《狼圖騰》與中國想像

陳麗芬*

摘要

2007 年「亞洲文學獎」得主姜戎的《狼圖騰》是近年在大陸文壇上最受矚目的創作之一。作品中交纏糾結的對自然、文化、地理、歷史的想像與政治話語,是本文的探討焦點。透過對其文學類型、異族想像、個人記憶與歷史敘述的分析,本文試圖提出一些與目前評論不同的閱讀可能,探討它在當代大陸文學/文化發展脈絡裏所扮演的角色以及社會意義。本文認為《狼圖騰》深具代表性,特別是在這個所謂的「中國崛起」的年代,它在很大程度上反射了中國菁英知識分子在對「現代民族」的想像與再建構上,與當前中國國家大敘述的密切互動關係。

◎關鍵詞:蒙古,狼,尋根文學,文革,知青,中國

★香港科技大學人文學部副教授。

Li-fen Chen╱A Gesture of Savagery: Jiang Rong’s Wolf Totem and China in Imagination

A Gesture of Savagery
Jiang Rong’s Wolf Totem and China in Imagination

Li-fen Chen*

Abstract

The winner of the first Man Asian Literary Prize in 2007, Jiang Rong’s Wolf Totem, has received enormous attention in China in recent years. Its interlocking imaginaries of nature, culture, geography and history as well as its political discourse are the focus of investigation in this article. Dealing with topics of genre, ethnicity, memory and historical representation, this article reads Wolf Totem in ways that differ from most of those in the current discussions of the work. It attempts to examine the role of Wolf Totem within the context of recent development of mainland Chinese literature and cultural discourses, and to explore the social implications of the work. This article argues that Wolf Totem is highly representative of a present-day intellectual discourse in its imagination and reconstruction of the “modern nation” and its negotiation with the grand narrative of Chinese subjectivity especially in this era in which China is said to “have risen.”

◎Keywords: Mongolia, wolf, literature of root searching, Cultural Revolution, educated youth, China

★Associate Professor, Division of Humanities, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

四十周年專輯 II
Chung Wai: Forty Years and On, Part II

梅家玲╱《中外文學》與中國/台灣文學研究:以「學院派文學雜誌」為視角的考察

《中外文學》與中國/台灣文學研究
以「學院派文學雜誌」為視角的考察

梅家玲*

摘要

所謂「學院派」文學雜誌,乃是由任教於高等院校的學界人士所創辦,以學者及青年學生為編輯及寫作主力,並且每每將學院中的研究與教學成果,轉化為出版文化產品,進而走出學院,進入一般閱讀市場的文學雜誌。本論文試圖以此為觀照視角,就數十年來《中外文學》與「中國/台灣」文學研究的相互關係,進行初步考察。所關切的問題,主要是:《中外文學》如何以其「學院」的位置,介入了當時的學科建制與大學教育?發展過程中,它又如何因「學院人」的學術優勢,引介新興理論思潮,與「中國(古典)」,以及「台灣(現當代)」文學研究進行互動?

◎關鍵詞:《中外文學》,學院派文學雜誌,中國文學,台灣文學

★國立臺灣大學臺灣文學研究所與中國文學系合聘教授。

Chia-ling Mei╱Chung Wai Literary Monthly and the Studies of Chinese/Taiwan Literature: An Investigation from the Perspective of “Academic Literary Journals”

Chung Wai Literary Monthly and the Studies of Chinese/Taiwan Literature
An Investigation from the Perspective of “Academic Literary Journals”

Chia-ling Mei*

Abstract

“Academic literary journals” refer to journals published by academics at high-level educational institutions. As scholars and students are the main editors and writers for them, these journals represent not only the latest results of academic research but also instructional materials that are now available to the reading public. The present study adopts this perspective for a preliminary investigation of the decades-long relationship between Chung Wai Literary Monthly and the Chinese/Taiwan literary research. This study focuses on the following questions: how did Chung-Wai Literary Monthly use its academic position to intervene in the establishment of such contemporary discipline as comparative literature and to influence college/university-level education accordingly? And how did Chung Wai Literary Monthly introduce newly emerging theories and thus facilitate interactions between Western literary studies and those of (ancient) China and (modern/contemporary) Taiwan to the effect of reinventing the former and establishing the latter as a new academic discipline.

 

◎Keywords: Chung Wai Literary Monthly, academic literary journals, Chinese literature, Taiwan literature

★Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Taiwan University.

王智明╱文化邊界上的知識生產:「外文學門」歷史化初探

文化邊界上的知識生產
「外文學門」歷史化初探

王智明*

摘要

本文指出:「外文研究」的出現與十九世紀中葉以降的西學東漸密不可分;它不只標示近代中國文學觀念的轉變以及殖民現代性的到來,更承載了「溝通中外、再建文明」的使命,代表了現代中國知識份子企圖以文學思想的譯介來適應與超克殖民現代性的努力。因此,與其將外文研究定位為一門研究西方文學與文化的學問,不如將之理解為一個文化與思想的邊境,是不斷跨界迻譯、比較批判、尋求文明改造的知識實踐。因此,我們應該賦予外文學門之「外」一個動態的理解,視之為進入與引介現代性的自我翻譯與超越,亦是對現代性本身的改寫與重述。

◎關鍵詞:外文學門,現代性,翻譯,殖民主義,外地文學

★中研院歐美所助研究員。

Chih-ming Wang╱Knowledge Production on the Frontier: An Attempt at Historicizing Foreign Literature Studies in Taiwan

Knowledge Production on the Frontier
An Attempt at Historicizing Foreign Literature Studies in Taiwan

Chih-ming Wang*

Abstract

This article argues that the emergence of foreign literature studies in China and Taiwan has much to do with the advent of Western knowledge. It marks a moment of transition in the history of Chinese literature and the arrival of colonial modernity. Rather than designating foreign literature studies as a study of the West, I contend that viewed in contexts, it is more productive to rearticulate it as the frontier of culture and thought, and as a border-crossing practice of knowledge production and cultural transformation. The study of foreign literature is as much an introduction to modernity through translation as a critical rewriting of modernity itself.

◎Keywords: foreign literature studies, modernity, translation, colonialism,gaichi literature

★Assistant Research Fellow, Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica.

四十周年專輯結語
Postscript to the Special Section

  • 朱偉誠╱定位與連接:作為思想資源的台灣比較文學
    Wei-cheng Chu╱Positioning and Connecting: Comparative Literature in Taiwan as a Critical Resource

議題與討論
Polemics and Discussions

  • 伍軒宏╱再見後殖民:評張君玫《後殖民的陰性情境:語文、翻譯和欲望》
    Shuan-hung Wu╱The Postcolonial Double Take: A Review of The Postcolonial Feminine Situation: Language, Translation and Desire by Chun-Mei Chuang
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