100年9月號

2019-08-14

第四十卷 第三期 總434 中華民國100年9月
Vol.40 No.3 September 2011

《中外文學》九月號收錄了五篇精彩論文:張小虹透過侯孝賢拍攝東京日常生活的電影《珈琲時光》,探討「淡入淡出」如何由電影美學形式,轉換為一種生命影像哲學;劉紀雯討論印裔加拿大導演蒂帕梅塔(Deepa Mehta)的四部多倫多電影,剖析影片所建構出的多倫多離散空間如何成為跨族裔、跨性別對話的社會空間;陳春燕挪用儂曦、阿岡本等理論家的觀念,解析邱妙津相關研究,思索文學研究對身份的討論,藉以釐清身份政治與獨一性理論之間的關係;謝莉莉重新檢視德勒茲哲學中幾個關鍵的衝突點,藉此讓思想與情感、以及在政治上看似對立的兩端,有了重新結盟的契機;唐際明則由瑞士德語詩人邁耶(C. F. Meyer)四首以米開朗基羅及其作品為主題所作的詩歌,以及兩首「物詩」的經典代表作切入,探索雕塑藝術對「物詩」之啟發。

中外文學九月號目錄
Contents

張小虹╱身體-城市的淡入淡出:侯孝賢與《珈琲時光》

身體-城市的淡入淡出
侯孝賢與《珈琲時光》

張小虹*

摘要
「淡入淡出」原本慣為電影鏡頭剪接的專門術語,「淡出」將鏡頭的尾端逐漸轉為黑畫面,而「淡入」則是將鏡頭由黑畫面轉亮。而本篇論文正是想要透過侯孝賢拍東京日常生活的《珈琲時光》,去理論化另一種淡入淡出的可能:「淡」為變化,「出」與「入」為運動,淡入淡出便是「知微之顯」的影像生成哲學。而本論文的重點,便在於如何由「淡入淡出」作為電影美學剪接技法切入,轉換到淡入淡出作為生命影像哲學的可能。
     全文分成三大部分。第一部份以法國當代理論家余蓮的《淡之頌》切入,凸顯淡作為一種發展與變化的生命力潛在狀態,再帶到《珈琲時光》如何透過「顯運動」(淡入為具體形廓、物事或行動)與「微運動」(淡出為光=物質=影像=運動)的反覆,將身體-城市轉化為光影變化,成就一種「光」的寫「時」主義。第二部份則將討論淡入淡出的焦點推展到《珈琲時光》中的電車,探討為何《珈琲時光》基本上是一部有關城市-電車以流變符號相連接的電影,不僅是電車作為「再現視覺形式」的無所不在,更在於電車作為身體-城市「身動力」的無所不在。第三部份則企圖從聲軌的角度來持續發展淡入淡出的影像哲學,凸顯非人稱的電車聲如何從「人聲中心主義」與「口說中心主義」中解放出來,成為東京城市「音景」中最重要的能量湧動。
     唯有當淡入淡出從「美學形式」轉化為「影像哲學」,東京做為「身體-城市」才能成為時間之流中不斷發展變化的異質複合體,隨時淡入為東京,隨時淡出為任意空間,讓我們在東京作為「城市再現」之外,同時感受到了不可再現、不可視見的生命影像流變。

◎關鍵詞:侯孝賢,《珈琲時光》,身體,城市,淡入,淡出,電車,身動力

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Hsiao-hung Chang╱Fade in-Fade out of the Body-City: Hsiao-hsien Hou and Café Lumière

Fade in-Fade out of the Body-City
Hsiao-hsien Hou and Café Lumière

Hsiao-hung Chang*

Abstract
As a cinematographic technique, a fade-out causes the picture to darken and disappear gradually and a fade-in is the reverse process to brighten and appear. However, this paper attempts to theorize another fade in-fade out through the film Café Lumière directed by Hsiao-hsien Hou on the everyday life of Tokyo: “fade” as change; “in” and “out” as movement; fade in-fade out as no longer mere editing techniques or aesthetic forms but a new philosophy of becoming in-between the manifest and the latent, the virtual and the actual.
     The paper will be divided into three parts. Part I will take the concept of the fade in light of François Jullien’s In Praise of Blandness as a virtual developing and changing, and use this concept to read the body-city of Café Lumière as a realism of “light,” constantly shifting between the discernible (fading in as concrete figures, things or actions) and the indiscernible (fading out as light, material, image and movement). Part II will move on to the image of the train to discuss how Café Lumière is basically a film about the city-train connected through “-” as the sign of becoming. While the train as the “visual form of representation” is portrayed everywhere in the film, the train as the “affect” of the body-city is even more haptically felt everywhere in the film. Part III will try to continue the theorization of fade in-fade out by shifting the focus to the soundtrack. It will foreground how the non-personal train sound can be liberated from vococentrism and verbocentrism to become the most important energetic force of the Tokyo soundscape.
     Only when fade in-fade out is transformed from “aesthetic form” to “image philosophy” can Tokyo become an affective assemblage of multiplicity, constantly fading in as Tokyo and fading out as any-space-whatever, a body-city that temporarily stands beyond representation and affects us incessantly with its unrepresentable, invisible flow of Life.

◎Keywords: Hsiao-hsien Hou, Café Lumière, body, city, fade in, fade out, train, affect

★ Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

劉紀雯╱後現代都市中的移民與愛情:蒂帕梅塔的多倫多電影

後現代都市中的移民與愛情
蒂帕梅塔的多倫多電影

劉紀雯*

摘要
     蒂帕梅塔的多倫多影片處理多倫多後現代都會中的愛情與家庭的可能性,可以被視為多倫多這個垂直(有階級)的鑲嵌玻璃的縮影:以盎格魯-撒克遜族白人(WASP)的「愛情共和國」為中心,外加上三部呈現南亞裔生活圈的影片。這個鑲嵌玻璃不是靜態僵化的:梅塔在《愛情共和國》與《寶萊塢/好萊塢》中採用「雜多」策略將電影中的「家」開放為離心、跨族裔、跨性別的多元溝通空間;在《山姆與我》與《戀獄天堂》中,她則利用「離散」策略為弱勢角色開放傳統家庭之外的活動空間。「雜多」和「離散」既是文本策略,也是本文反異國情調的脈絡化閱讀策略:本文將四部影片像是四個色塊拼湊成多倫多鑲嵌玻璃的一角,處理文本內和文本之間的對比和對話,讓這塊鑲嵌玻璃所建構的多倫多離散空間(diaspora space)成為一個有限度地容許跨族裔、跨性別對話的社會空間。

◎關鍵詞:蒂帕梅塔,多倫多,雜多,離散,反異國情調化

★輔仁大學英國語文學系副教授。

Kate Chiwen Liu╱Immigrant and Love in the Postmodern City: Deepa Mehta’s Toronto Films

Immigrant and Love in the Postmodern City
Deepa Mehta’s Toronto Films

Kate Chiwen Liu*

Abstract
The present article adopts a “contextualizing (or anti-exotic) reading strategy” to analyze Deepa Mehta’s four Toronto films in juxtaposition to one another. The contextualizing reading deals mostly with the logic of hybridity and diasporization in each of the four Mehta films, but the article ends with connecting the texts with two other “contexts”: their commercial and discursive contexts and their inter-textual connections. In exploring the possibilities of love and family, Deepa Mehta’s Toronto films present a microcosm of Toronto as a vertical mosaic: centered by a WASP “republic of love,” surrounded by three South-Asian family circles. The vertical mosaic is a dynamic one through Mehta’s hybridization process, which allows the characters in The Republic of Love and Bollywood/Hollywood to create de-centering, cross-cultural and cross-gender meanings in word as well as in action; Mehta also breaks open and diasporizes the family spaces in Sam and Me and Heavens on Earth to allow the immigrant characters to evade the power centers in action, in monologue and in fantasy. The article concludes that Mehta’s Toronto films hybridize Toronto’s white center and allow their characters to evade power centers only to a limited degree.  However, a contextualizing reading of the films, by tracing their textual logic, their commercial and discursive contexts and their inter-textual connections,can not only avoid the traps of exoticization but also carved out a diasporic space which allows cross-cultural and cross-gender dialogue, interactions and associations.

◎Keywords: Deepa Mehta, Toronto, Hybridity, Diaspora, Anti-Exotic Reading

★ Associate Professor, English Department, Fu Jen University.

陳春燕╱文學(中)的身份:讀邱妙津日記

文學(中)的身份
讀邱妙津日記

陳春燕*

摘要
     這篇論文的靈感來自一段閱讀邱妙津日記的經驗,但並不直接分析日記文本,而是藉由參與邱妙津相關研究,思索文學研究對身份的討論,希望細緻化身份政治及獨一性理論之間的關係。文章將參考儂曦、阿岡本等人的提法,將身份定義為獨一性彼此曝現一種臨界的存有;認同,也將被理解為個體相互「在一旁顯現」彼此的獨一性,而非服膺特殊性-普遍性的對換辯證邏輯。本文並將以figure(暫譯為「賦形」)作為行文串場工具,以賦形在不同層次感知經驗的運作──包括以譬喻(figure of speech)或具象化過程(figuration)輔助想像的延展、以視覺意象(conceptual figure)模造概念、或為特定族群標舉代表性人物(exemplary figure)──點出我們在傳述身份時不得不憑靠語言的事實,亦即透過各種與身份論述相牽扯的賦形呈現,省思我們之為語言存有物的事實,並探討這個對語言媒介與語言條件的自覺,如何能夠疊映到上述獨一性曝現的主題。以賦形這個看來十分文學修辭的語彙出發,最終目的是將討論帶回文字的層次:既然賦形突顯了感知經驗成形時的語言介面,於是,要在文學中探索身份問題,勢必得碰觸文學本身的身份、以及文學本身的獨一性。賦形的提法,也因之是以文學的問題深化我們對身份問題的討論,在不同層次的賦形堆疊中,面對文學的獨一性與一位作家的獨一性之間的碰撞。

◎關鍵詞:邱妙津,身份,獨一性,賦形,界限,併例,儂曦,阿岡本

★國立臺灣師範大學英語學系副教授。

Chun-yen Chen╱Figuring Identity, Figuring Chiu Miao-chin

Figuring Identity, Figuring Chiu Miao-chin

Chun-yen Chen*

Abstract
     Inspired by Chiu Miao-chin’s writing and available Chiu scholarship, this essay seeks to unsettle the doxa of identity by way of Jean-Luc Nancy’s and Giorgio Agamben’s propositions of singularity. But instead of cancelling out the category of identity outright, the essay proposes that we revamp it by installing the figures of exposure and the limit. Breaking with the representational logic and the particular-general dialectical scheme of identity politics, the reworked notion of identity translates as the exposure of our finitude; identification, by the same token, will now be conceived of as a “showing alongside” or mutual exposure of singularities. The exposure of our finitude, further, will be manifested in the fact that we are linguistic beings: language constitutes and exposes our limit. To attend to the significance of such a conceptualization of identity, this essayadvances a reading strategy around figure, looking at the multi-layered working of figure in our literary experience. This thesis of figure is intended to bring to light language as the limit, on the one hand, and the singularity of the literary, on the other.

◎Keywords: Chiu Miao-chin (Qiu Miaojin), identity, singularity, figure, the limit, example, Jean-Luc Nancy, Giorgio Agamben

★Associate Professor, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.

謝莉莉╱激放的歡愉與其反面: 論德勒茲情感政治中的哀悼和友誼

激放的歡愉與其反面
論德勒茲情感政治中的哀悼和友誼

謝莉莉*

摘要
     在德勒茲著名的〈給一位嚴厲批評家的信〉中,他用尼采的「鳥頌」來反擊米歇爾(Michel Cressole)對《反伊底帕斯》的批評。德勒茲對批評的反擊,用歡愉(joy)與愛來對抗罪惡(guilt)與怨憎(ressentiment),說明了情感在德勒茲的政治哲學中佔有最核心的位置。本文從這個批判的互動出發,重新思考德勒茲哲學中幾個關鍵的衝突點:友誼的政治必然起源於對立(antagonism),歡愉的神聖則近乎一神論,不容批判或治療,以及人的加乘(multiplication)中對非(私)人(impersonal/ inhuman)本質的堅持。為了分析這些衝突點,我建議我們採取賽菊克所說的「弱理論」(weak theory),或德勒茲所說的「精神分裂的分析」(schizoanalysis),一心二用地聆聽德勒茲哲學中震耳的歡愉與喧鬧狂囂的鳥頌,在這樣精神分裂式的聆聽中聽見的是另一個音樂的可能性──德勒茲歡騰的鳥頌背後是杜波以斯(DuBois)的黑人靈魂哀歌。我回到二次大戰後開創團體治療的精神分析師拜昂(W. R. Bion)的「戰鬥團體」(fight group)此一概念,指出德勒茲式歡愉卻陽剛的政治哲學來自以戰鬥為主體的目的論,而這個戰鬥主體背後則是揮之不去的友誼與哀悼的疊影。德勒茲在〈給一位嚴厲批評家的信〉中所展現的衝突點顯示,政治的歡愉或愛需要一個真正精神分裂的理論框架,在這樣的框架下,我們可以重新結盟──而非分裂──思想與情感,以及在政治上看似對立的兩端:不管是歡愉或憂鬱、理論或個人、集體性或主體性,或是德勒茲的朋友以及他們的「敵人」。

◎關鍵詞:德勒茲,情感,友誼政治,憂鬱,群體

★國立中央大學英美語文學系副教授。

Lili Hsieh╱The Untamed Furor and Its Double: Mourning and Friendship in the Deleuzian Politics of Affect

The Untamed Furor and Its Double
Mourning and Friendship in the Deleuzian Politics of Affect

Lili Hsieh*

Abstract
     In Deleuze’s “Letter to a Harsh Critic,” he evokes Nietzsche’s birdsongs in The Gay Science to refute Michel Cressole’s critical reading of Anti-Oedipus. While Deleuze’s letter ends with celebration of the spirit of joke and laughter embedded in the birdsongs, he also closes with the insistence that his rebuttal is without ressentiment. Taking my cue from this critical exchange, in this paper, I revisit key points of tension in Deleuzian philosophy: a politics of friendship that is antagonistic from the start, the dictation of joy that tolerates neither the critical nor the clinical, and the multiplication of subjects that is fundamentally impersonal (or, inhuman). I first reframe the Deleuzian refrain of resistant antagonism into what Eve Sedgwick calls a “weak theory,” or in Deleuze and Guattari’s own words, “schizoanalysis,” of politics of friendship. I then join Deleuzian philosophy with W.R. Bion’s theory of the group to analyze the repressed melancholy in Deleuze and Guattari’s utopian concept of affect. I conclude that while the joyful yet masculinist philosophy/politics of joy is energized by the telos to fight mandated by the context of prolonged global civil war, the Deleuzian assemblage is also haunted by mourning and disintegration of friendship. A new politics of friendship, however, emerges from the unsettled tension between friendship and melancholy.

◎Keywords: Deleuze, affect, politics of friendship, melancholy, collectivity, group

★Associate Professor, English Department, National Central University.

唐際明╱邁耶的「米開朗基羅系列詩」:檢視雕塑藝術對「物詩」之啟發

邁耶的「米開朗基羅系列詩」
檢視雕塑藝術對「物詩」之啟發

唐際明*

摘要
     「物詩」是十九世紀後半葉開始在德語系國家出現的一種詩歌形式,其特色為客觀與形象化地再現出一實「物」。又因其三位代表詩人當中,就有兩位──邁耶與里爾克──的創作深受雕塑大師的啟迪,遂令人懷疑「物詩」欲仿傚雕塑藝術。本論文藉由分析邁耶四首以米開朗基羅本人及其作品為主題所寫作之詩歌及兩首「物詩」的經典代表作──邁耶的〈羅馬噴泉〉與里爾克的〈豹〉──來評斷此推測正確與否。研究結果顯示傑出的「物詩」確實與雕塑極為類似,其創作者也與雕塑家一樣致力於具象地呈現客體、揭露其內在的動態結構,並突顯能夠展現客體本質與精神之表情與手勢。「物詩」應當是不可見的雕塑,卻能在讀者/聽者的想像中形象化地重新加以塑造。

◎關鍵詞:物詩,雕塑,米開朗基羅,形象化,手勢,動靜對立,意志,模仿

★國科會人文學研究中心博士後研究員。

Ji-Ming Tang╱C. F. Meyer’s Michelangelo-Poems: Dinggedicht and Sculpture

C. F. Meyer’s Michelangelo-Poems
Dinggedicht and Sculpture

Ji-Ming Tang*

Abstract
     The Dinggedicht (“Thing-poem”) is a type of poetry that originated in the German-speaking world during the second half of the nineteenth century. In a Dinggedicht poem, a subject is objectively described and vividly represented. Such character of the Dinggedicht strongly suggests that this poetic form intends to imitate the sculptural art. The fact that Conrad Ferdinand Meyer and Rainer Maria Rilke, two of the three most famous Dinggedicht poets, were inspired by the masters of sculpture seems to further affirm the relation between the Dinggedicht and the sculpture. This article attempts to attest the supposition through analyzing C.F. Meyer’s four Michelangelo-themed poems and two best-known “thing-poems” – “Der romische Brunnen” by C.F. Meyer and “Der Panther” by R.M. Rilke. The study shows that the best Dinggedicht have many similarities to a work of sculpture. Both the Dinggedicht poet and the sculptor work to depict the image of the subject, grasp its inner dynamical structure, and highlight the expressions and/or gestures that best convey the nature of the subject. A Dinggedicht thus should be considered an invisible sculpture to be represented through words and language in a reader/listener’s imagination.

◎Keywords: Dinggedicht, sculpture, Michelangelo,objective, gesture, contrapposto, will, mimic

★ Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Center for Humanities Research, National Science Council.

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