99年12月號

2019-08-16

第三十九卷 第四期 總431 中華民國99年12月
Vol.39 No.4 December 2010

《中外文學》十二月號收錄了五篇精彩論文:劉亮雅援引史碧娃克(Gayatri Spivak)的「底層人民」概念和廖炳惠的「遲來的後殖民」概念,探討賴香吟兩篇解嚴小說〈虛構與紀實〉和〈喧嘩與酩酊〉中知識菁英和底層人民所感知的後殖民;王智明透過分析台美作家林柏薇的《財富絲帶》(Wealth Ribbon)和林芺蘭的《外國人》(The Foreigner),探究台美離散書寫中的認同矛盾與情感斷層;林巾力以西方的純粹詩為切入點,論述楊熾昌與紀弦對文學現代性的參與;孫松榮以「複訪電影」的概念出發,討論侯孝賢的兩部外語影片《珈琲時光》與《紅氣球》;陳佩筠則挪用斯賓諾莎(Spinoza)和德勒茲關於「被動情感」的觀念,細究普魯斯特(Marcel Proust)巨著《追憶似水年華》中馬歇爾與阿爾貝蒂娜(Albertine)之間的嫉妒愛戀。

中外文學十二月號目錄
Contents

劉亮雅╱遲來的後殖民: 賴香吟解嚴小說中的知識菁英和底層人民

遲來的後殖民
賴香吟解嚴小說中的知識菁英和底層人民

劉亮雅*

摘要
      賴香吟的許多小說處理學運世代知識分子的知識實踐,包括反抗威權體制、關注社會運動和底層人民、檢視理想與實踐等,但由於二二八事件前後及戒嚴時期特殊的殖民結構,這些知識菁英有時也發現自己是「底層人民」。本文藉用史碧娃克的「底層人民」概念和廖炳惠的「遲來的後殖民」概念,探討《島》當中的兩篇解嚴小說〈虛構與紀實〉和〈喧嘩與酩酊〉如何呈現知識菁英和底層人民所感知的後殖民的遲到以及他們對後殖民的參與或回應。兩篇一方面透過公私領域的錯綜糾葛,呈現解嚴以來遲來的後殖民與不同族群、政治與性別身分知識菁英的關係,並透過虛構或回憶反省國民黨威權統治的感覺結構。另方面兩篇暗批後殖民國家主義未能完全解決底層人民的問題,而其所彰顯的乃是社會改造的速度不如預期,在英雄敘事之外許多的焦灼與挫敗。第一部分我先說明史碧娃克的「底層人民」概念及其與印度國家主義論述的關係,第二部分對台灣「遲來的後殖民」與社會改造做背景說明,第三部分討論〈虛構與紀實〉,第四部分則討論〈喧嘩與酩酊〉。

◎關鍵詞:遲來的後殖民,賴香吟,解嚴,知識菁英,底層人民

★國立臺灣大學外國語文學系教授。

Liang-ya Liou╱Belated Postcoloniality: Intellectuals and the Subaltern in Lai Hsiang-yin’s Post-Martial Law Fictions

Belated Postcoloniality
Intellectuals and the Subaltern in Lai Hsiang-yin’s Post-Martial Law Fictions

Liang-ya Liou*

Abstract
     Much of Lai Hsiang-yin’s fiction deals with the political and moral commitment of intellectuals of the student-activism generation who defy the authoritarian rule, show strong concerns for social movements and the subaltern, and watch to see whether one practices what one preaches. As a result of the colonial structure created by the Kuomingtang government following the 228 Incident and under the martial law from 1949 to 1987, however, some of these intellectuals come to realize that they have been relegated to the status of the subaltern as well. This article applies Gayatri Spivak’s notion of the subaltern and Ping-hui Liao’s notion of belated postcoloniality to explore how the intellectuals and subaltern characters in Lai Hsiang-yin’s two short stories “Fabrication and Recording” and “Uproar and Intoxication” experience the belatedness of postcoloniality and how they participate in or respond to postcoloniality. On one hand, the two stories portray the entanglements between private and public spheres, thereby presenting belated postcoloniality not only in relation to intellectuals of different ethnic, political, and gender identities but also in relation to the “structure of feeling” of the authoritarian rule under the martial law. On the other hand, the two stories also implicitly criticize postcolonial nationalism as failing to utterly solve the problems of the subaltern, thus revealing the intellectuals’ anxieties and frustrations with regard to the slow progress of social restructuring. The first section of the article discusses Gayatri Spivak’s notion of the subaltern in relation to Indian nationalist discourse. The second section delves into Ping-hui Liao’s notion of Taiwan’s belated postcoloniality in relation to social restructuring. The third and fourth sections undertake textual analysis of “Fabrication and Recording” and “Uproar and Intoxication” respectively.

◎Keywords: belated postcoloniality, Lai Hsiang-yin, post-martial law fiction, intellectual, the subaltern

★ Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Taiwan University.

王智明╱福爾摩沙及其背叛:情感斷層與離散矛盾

福爾摩沙及其背叛
情感斷層與離散矛盾

王智明*

摘要
      本文探討台美離散書寫中的認同矛盾與情感斷層。透過分析兩位新銳台美作家的作品,本文試圖指出:台美書寫裡的離散想像與遠距民族主義總是與台灣獨特的歷史情境相繫,而背叛的情感修辭乃是理解這個跨國連繫的關鍵。本文發現,背叛不只呈現為台美作家個人的認同矛盾與文化失語,同時也是台灣歷史的轉喻,指涉台灣在日美中帝國夾縫中的艱難處境。然而,更重要的是,背叛修辭同時也為遠距民族主義的家國想望提供論述的基礎,進而破壞(或背叛)了亞美認同跨族裔結盟的精神。換言之,台美離散書寫中的背叛焦慮其實也指向了亞美認同建構的內部矛盾。面對越來越複雜的跨國連繫,亞美研究有必要重新省視建構亞裔美國的方法:亞美不再只是一個獨立的泛族裔群體,對離散主體而言,它更是一個跨國空間與情感結構,包裹著多重乃至於相互矛盾的家國想像與認同模式。閱讀台美離散書寫迫使我們面對背叛焦慮的無所不在,也要求我們在跨國情境裡重新想像家國與認同的意義。

◎關鍵詞:《被出賣的台灣》、離散、背叛、情感、台美認同、弒兄弒弟

★中央研究院歐美研究所助研究員。

Chih-ming Wang╱Formosa and Its Betrayals: The Affective Paradox of Diaspora

Formosa and Its Betrayals
The Affective Paradox of Diaspora

Chih-ming Wang*

Abstract
     This article explores the significances of affect and betrayal in Taiwanese American identity formation through Brenda Lin’s Wealth Ribbons (2004) and Francie Lin’s The Foreigner (2008). It contends that the diasporic imagination and long-distance nationalism of Taiwanese America are affectively articulated with a history of betrayal in Taiwan, and that betrayal must be understood as an identity paradox that has created an affective fault in the Taiwanese American articulation of desire for belonging and home. The Taiwanese American identity formation, as supported by diasporic imagination and long-distance nationalism, moreover, brings about new challenges to the pan-ethnic paradigm of Asian American studies, which must learn to understand and theorize the Asian American community not so much as a distinct ethnic unity as a transnational space and structure of feeling by which ethnic subjects are retooling their relations with their cultural roots. Reading Taiwanese America’s complex affect compels us to confront betrayal at the core of diaspora and to rethink the meanings of home and identity in transnational contexts.

◎Keywords: diaspora, betrayal, affect, Taiwanese American, fratricide

★ Assistant Research Fellow, Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica.

林巾力╱追求詩的純粹性:從楊熾昌到紀弦

追求詩的純粹性
從楊熾昌到紀弦

林巾力*

摘要
      詩之純粹性是現代詩史中不斷被提起的概念,也是以「現代」自居的詩人們所念茲在茲的課題。因新文學成立之後,格律與音韻等束縛的解放意味情感可以不受限制,因此詩歌必須是來自詩人的情感與內心的自由表現;但它又必須與一般的現代散文有所區隔,因此詩歌的美學形式、語言資源、甚至與讀者的關係等等,都是有待重新建立的領域。而詩之純粹性,無疑是這曲折道路中所出現的嚴肅探索。然而,詩之純粹性概念與其說是自發於台灣或中國詩壇的內部,毋寧更是有著西方的影響足跡。它的出現,首先與知識的專業分化與藝術自主概念的發展脫離不了關係,也與詩在散文的崛起中走向邊緣化的處境深深相繫。而純粹性作為一種策略,對外,是拒絕詩不受政治、道德與意識型態的侵擾;對內,則是思索詩之所以為詩,且新詩與現代詩之所以為「新」為「現代」的本質所在。緣此,本文以西方的純粹詩作為理解的切入點,進而探討在台灣的詩人──尤其是楊熾昌與紀弦這兩位分別開啟戰前與戰後現代詩實踐的詩人,了解他們究竟在怎樣的現代性自覺中詮釋詩之純粹性,並分析其純粹性理念在作品中所呈現的風貌,乃至理論與實踐之間的落差與限制。本文的目的,除了考察詩之純粹性的內在動力與發展軌跡外,也試圖透過比較的視野審視台灣現代詩在文學的現代轉化過程中所展開的自我重構,藉此另闢美學蹊徑來參與文學現代性的探討。

◎關鍵詞:純粹詩,藝術自主性,文學現代性,象徵主義,超現實主義

★興國管理學院應用日語系助理教授。

Chin-Li Lin╱In Search of Pure Poetry: The Cases of Yang Chih-Chang and Ji Xian

In Search of Pure Poetry
The Cases of Yang Chih-Chang and Ji Xian

Chin-Li Lin*

Abstract
     Purity of poetry has been an important concept to modern Chinese and Taiwanese poets since the commencement of New Literature. New poetry eliminated the limitations of rhyme schemes and tonal patterns, which allowed poets to express their emotions and thoughts with more freedom. But, the use of vernacular in poetry also made it necessary to distinguish new poetry from prose, which in turn moved poets to probe the new aesthetic and linguistic forms, and even to adjust their relationship with readers. The purity of poetry is no doubt the poets’ earnest pursuit of what modern poetry ought to be. Pure poetry advocates ridding poetry of interference from social and political ideologies, and emphasizes the components of pure poetic form. By focusing on Yang Chih-Chang’s and Ji Xian’s conception of pure poetry, this essay analyzes how pure poetry, originally from the West, and especially as influenced by French symbolism, was conceived and put into practice. The aims of this essay are, firstly, to describe the inner drive and outside trajectories of the pure poetry movement in Taiwan. Secondly, from a comparative point of view, it will look at how Taiwanese modern poetry reconstructed itself while facing the impact of literary modernization. In pursuit of these two aims, the author hopes that this essay will provoke new discussions on literary modernity from the perspective of pure poetry, which has long been neglected by literary researchers.

◎Keywords:  pure poetry, autonomy of art, literary modernity, symbolism, surrealism

★Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Japanese, Hsing-Kuo University.

孫松榮╱「複訪電影」的幽靈效應: 論侯孝賢的《珈琲時光》與《紅氣球》之「跨影像性」

「複訪電影」的幽靈效應
論侯孝賢的《珈琲時光》與《紅氣球》之「跨影像性」

孫松榮*

摘要
「複訪電影」是一種結合了電影理論史與實踐的殊異電影概念和類別屬性。在影史上,它第一次出現於1960年代初期古典好萊塢電影帝國隕歿後的歐洲現代電影中,法國導演作者馬克的短片《堤》(1962)和高達《輕蔑》(1963)即為代表作。其第二次現身是在1980年代,彼時正值電影對未來充滿不確定性,德國創作者溫德斯藉《水上迴光》(1980)與《尋找小津》(1985)重現了已逝的「複訪電影」。從1960年代到1980年代,「複訪電影」所顯現的時代語脈縱然有所差異,但它們之間由於交織著一些共同特質而相互輝映。首先,它們皆對經典電影開展明確且具意識的再創作;其次,其價值不僅展現「互文性」或「反身性」,更將作品的敘事與形象基調建立在對過去電影的重新創造與反思、並賦予當代性的這種新作法上;再者,「複訪電影」絕非「重拍電影」亦非「改編電影」,它試圖追尋電影已死但不滅的幽靈精神,以便記錄、憶念與校閱當代的電影史。
      電影遂成為一處複現偉大且具軔性幽靈的所在。2000年以來由侯孝賢所執導的兩部外語影片《珈琲時光》(2004)與《紅氣球》(2007),亦為當代另一波體現電影幽靈的「複訪電影」。然而台灣導演的作品和之前兩波「複訪電影」有所不同的地方,在於這位當代亞洲電影大師不只回溯了來自日本與法國的電影先驅,更進一步將自身的影像命題及影片畫面當作重疊各種不同類別的影像物質(繪畫、攝影、數位影像等)之表現界面。換言之,侯孝賢將此一「複訪電影」推展至一種極具當代性的電影創作方略,進而觸發了電影作為思考「跨影像性」、糾葛著過去與現在的電影幽靈效應及電影造形性的思想主體。

◎關鍵詞:複訪電影,幽靈效應,跨影像性,侯孝賢,後影迷,《珈琲時光》,《紅氣球》

★國立台南藝術大學動畫藝術與影像美學研究所助理教授。

Song-yong, Sing╱The Phantom-Effect of “Cinema revisited”: On “Trans-imageity” of Hou Hsiao-hsien’s Café Lumière and Le Voyage du Ballon Rouge

The Phantom-Effect of “Cinema revisited”
On “Trans-imageity” of Hou Hsiao-hsien’s Café Lumière and Le Voyage du Ballon Rouge

Song-yong, Sing*

Abstract
“Cinema revisited” is an alternative concept and a genre consisting of the history of film theory as well as a cinematic practice. In the history of cinema, cinema revisited emerged for the first time in the contemporary European films of the early 1960s, right after the fall of the golden age of classical Hollywood. French cineastes Chris Marker’s La Jetée (1962) and Jean-Luc Godard’s Le Mépris (1963) are two outstanding representatives. Its second appearance took place during the 1980s when the future of cinema was quite uncertain and it was then that the German cineaste Wim Wenders revived this dissipated “cinema revisited” in his Lightning Over Water (1980) and TokyoGa (1985). The two appearances of “cinema revisited” in the 1960s and the 1980s, despite their spatiotemporal differences, do constitute possible a reverberation thanks to some interpenetrating attributes. First of all, both consciously appropriate and recreate certain acknowledged cinematic canons. The value of this act lies in not only the ideas such as “intertexuality” and “reflexivity” but a kind of audiovisual reconfiguration of, and reflection on, the previous cinematic works in terms of a contemporary viewpoint. Therefore, “cinema revisited” is not just about “remake” or “adaptation”; what it is really after is to be on the lookout for a cinematic phantom, already deceased yet lingering on, by which it can record, reminisce, even review the contemporary film history. Thereupon, the cinema becomes a haunted field where a formidable phantom could represent itself persistently.
     Since the year 2000, two films directed by Hou Hsiao-hsien, Café Lumière (2004) and Le Voyage du ballon rouge (2007), also embody such cinematic phantoms in the contemporary regard. Nevertheless, the difference between Hou’s “cinema revisted” and that of his forerunners is that he moves away from merely tracing his Japanese and French predecessors and steps further to pose such a cinematic problematique to transform the image into an interface where heterogeneous visual materials, such as paintings, photographs and digital images, etc, could be juxtaposed and overlapped. In other words, Hou’s “cinema revisited” becomes a highly contemporary strategy for cinematic practice; whereupon cinema possesses such a subjective will to reflect on the “trans-imageity”, to manifest the phantom-effect, and to incarnate the cinematic plasticity.

◎Keywords: Cinema revisited, Phantom-effect, Trans-imageity, Hou Hsiao-hsien, Post-cinephile, Café LumièreLe Voyage du Ballon Rouge

★ Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Animation and Film Art, Tainan National University of the Arts.

陳佩筠╱他的嫉妒心想要探測這世界: 被動情感的主動性

他的嫉妒心想要探測這世界
被動情感的主動性

陳佩筠*

摘要
      普魯斯特(Marcel Proust)的巨著《追憶似水年華》(A la recherche du temps perdu)並非一部往事再現之作,而是以「馬歇爾成為作家」這個主題,不斷衍生發展的一段經歷與過程。在這個過程中,令他受挫最深的大概莫過於他與阿爾貝蒂娜(Albertine)之間糾葛的愛戀。這段戀情從第二卷馬歇爾的少年時代開始,一直持續到第六卷〈女逃亡者〉阿爾貝蒂娜意外死亡作結,我們有充分理由推斷,阿爾貝蒂娜與馬歇爾彼此的相互關係在馬歇爾認識自我的路徑上有絕對不容忽視的重要性。本文意圖由斯賓諾莎(Spinoza)的《倫理學》以及德勒茲的《斯賓諾莎與表現的問題》(Spinoza et le problème de l’expression)兩書中關於被動情感(passive affections)以及愉悅的被動情感(joyful passive affections)的說法,來理解馬歇爾與阿爾貝蒂娜的愛戀中的關鍵情感:「嫉妒」,並指出嫉妒雖然是被動情感,卻可能蘊含某個程度的主動性。馬歇爾的嫉妒之情由阿爾貝蒂娜的臉所引發,阿爾貝蒂娜的臉「表現」,這個表現引發了更多的「問題」,並且讓受牽連的人事物都「動」了起來。嫉妒內蘊著詮釋的渴望,它與解釋行動一同發生。馬歇爾的行動表現在他熱切地試圖去解釋,又正在他不間斷的解釋行動中,他愈得以認識自我。因此,本文主張馬歇爾的創造活動並非是一個由無到有的突現狀態,而是以馬歇爾的感受力(capacity of being affected)為動力,不斷開展的生成活動。

◎關鍵詞:普魯斯特,斯賓諾莎《倫理學》,嫉妒,德勒茲《斯賓諾莎與表現的問題》,被動情感

★淡江大學英文學系助理教授。

Pei-Yun Chen╱His Jealousy Longs to Plumb the Universe: On Active Passion

His Jealousy Longs to Plumb the Universe
On Active Passion

Pei-Yun Chen*

Abstract
     Marcel Proust’s A la recherche du temps perdu is not meant to recollect what has been lost in time, but to narrate a long apprenticeship of Marcel’s becoming a writer. Nothing frustrates Marcel more than his smothering love journey with Albertine in the apprenticeship. Beginning from Marcels’ teenage years and ending in Albertine’s sudden death, their love, fairly speaking, bears indispensable significance in Marcel’s apprenticeship of becoming a writer and himself. This paper attempts to understand the recurring “jealousy” in Marcel’s love for Albertine in terms of passive affections and joyful passive affections in Spinoza’s Ethics and Deleuze’s Expressionism in Philosophy, respectively. This paper argues that even in jealousy, as a passive affection, the power of action comes into play. Marcel’s jealousy is provoked by Albertine’s face; her face “expresses.” That is to say, this expression causes “problems” and drives everything/everyone involved to “act.” Jealousy is intrinsically involved with explication; in other words, its happening coincides with the acts of explication. Marcel’s power of action is laid bare in his desperate attempt at explication, and it is exactly in his explicating act that he becomes himself. This paper maintains that Marcel’s act of creating is by no means an emergent state ex nihilo, but rather, it is a ceaseless process of becoming developed and driven by Marcel’s capacity of being affected.

◎Keywords: Proust, Spinoza’s Ethics, jealousy, Deleuze’s Expressionism in Philosophy, passive affections

★Assistant Professor, Department of English, Tamkang University.

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