100年3月號

2019-08-16

第四十卷 第一期 總432 中華民國100年3月
Vol.40 No.1 March 2011

《中外文學》三月號收錄了五篇精彩論文:黃宗慧解析史坦貝克(John Steinbeck)的短篇故事〈蛇〉,重省視覺中心主義之侷限,並探索另類觀看方式的可能;楊乃女從嗅覺主體的角度討論朱天心的〈匈牙利之水〉,並處理其中歷史與記憶的相關問題;許維賢重探張競生主編的《新文化》月刊對「性育」的倡導,顯示其推動「知識/權力」對中國男女性別與性相的掌控;楊凱麟探討布置(dispositif)作為傅柯(Michel Foucault)的思想-影像如何構成一種風格化的思想運動;許綺玲則由日常生活母題切入,分析、審視巴特(Roland Barthes)悼母之《服喪日記》。

中外文學三月號目錄
Contents

黃宗慧╱當科學家遇上蛇魔女: 以史坦貝克短篇故事〈蛇〉為起點重省視覺中心主義之侷限

當科學家遇上蛇魔女
以史坦貝克短篇故事〈蛇〉為起點重省視覺中心主義之侷限

黃宗慧*

摘要
     在史坦貝克的短篇故事〈蛇〉中,一個謎樣女子某日闖入了年輕科學家菲力浦博士海邊的實驗室,堅持要買一條蛇,且要求現場觀看這條屬於她的蛇吃老鼠的樣子,她打亂了科學家規律的工作節奏後旋即消失無蹤。故事中多次形容女子眼神迷濛、彷彿在觀看但眼神卻沒有聚焦,且將她與蛇的意象疊合;而科學家則是被描述為眼神專注、執著於透過顯微鏡來理解世界。本論文透過比較科學家與蛇樣女子感知世界的不同方式,思考前者所服膺的視覺中心主義傳統如何受到後者的挑戰。本文以為,故事中的菲力浦博士一如笛卡爾心物二元論主張下的觀看主體,是個封閉於暗室(camera obscura)中的科學家,其所信奉的視覺中心主義在標榜理性、精準等抽象價值之際,往往讓觀看淪為一種著重主宰操控、爭取認可的行為,也因此忽略了主體與環境的關係其實是由視覺與其他感官知覺經驗所共同決定的。然而故事在凸顯了科學家視野的侷限之際,似乎並沒有建議另一種替代的、較理想的觀看模式,因為蛇樣女子的恣意而為與不按牌理出牌雖然動搖了科學家原本信奉的價值,凸顯了視覺中心主義的問題,但依然不是一種具有倫理可能性的觀看方式;有鑒於此,從〈蛇〉所開啟的問題出發,本論文除了將說明故事中的菲力浦博士如何呈現了視覺中心主義的盲點,也想進一步探討另類的觀看方式為何必要、又如何可能。全文主要章節有三,第一節從歷來關於故事中科學家不解「蛇魔女」行徑的詮釋出發,探討何以在這則充滿觀看意象的故事裡,主角飽受看不懂的焦慮所折磨?第二節帶入暗室理論,將科學家的盲點解讀為笛卡爾式觀看主體所造成的問題,第三節則將援引布雷南、奧力佛、梅洛龐蒂等論者對視覺中心主義的批判,摹描向他者開放的另類觀看方式其可能的樣貌。

◎關鍵詞:史坦貝克,視覺中心主義,暗室,視覺,倫理

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Tsung-huei Huang╱Reconsider the Limitation of Ocularcentrism: John Steinbeck’s “Snake” as a Point of Departure

Reconsider the Limitation of Ocularcentrism
John Steinbeck’s “Snake” as a Point of Departure

Tsung-huei Huang*

Abstract
In John Steinbeck’s short story “The Snake,” a mysterious woman drops into Dr. Philips’s laboratory to purchase a male rattlesnake from the young scientist and insists on watching her snake eat a rat. Disturbed by the woman’s weird behavior, Dr. Philips loses track of time and ruins his starfish experiment. He is thrown into crisis after she leaves and even starts to anticipate her return. To his disappointment, the woman never appears again. Even though Steinbeck concedes that he himself does not know the meaning of this “damnable story,” which is based on an actual incident he witnessed, critics are not hesitant to develop multiple interpretations to unveil its mystery. The story’s concern with eyes and the act of seeing, for example, has drawn much critical attention. As we know, the doctor is said to possess “the mild, preoccupied eyes of one who looks through a microscope a good deal.” The woman’s eyes, “dark” and “veiled with dust,” immediately remind readers of the rattlesnake, whose “dusty eyes seemed to look at nothing.” If the imagery of eyes is crucial to our understanding of the story, what does Steinbeck attempt to reveal through his depiction of the scientist’s loss of the power of observation? Is he trying to endorse rationalism by characterizing Dr. Philips as a clear-sighted scientist wronged by the snake-woman? Or, on the contrary, does Steinbeck employ the snake-woman as a mirror to the scientist to help readers notice the limitation of ocularcentrism? In the first section of my paper, I argue that the snake-woman, rather than being an inhuman freak threatening to cause the scientist’s fall, compels Dr. Philips to learn the disastrous outcome of his exaltation of scientific knowledge. Refusing to look through the microscope, the woman represents a mode of looking that is unimaginable for the young doctor. The second section will analyze how the way Dr. Philips perceives the world can be likened to the Cartesian camera obscura model, which seeks to found knowledge on a purely objective view of the world. Having foregrounded the limitation of the vision-centered philosophy, in the third section I will elaborate why an alternative mode of recognition is essential for the ethics of love to take root. Teresa Brennan, Kelly Oliver and Merleau-Ponty will be drawn on to revisit the intricate relation between vision and ethical obligation.

◎Keywords: John Steinbeck, ocularcentrism, camera obscura, vision, ethics

★ Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

楊乃女╱氣味、歷史與記憶: 朱天心〈匈牙利之水〉中的嗅覺主體

氣味、歷史與記憶
朱天心〈匈牙利之水〉中的嗅覺主體

楊乃女*

摘要
《古都》是朱天心為台灣書寫的三部曲之一,書中的五篇故事採用不同的書寫策略處理歷史與記憶的問題,尤其是借助於感官經驗探索不同象徵化記憶的可能,重構個人的歷史。其中,〈匈牙利之水〉更是大膽擬仿嗅覺經驗,藉由嗅覺喚起記憶的過程,將已經遺忘(或刻意忘記)的歷史記憶重新召回,建構個人的主體位置。本文將由嗅覺主體的角度討論〈匈牙利之水〉,朱天心於本故事中不僅象徵化嗅覺經驗,並經由召喚、拆解、或重組這些由嗅覺喚起的記憶處理潛藏在主角「我」(或作者)無意識中記憶與歷史的矛盾問題。

◎關鍵詞:〈匈牙利之水〉,嗅覺主體,記憶,氣味,歷史

★國立高雄師範大學英語系助理教授。

Nai-nu Yang╱Scents, History and Memory: The Subject of Olfaction in Tianhsin Chu’s “The Hungary Water”

Scents, History and Memory
The Subject of Olfaction in Tianhsin Chu’s “The Hungary Water”

Nai-nu Yang*

Abstract
     The Ancient Capital is one of the trilogy written by Tianhsin Chu to cope with her Taiwanese experiences. In the five stories in the book, she adopts different writing strategies to deal with the relationship between history and memory. In some of the stories, she attempts to explore new possibilities to symbolize memory and to re-construct a personal history with the aid of sensual experiences. In “The Hungary Water,” she boldly imitates olfactory experiences in both its literary form and content. In the story, the memories which are lost (or deliberately abandoned) are summoned back with the help of odors, which helps one to re-construct his or her subjectivity. The paper aims to discuss “The Hungary Water” from the perspective of the subject of olfaction. In this story, Chu, on the one hand, tries to symbolize olfactory experiences; on the other hand, she attempts to tackle the controversy of the identification of those whose parents were from Mainland China. By means of summoning, dissembling and reassembling the pieces of memories evoked by olfactory experiences, Chu offers an alternative path to respond to the controversy: embodied experiences lead one to (re)connect oneself with the place that s/he lives in and help one to identify who s/he is.

◎Keywords: “The Hungary Water,” the subject of olfaction, memory, scents, history

★ Assistant Professor, Department of English, National Kaohsiung Normal University.

許維賢╱「性育」的底線: 以張競生主編的《新文化》月刊為中心

「性育」的底線
以張競生主編的《新文化》月刊為中心

許維賢*

摘要
     本文爬梳和重估張競生主編的《新文化》對「性育」的倡導。這些倡導在推動「知識/權力」對中國男女的「生物性別」、「社會性別」和「性相」的掌控和重新編碼。張競生推崇「優生學」和「美的性交」,以此種「性育」企圖改善中國人身體的先天衰弱和「男不男女不女」的「生物性別」特徵;在衣食住行上鼓吹「美育」,對中國男女「社會性別」各自所缺乏或顛倒的「男性氣概」和「女性氣質」給予「補救」和「矯正」;張競生也通過《性史》徵文和《新文化》來函的收集和分析,辨識中國男女的「性相」,以「按語」嘗試救治其中的「性變態者」。最後,本文也把《新文化》和20年代中國其他雜誌的性別譯述和論述做個比較。發現《新文化》在處理「同性愛」和「性美」的議題上,其作者群幾乎一律「統一」的見解,有時候反而不及《教育雜誌》、《婦女雜誌》和《新女性》對各種不同意見的包容立場。

◎關鍵詞:《新文化》,張競生,男性氣概,女性氣質,同性愛

★新加坡南洋理工大學中文系助理教授。

Hee Wai Siam╱The Bottom-line of “Sex Education”: Focusing on the Journal New Culture, Edited by Zhang Jingsheng

The Bottom-line of “Sex Education”
Focusing on the Journal New Culture, Edited by Zhang Jingsheng

Hee Wai Siam*

Abstract
     This article explores and re-evaluates Zhang Jingsheng’s “Sex Education” in his New Culture, which advocates controlling and re-coding Chinese men’s and women’s “sex,” “gender,” and “sexuality” by means of “knowledge/power.” Zhang Jingsheng accords great value to “eugenics” and “aesthetic sexual intercourse,” including the “sex education,” based upon which he tries to make improvements in Chinese people’s innate physical weakness and “neither male nor female” “sex” characteristics; and with touted “aesthetic education” on all ofthe basic aspects of life, he attempts to remedy and correct the lacked or inverted masculinity and femininity in Chinese men’s and women’s “gender.” He also makes his comments on how to save and cure those “sex perverts” identified in Chinese men’s and women’s “sexualities,” the information of which he collected from and analyzed in the articles solicited on the topic of Sexual Historiesas well as the letters to New Culture. Finally, this article compares New Culture with those discourses or translated discourses on sexual difference published in other Chinese magazines in the twenties, and concludes that New Culture seems to have a group of writers holding “unified” opinions on the issues of “homosexual love” and “sexual aesthetics” and seems less tolerant of differing opinions than magazines like The Chinese Educational ReviewThe Ladies’ Journal, and New Women.

◎Keywords: New Culture, Zhang Jingsheng, Masculinity, Femininity, Homosexuality

★Assistant Professor, Division of Chinese, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

楊凱麟╱分裂分析傅柯: 布置作為思想-影像與考古-系譜學對偶

分裂分析傅柯
布置作為思想-影像與考古-系譜學對偶

楊凱麟*

摘要
     本文討論布置作為傅柯的思想-影像如何構成一種風格化的思想運動。透過布置研究,傅柯哲學似乎等同於一種歷史不連續軸線上的人類學研究,其凝視的較不是不同地域的人種或族群,而是考古學地以某一知識型為前提、共時存在於特定時代中的人類存有,且更進一步的,此歷史存有模式系譜學地作為現前的外部性,思想繞經此外部性折返自身且批判性地再建構我們自身。現代人在這種繞經過去並再建構現前的考古學-系譜學巨大折返中,成為總是由外部性(時間軸線上的歷史實證性與域外思想的非思)所共構並因此自我更動自我與自我轉型自我的存有。

◎關鍵詞:米歇爾‧傅柯,布置,在己物,經驗-超驗對偶,系譜學

★國立台北藝術大學美術系副教授。

Kailin Yang╱Schizo-analysis of Michel Foucault: dispositif as an image-thought et archae-genealogical doublet

Schizo-analysis of Michel Foucault
dispositif as an image-thought et archae-genealogical doublet

Kailin Yang*

Abstract
     As research via the dispositif, the philosophy of Michel Foucault is a kind of anthropology on the discontinued line of history, which works archaeologically in the mode of being at a time determined by an episteme; but genealogically, the historical mode of being is regarded as the exteriority of the present. The thought turns back on itself through the past and constitutes in itself a critical ontology of ourselves. Modern man, in this archae-genealogical “fold” becomes a being that is transformed by the externality.

◎Keywords: Michel Foucault, dispositif, thing in itself, empirical- transcendental doublet, genealogy

★Associate Professor, School of Fine Arts, Taipei National University of the Arts.

許綺玲╱日常與無常:讀巴特的《服喪日記》

日常與無常
讀巴特的《服喪日記》

許綺玲*

摘要
     1977年10月,母親去世後,羅蘭巴特隔日起在筆記卡紙上寫下心情感受。其後兩年間,他時斷時續地寫。1980年,巴特突然過世,直到2009年初,這批手稿才被整理成冊出版,在全集之外,又添了一本巴特私密生活書寫的著作問世。這本《服喪日記》(Le Journal de deuil)與巴特同時期的其他書寫構成了緊密的互文關係。相對於這些結構完整的出版著作與講綱,《服喪日記》的出版讓讀者瞥見另一「前-書寫」的巴特,試圖界定自己必要歷經的服喪,如何落實於不得不面對的日常生活中。本論文從巴特向來關心的日常生活母題切入,對《服喪日記》進行文本分析,再借用巴特對日記文類的評論來審視這本《服喪日記》的意義。

◎關鍵詞:羅蘭巴特,服喪,日常生活,互文性,紀念碑,日記

★國立中央大學法文系副教授。

Chi-Lin Hsu╱Discourse about the Vicissitudes of Life vs. Everyday Life: The Mourning Diary by Roland Barthes

Discourse about the Vicissitudes of Life vs. Everyday Life
The Mourning Diary by Roland Barthes

Chi-Lin Hsu*

Abstract
 In October 1977, from the next day after the death of his mother, Roland Barthes began to keep a diary, and throughout more than two years, he continued to note what he felt and thought day by day during his mourning. He died in 1980, while these notes would not be published until 2009, under the title of The Mourning Diary (Journal de deuil), as one more autobiographical work, not included in his 5 volumes anthology of complete works. This book reveals closely knit intertextual relations with his other writings of the same period. But, in contrast to his thematic teaching discourses prepared for the College of France, this work shows another face of the writer, who tried all the time to define his own style of mourning within the flow of everyday life. This article deals specifically with selected notes about certain everyday life details, and analyzes how these apparently trivial topics strongly intervene in his reflections on life, death, time, privation, writing, etc. Finally, it considers the success his diary writing achieved by reference to his own reflections in essays on the genre of diary.

◎Keywords: Roland Barthes, mourning, everyday life, intertextuality, monument, diary

★ Associate Professor, Department of French, National Central University.

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