100年12月號

2019-08-14

第四十卷 第四期 總435 中華民國100年12月
Vol.40 No.4 December 2011

《中外文學》十二月號收錄了四篇精彩論文:李順興剖析漢森(Mark B. N. Hansen)對新媒體之「新」所下的定義,並試圖以體化(embodiment)的強度(intensity)作為測量值,檢視新媒體之新的內涵;張小虹以侯孝賢導演的法語片《紅氣球》為切入點,探討電影拍攝技法中的「長鏡頭」,企圖將「長鏡頭」轉換為「長境頭」,將對「(單)鏡頭」的關注,移轉到對「情境」的感應變化;陳淑卿從全球化多重權力治理的角度,討論當代亞美文學建置的跨國轉向與族裔越境遷移的多向性對當代族裔主體的衝擊,並以日裔美籍作家山下凱倫的小說《橘子回歸線》為例,討論書中各種臨界主體的越界矛盾;黃宗儀則解讀當代中國兩個大眾流行文本再現的新女性典範:《中國女首富張茵:從廢紙回收業到紙業女王》中的女性企業家,以及《杜拉拉升職記》中的高階白領女性,指出符合大眾想像的新女性形象建構之張力。

中外文學十二月號目錄
Contents

李順興╱新媒體,老問題:怎麼個「新」法?

新媒體,老問題
怎麼個「新」法?

李順興*

摘要
      本文解析漢森(Mark B. N. Hansen)對新媒體之「新」所下的定義,另嘗試以體化(embodiment)的強度(intensity)作為測量值,檢視新媒體之新的內涵。漢森引介柏格森(Henri Bergson)的認知理論,並將他的刪減法(subtraction)修改成加框的動作(framing),藉以解釋我們如何理解數位圖像。對漢森而言,新媒體之新最主要是指「身體中心性的提高」,而關鍵點在於加框功能由媒體介面「回歸」到身體。本文基本上同意漢森的定義,但對於他所列舉的某些範例,則提出適用性的質疑。除臚陳漢森範例論證上的盲點,本文另揭示體化的強度,藉以驗證新媒體之新。概論之,「體化的強度」與「身體中心性的提高」的觀察角度截然不同,但結論相去不遠,或可謂殊途同歸。本文的體化討論,從制動理論(cybernetics)的觀點出發。本文主張一個動作的完成或一項認知的達成,牽涉到人與機器(或作品)之間的配合,亦即:人與機器結合成一個分佈式認知系統(distributed cognitive system),一件工作在雙方共構而成的大迴路(circuit)中完成。本文描述這個大迴路如何形成,並探討之中再體化(reembodiment)的生成,指其在新媒體裏所呈現的強度、廣度前所未見。

◎關鍵詞:新媒體,制動理論,體化,解體,再體化

★國立中興大學外國語文學系教授。

Shuen-shing Lee╱Old Questions for New Media: What Makes New Media New and What Remains Old in New Media

Old Questions for New Media
What Makes New Media New and What Remains
Old in New Media

Shuen-shing Lee*

Abstract
     The present article expounds on Mark B. N. Hansen’s definition of the “newness” of new media and proposes “the intensity of embodiment” as a key parameter in gauging the newness of new media. Hansen replaces Henri Bergson’s “subtraction” with “framing” in his explication of how we perceive digital images. His “newness” mostly refers to an increase in the body’s centrality, invariably initiated by “a displacement of the framing function of medial interfaces back to the body.” The article accepts Hansen’s notion of the body’s greater centrality, but questions the relevance of some of his artwork examples. Besides probing for blind spots in Hansen’s arguments, it considers the so-called newness of new media in terms of the intensity of embodiment. Further, it suggests that embodiment has roots in cybernetics, for the accomplishment of a cognitive act involves cooperation between man and machine, i.e., man and machine merging into a distributed cognitive system, forming a circuit wherein a cognitive act is consummated. Lastly, the article explains the formation of the circuit and the emergence within it of “reembodiment,” the intensity and scope of which have never been experienced via old media.

◎Keywords: new media, cybernetics, embodiment, disembodiment, reembodiment

★ Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chung Hsing University.

張小虹╱巴黎長境頭:侯孝賢與《紅氣球》

巴黎長境頭
侯孝賢與《紅氣球》

張小虹*

摘要
「長鏡頭」作為重要的電影拍攝技法,自二十世紀五○年代以降,其相關論述一直由法國電影學者巴贊的寫實主義美學理論所主導。本文則是企圖以台灣導演侯孝賢以及其2007年的法語片《紅氣球》,探討如何有可能「解畛域化」當前長鏡頭的既有影像論述。
      而本文探討《紅氣球》的主要理論概念發想,乃是企圖將過去最常被視為侯孝賢「影像簽名」的「長鏡頭」,以同音異字的方式轉換為「長境頭」,而其中的關鍵,正在將對「(單)鏡頭」的執著關注,移轉到對「情境」的感應變化。此處的「情境」來自法文milieu的轉譯,原法文的拉丁字根,同時包含「環境」、「介質」與「居間」,而在當代法國哲學家德勒茲與瓜達里的理論鋪陳下,「情境」又可微分為「內在-外在情境」、「間界情境」與「併連情境」,而情境與情境間的轉化即「節奏」,而「界域」正是「情境」與「節奏」的「結域化」過程。對德勒茲與瓜達里而言,所謂的影像或文字創作,即是創造一個新的「感覺團塊」、一個新的「界域集結」。
      而《紅氣球》中影像的通透浮動,正是巴黎作為一個新的「界域集結」之動態表現。故侯孝賢《紅氣球》與法國導演拉摩利斯1956年的同名短片《紅氣球》,不僅只是「文本互涉」、「複訪電影」或後設「鏡淵」而已,侯孝賢的《紅氣球》乃是將拉摩利斯的《紅氣球》轉譯為「輕」,轉譯為「摺疊」,轉譯為「材質與形態發生」,讓紅氣球無所不在,給出了巴黎作為一座身體-城市的動態影像,一個「長鏡頭-長境頭-常境頭」的「多褶城市」。

◎關鍵詞:長鏡頭,侯孝賢,《紅氣球》,情境,節奏,界域

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Hsiao-hung Chang╱Paris Long-Take: Hou Hsiao-hsien and Flight of the Red Balloon

Paris Long-Take
Hou Hsiao-hsien and Flight of the Red Balloon

Hsiao-hung Chang*

Abstract
The discourse on the “long take” as an important cinematic technique has long been dominated by the realist aesthetics proposed by the French film critic André Bazin since 1950s. This paper attempts to take Taiwanese director Hou Hsiao-hsien and his 2007 French language film, Flight of the Red Balloon, as a point of departure to explore the possibility of deterritorializing the dominant discourse on the long take.
     In light of the long take as one of the most prominent cinematic signatures of Hou Hsiao-hsien, this paper will start with a conceptual displacement of鏡, the central character in the Chinese translation of the long take by境, a homonym to鏡 in Chinese and the key word in the Chinese translation of the French word milieu, in a wish to shift the obsessive attention on the one single shot to the changing sensation of the milieu. In French, the Latin roots of milieu point to “surroundings,” “medium,” and “middle.” In the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, milieu combines all these three meanings and can be differentiated into interior-exterior milieu, intermediate milieu and annexed milieu. They further conceptualize “rhythm” as the trans-coding from one milieu to another milieu and “territory” as the territorializing process of milieus and rhythms. For Deleuze and Guattari, the work of art is to create a new “bloc of sensation,” a new “territorial assemblage.”
     What the floating transparency of Flight of the Red Balloon gives is exactly the dynamic expression of Paris as a new “territorial assemblage.” Therefore, the juxtaposition of the French director Albert Lamorisse’s Le Ballon rouge (1956) and Hou’s Flight of the Red Balloon provide not merely cases for the exploration of intertextuality, cinema revisited or mise en abyme, but also the chance to see how the latter trans-codes the former as “lightness,” as “folding,” as “material and morphogenic happening.” This incessant trans-coding makes the red balloon everywhere in Hou’s film and thus gives us a Paris as the dynamic image of a body-city, as a “multi-pli-city” of the “long-take, milieu-take and everyday-take.”

◎Keywords: long take, Hou Hsiao-hsien, Flight of the Red Balloon, milieu, rhythm, territory

★ Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

陳淑卿╱跨界與全球治理: 跨越/閱《橘子回歸線》

跨界與全球治理
跨越/閱《橘子回歸線》

陳淑卿*

摘要
      本文從全球化多重權力治理的角度,來討論當代亞美文學建置的跨國轉向與族裔越境遷移的多向性對當代族裔主體的衝擊。強調族裔主體在跨國移動過程中,不僅須與國家地域權力交手,還需與資本邏輯及生命權力斡旋的處境。「跨國」固然有其積極的超越或僭越國家及地域權力的意義,但也可能跨向另一個權力介面,開啟另一個治理與生產的空間,不斷迫使族裔主體重新檢視移動、越界、移民的意涵及安家落戶的技術。首先檢驗全球資本擴張形式的三個階段與權力治理形式發展的平行關係,並從哈維所謂的「掠奪式累積」的觀點,指出哈特及涅格理的「無外部社會」看法的盲點,後者對全球化生命權力的闡釋有其重要性,但卻也忽略或遮掩了生命權力背後隱然存在的地域化可能,此外他們也未能指出多重權力治理同時存在並互為辯證的現象。本文第二部份以日裔美籍作家山下凱倫的小說《橘子回歸線》為例,討論書中各種臨界主體的越界矛盾,他們介於各種權力交錯的節點,如何一面跨越「帝國」的邊界,挑戰霸權對少數族裔的統馭,一面又須面對族裔意義的流失、資本邏輯的召喚、以及進入生命權力無窮生產過程的困境。最後,我檢驗傅柯的反指揮/行動的理論,藉此討論小說中的底層族裔角色如何在多重權力介面之間進行反指揮/行動,打開「跨國」的僵局。

◎關鍵詞:生命政治,多重治理,治理性,新自由主義,邊境之地,反指揮/行動

★國立中興大學外國語文學系教授。

Shu-ching Chen╱Border Crossings and Global Governance: Reading Tropic of Orange on the Borders

Border Crossings and Global Governance
Reading Tropic of Orange on the Borders

Shu-ching Chen*

Abstract
     This paper examines the transnational turn in Asian American Literature and the ways in which ethnic subjects migrate multiply at the interstices of different forms of power through reading Karen Tei Yamashita’s novel Tropic of Orange. The migrant ethnic subjects in transnational contexts are portrayed not in terms of “difference” and “hybridity” but as sites of transit, simultaneously negotiating with sovereignty, global capitalism, and biopower. While transcending the geopolitical power of the nation still holds true in their transnational practices, they are constantly challenged by other forms of rule that relate to one another dialectically. Crossing the borders suggest not just crossing “beyond,” but also “into” different skills of governmentality, forcing the migrant ethnic subjects to constantly reexamine their practices of migration, border-crossings and the skills of “homing.” In the first part of the paper, I examine the parallel developments between capitalism and modes of power as explicated by Hardt and Negri to point out the blind spot in their celebration of a society without outside. While their incorporation of Foucauldian biopower into the theoretical construction of globalization is important and significant, they fail to detect the possibility of reterritorialization behind the technologies of biopolitics. In the meantime they fail to recognize the coexistence of these complex forms of power, and their interlocking dialectic relationships. The second part of the paper moves to a close reading of Tropic of Orange, discussing the paradox of “crossing” that characterizes the subjects of interstices in the novel. Taking Los Angeles as a city established on the borderland histories of imperialism, nationalism, global capitalism and biopower, I scrutinize the ways in which the ethnic subjects challenge nation state and racism, only to find themselves confronted by yet another form of rule—neoliberalism or biopolitical governmentality—that produces and reproduces their everyday life by depriving the significance of their ethnicity. Finally, I explore the possibility of counter-conduct through examining the minority subjects’ lines of flight within the multiple realms of power.

◎Keywords: biopower, multiple forms of rule, governmentality, neo-liberalism, borderlands, counter conduct

★Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chung Hsing University.

黃宗儀╱中國南方「新流動女性」:女性發達史敘事與珠江三角洲的發展想像

中國南方「新流動女性」
女性發達史敘事與珠江三角洲的發展想像

黃宗儀*

摘要
     本文參照珠江三角洲與廣州的經濟發展歷程及論述,批判地解讀當代中國兩個大眾流行文本再現的新女性典範:其一是張茵傳記《中國女首富張茵:從廢紙回收業到紙業女王》中的女性企業家,另一為暢銷小說《杜拉拉升職記》的高階白領女性。透過分析成功新富女性的發達敘事與中國南方區域都市化之間的關聯,本文意圖指出流行文本中符合大眾想像的新女性形象的建構充滿張力。一方面,這些形象具體演示了中國經濟起飛為女性開啟自我發展的機會與嶄新的都會生活經驗;另一方面,張茵傳記應和了官方區域政策對珠三角私營企業的推廣,杜拉拉的故事迎合「世界城市」(world city)虛構的典範性,兩者皆顯示出「新流動女性」的發達敘事不僅隱含刻板的性別意識,更受中國當今主流的都市與區域發展主義意識形態所牽制。

◎關鍵詞:新流動女性,成功人士,白領菁英,珠江三角洲,廣州,世界城市典範,普通城市

★國立臺灣大學地理環境資源學系副教授。

Tsung-yi Michelle Huang╱South China’s New Wave Feminism: A Narrative History of the Development of Feminism and the Development Ideology of the Pearl River Delta and Guangzhou

South China’s New Wave Feminism
A Narrative History of the Development of Feminism and the Development Ideology of the Pearl River Delta and Guangzhou

Tsung-yi Michelle Huang*

Abstract
     This paper discusses in detail two paradigmatic images of contemporary Chinese women represented in popular narratives, that of a female entrepreneur, exemplified in China’s Richest Woman Zhang Yin: From Waste Paper Recycling to Queen of the Paper Industry (2009), and that of the white-collar office lady, represented in A Story of Lala’s Promotion (2007). Throughout this inquiry, female “successology” is built around gender roles and, at the same time, the gendered language found in these narratives can be circulated back to, or used to explain or legitimize, the urban development discourse of south China. My readings of Zhang Yin and Du Lala are conducted critically in parallel with the economic development of the Pearl River Delta and Guangzhou, which pursued development with the fundamental premise of regionalization and the goal of first-tier world city status. I explain how the gendered life experience as elites in the metropolis reflects the diversity of urban connections, giving life to what Jennifer Robinson means by the term “ordinary city” in the global south. Paradoxically, both the strong emphasis on the PRD as a precondition for success in Zhang’s biography and the partial portrayal of Guangzhou in the Du Lala novel reproduce the dominant ideology of development, the hierarchical power relationship among cities and the fictional paradigm of the “world city,” which has bearing on the development of many other ordinary cities, by means of the dubious representations of gender roles and the issues therein.

 

◎Keywords: new mobile woman, successful people, white collar, Pearl River Delta, Guangzhou, global-world city paradigm, ordinary city

★Associate Professor, Department of Geography, National Taiwan University.

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