102年3月號「顏元叔先生紀念輯」

2019-08-09

第四十二卷 第一期 總440 中華民國102年3月
Vol.42 No.1 March 2013

《中外文學》三月號除了刊登五篇一般論文,也特別收錄三篇紀念本刊創辦人顏元叔先生的文章,以及一篇深度書評。「一般論文」部分,劉紀蕙分析法國哲學家洪席耶(Jacques Rancière)與巴迪烏(Alain Badiou)對於「計算為一」與「一分為二」之思想歧義,及其與政治主體相關之議題;謝作偉以「弦論」為切入點,探討聘瓊(Thomas Pynchon)的小說《梅森與迪克森》中對於各種界線的顛覆與反思;黃宗潔以駱以軍、杜韻飛的作品為例,剖析城市居民與流浪動物之間如何互動之相關論題;陳智德以《父慈子孝》、《桃李滿天下》與《虹》為例,呈現了戰後香港第二波左翼電影比起前期更為曲折迂迴的革命話語;秦嘉嫄則以「漫步劇場」為著眼點,探究如何藉由觀眾的漫步移動,串連起劇本、導演及空間。在本期「顏元叔先生紀念輯」的部分,宋美璍、伍軒宏分別以其自身體驗談及受教於顏元叔先生的種種經歷;呂正惠則以同輩的觀點論及顏元叔先生的「現實關懷」與「民族情感」。在學術書評部分,呂文翠則對彭小妍的著作《浪蕩子美學與跨文化現代性:一九三○年代上海、東京及巴黎浪蕩子、漫遊者與譯者》做出精彩評析。

 

 

中外文學三月號目錄
Contents

編輯室報告
Editorial Note

  • 朱偉誠╱編輯室報告
    Wei-cheng Chu╱Editorial Note

劉紀蕙╱「計算為一」與「一分為二」:論洪席耶與巴迪烏關於「空」與政治性主體之歧義

「計算為一」與「一分為二」
論洪席耶與巴迪烏關於「空」與政治性主體之歧義

劉紀蕙*

摘要

毛澤東源自於黑格爾/馬克思辯證法的「一分為二」,在六十年代中國成為反右鬥爭的說法;六十年代受到毛派左翼思想影響的當代法國思想家洪席耶(Jacques Rancière)與巴迪烏(Alain Badiou),其後期思想皆展現對於「一分為二」的不同演繹。「一分為二」的問題在於如何「計算為一」,也就是「一分為二」的矛盾如何被實體化為內部疆界,政治主體如何被「計算為一」,以及作為純粹否定性運動的「一分為二」如何可能重構「計算為一」的邏輯。本文處理洪席耶與巴迪烏「計算為一」與「一分為二」之詮釋歧義。他們所試圖回應的問題是:被計算為「一」的主體是否已經被某種觀念性結構的「一」所決定?是否必然被納入具有統合與同質的形上學理念、政黨、國家或是資本的穩定權力結構?政治主體如何能夠透過「一」的出現而挑戰原本「一」的結構,甚至重組在地的話語邏輯?
洪席耶與巴迪烏二人分別提出了「空」(le vide; void, empty space)的概念以置疑「計算為一」的穩定框架,也透過「空」而演繹出「一分為二」的矛盾辯證。不過,二人對於「空」的詮釋有明顯差距:洪席耶的感受機制的「一分為二」,讓他分析了不同話語理性的歧義,以及透過詞語內部分裂所顯現的間距與差異,使得分歧的獨一感受得以出現,而構成了非共識的公共空間;至於巴迪烏命名體系切割機制的「一分為二」,則是持續從既定邏輯撤離的辯證運動,任何命名都銜接了無法計算而不可見的「空」,而獨一性便基於這個「空集合」的「非空間」而得以出現,這就是巴迪烏所設想的獨一性平等出現之共產社會。本文指出,洪席耶與巴迪烏的詮釋差距以及他們的共同關注,一則展現了當代法國思想界的特殊光譜,再則透過他們的分析,也可以協助我們進一步重新思考二十世紀歷史過程中政治主體的難題以及平等與公共的根本意義。

◎關鍵詞:洪席耶,巴迪烏,政治性主體,主體性,一分為二,計算為一

★國立交通大學社會與文化研究所教授。

Joyce C.H. Liu╱“Count as One” and “One Divides into Two:” Disagreement between Rancière and Badiou on the Concept of the Void

“Count as One” and “One Divides into Two”
Disagreement between Rancière and Badiou on the Concept of the Void

Joyce C.H. Liu*

Abstract

Mao Zedong’s concept of “one divides into two,” derived from Hegelian/Marxist dialectical logic, was influential among French leftist thinkers in the 1960s, including Jacques Rancière and Alain Badiou. While “one divides into two” turned out to be a slogan in China used for political purges in the 1960s, it left a different trace on the philosophical thoughts of Rancière and Badiou in their later developments. The stake of the issue here is whether the division of “one” into “two” is a process of internal partition based on the fixated ideological positions, whether the count of the subject as “one” has already been prescribed and implicated by certain conceptual structure of the One, be it God, Nation, Party or the Capital, or whether one dividing into two is a constant happening in the dialectic movement of the matter. Both Rancière and Badiou proposed the concept of the void (le vide) to disrupt and to relocate the given logic of the count through the dialectic process of “one divides into two.” Their interpretations of the “void,” however, point to different directions. For Rancière, the partage of the sensible indicates the sharing and partaking of the whole as one part, a part that is partitioned within the whole, with a given location. The void between the counted part and the uncounted part, part des sans-part, is the écart—the gap, the empty space, interval, difference—inscribed within the logos where politics begins. For Badiou, counting as one is always already within the regime of cut and is at the edge of the void. The void is the horlieu or non-lieu, or the empty setin the topological sense, which allows something new to happen. This paper examines how Rancière’s and Badiou’s philosophies diverge on the concept of the void while at the same time provide their re-definition of radical equality and the common.

◎Keywords: Jacques Rancière, Alain Badiou, political subject, subjectivity, count as one, one divides into two

★Professor, Institute of Social Research and Cultural Studies, National Chiao Tung University.

謝作偉╱測繪界線/弦:聘瓊《梅森與迪克森》中異端的「解」歷史能量

測繪界線/弦
聘瓊《梅森與迪克森》中異端的「解」歷史能量

謝作偉*

摘要

美國近年來有不少作家皆以小說的形式,重新詮釋自殖民地時期以來一些被忽略的或看不見的的歷史片段與記憶。較著名的例子如達克特羅(E. L. Doctorow)的《行軍》(The March, 2005)與《荷馬與籃利》(Homer & Langley, 2009)、伏爾曼(William T. Vollmann)的「七個夢」(Seven Dreams)系列小說等等。聘瓊(Thomas Pynchon)的《梅森與迪克森》(Mason & Dixon, 1997)也重新檢視過去美國革命前夕的歷史,從敘述者查利庫克牧師(Rev. Wicks Cherrycoke)的觀點,描述十八世紀從英國派到美洲大陸的兩位地理測繪師,梅森(Charles Mason)與迪克森(Jeremiah Dixon),為當時的殖民地賓州和馬里蘭州劃定地理邊界的過程。
在小說中,此界線卻成了各種不同思維與能量相互激盪的場域,並打破各種不同界線的藩籬。小說中的排版風格更模仿十八世紀的印刷品(大小字體混合、縮寫等),因而整體上下起伏的效果就如能量的波動。此能量的波動或許反映了近來理論物理學中的弦論(string theory),其中弦(而不是粒子)被認為是宇宙的最基本單位。本文試著將弦看成是梅森-迪克森線的隱喻,成為結合各種幻奇怪誕事件的一條線,其中如會說話的狗(人與動物之間的界線),機械鴨以及它對愛的追尋(人與機器之間的界線),還有跨國種族間的衝撞與互動等等事件,都具體展現這條界線是多方異端能量碰撞的聚集場。同時,聘瓊也企圖顛覆權力所掌控的歷史,讓異端的能量發聲,重新建構自然的「純真性」(innocence)。此「純真性」代表一種對科技的懷疑精神,強調對生態環保的重視。小說因此體現了美國自殖民時期開始到二十世紀這兩百年以來,對各種界線顛覆與反思的歷史。

◎關鍵詞:湯瑪斯.聘瓊,《梅森與迪克森》,梅森與迪克森線,弦論,異端,純真性,生態意識

★國立高雄第一科技大學應用英語系助理教授。

Tso-Wei Hsieh╱Measuring the Boundary/String: The (De-)historical Energy of Heresy in Thomas Pynchon’s Mason & Dixon

Measuring the Boundary/String
The (De-)historical Energy of Heresy in Thomas Pynchon’s Mason & Dixon

Tso-Wei Hsieh*

Abstract

In recent years, many American writers have endeavored to reinterpret the ignored and invisible fragments of historical memory since colonial times. Most notable are E. L. Doctorow’s March (2005) and Homer & Langley (2009), William T. Vollmann’s Seven Dreams series, and so on. Thomas Pynchon’s Mason & Dixon (1997) also reexamines the historical past right before American Revolution, and through his narrator, Rev. Wicks Cherrycoke, recounts the experience of two surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, in drawing the Mason-Dixon line between Pennsylvania and Maryland.
In the novel, this line becomes the space in which various strings of historical thoughts collide, breaking different boundaries that anticipate the cultural diversity of the contemporary world. The novel’s language style also “pastiches” the eighteenth century prints (mixing large and small fonts, abbreviating words), creating a fluctuating pattern much like the waving movement of energy. Such a language pattern reflects the idea in current theoretical physics of string theory, in which string is considered the most basic unit of the universe. Thus, this paper will view the string as a metaphor for the Mason-Dixon line, a line that articulates “miraculous” and absurd fantasies—such as the talking dog (symbolizing the line between human and animal), the mechanical duck (symbolizing the line between human and machine), and other transnational interactions among different races—and becomes the repository of multi-dimensional, conflicting heretical energies. The novel also attempts to subvert the official history constructed by those in power, and calls for the voice of heresy in order to restore the “innocence” of Nature. More important, this “innocence” is also meant to make us take a more cautious view of technology and its associated violence, and to stress the importance of eco-consciousness.

◎Keywords: Thomas Pynchon, Mason & Dixon, Mason-Dixon Line, heresy, string theory, innocence, eco-consciousness

★ Assistant Professor, Department of English, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology.

黃宗潔╱城市流浪動物的「生殤相」: 以駱以軍、杜韻飛作品為例

城市流浪動物的「生殤相」
以駱以軍、杜韻飛作品為例

黃宗潔*

摘要

本文以駱以軍、杜韻飛之作品為例,試圖論析城市居民在與流浪動物相遇時表現出的不同態度,以及身為創作者,他們又是如何以作品呈現或回應此種互動模式。儘管眾多關於城市的論述指出,人類文明與自然之間的疆界早已互相滲透,難以明確區隔,但試圖以「壁壘分明」的方式對待在城市中出現的動物,卻似乎始終是當代城市生活的主流態度,因此,「棄的故事」也就成為城市與動物互動的主旋律。對於這樣的狀況,駱以軍在一次實際參與救援行動後,深感此一「冷酷異境」之巨大與無情,故以感性呼籲之柔性文字,試圖改變城市居民漸趨「無感」之困境;杜韻飛之影像作品《生殤相》則以流浪動物臨終前的影像為素材,並以巨幅肖像之形式,讓觀者無從迴避這些被城市拋棄處死的生命,面對牠們在安樂死之前明亮或黯淡的臉容,人們或能藉此重新省思自身看待動物的方式,並且進一步思考關於城市中人類與動物住民共同協商出生活空間的可能性。

◎關鍵詞:城市,流浪動物,駱以軍,杜韻飛

★國立東華大學華文文學系副教授。

Tsung-chieh Huang╱Living/Dead Stray Animals in the Urban Environment: Yi-Chun Lo’s and Yun-Fei Tou’s Works as Cases in Point

Living/Dead Stray Animals in the Urban Environment
Yi-Chun Lo’s and Yun-Fei Tou’s Works as Cases in Point

Tsung-chieh Huang*

Abstract

This article explores the diversity of attitudes held by urban residents toward stray animals by discussing Yi-Chun Lo’s and Yun-Fei Tou’s animalrelated works. It also discusses how they, when depicting their experience with strays, reveal their own way of interacting with the animals. Although many urban studies regard civilization and nature as interpenetrating, and thus claim that it is impossible to rigidly demarcate the border between the two, most urban residents are still inclined to the view that stray animals should be expelled from their civilized, ordered city space. Consequently, “abandonment” becomes the motif when the encounters between citizens and strays are to be represented. Overwhelmed by the apathy of this “hard-boiled wonderland,” Lo attempts to change urban residents’ callous indifference to the misfortunes of strays: he not only saved some puppies from the public animal shelter but also started to write down touching stories about strays. As for Yun-Fei Tou, he photographs the last moment of stray dogs and publishes the collection of these images under the title of Memento Mori. Notably, Tou’s portraits of the strays are deliberately huge so that the viewers are unable to look aside when facing them and their death executed by the city authorities. Perhaps Tou hopes that people will reexamine their ways of treating animals after they recognize, with the aid of his photography, how bright or gloomy these stray animals once were. It also presses us to consider further if it is possible for human beings to co-exist with animal inhabitants in the urban space.

◎Keywords: city, strays, Yi-Chun Lo, Yun-Fei Tou

★Associate Professor, Department of Sinophone Literatures, National Dong Hwa University.

陳智德╱五十年代香港左翼電影的革命話語 :《父慈子孝》、《桃李滿天下》與《虹》

五十年代香港左翼電影的革命話語
《父慈子孝》、《桃李滿天下》與《虹》

陳智德*

摘要

因應1949 年以後政治氣候的變化、陣營內部的調整以及香港政府的政治壓力,戰後香港第一波左翼電影如《珠江淚》(1950)、《羊城恨史》(1951)、《小二黑結婚》(1950)等所提出的「反帝」、「反封建」與階級鬥爭等鮮明的政治訊息,在1952 年以後出品的戰後第二波左翼電影中淡化下來,轉以較隱晦的方式表達。《父慈子孝》(1953)透過倫理主題的故事,細寫革命陣營內部的動搖;《桃李滿天下》(1954)在海外華僑教育問題以外,更思考革命路線的掙扎,提出更複雜的問題;改編自茅盾同名小說的《虹》(1960)則把革命話語隱密化,卻由於觀眾心領神會而成了開放的隱語。戰後香港第二波左翼電影由於政治路線的變化、港府的壓力、商業市場的考慮等因素,比前期表達了更曲折迂迴的革命話語。本論文擬以此三部影片為例子,探討戰後香港第二波左翼電影的革命話語,包括革命陣營內部的分歧、革命路線和策略的反思、革命話語的傳遞等。

◎關鍵詞:左翼電影,革命話語,《父慈子孝》,《桃李滿天下》,《虹》

★香港教育學院文學及文化學系助理教授。

Chan Chi Tak╱The Revolutionary Discourse of 1950s Left-Wing Hong Kong Films: Loving Father, Faithful Son, A Teacher’s Reward, and Rainbow

The Revolutionary Discourse of 1950s Left-Wing Hong Kong Films
Loving Father, Faithful Son, A Teacher’s Reward, and Rainbow

Chan Chi Tak*

Abstract

Compared with the first wave of post-war leftist films such as Dawn Must Come (1950), Old Memories of Canton (1951) and Peasant Takes a Wife (1950), the second wave films produced after 1952 expressed toned-down political messages of “anti-imperialism” and “anti-feudalism,” with direct propaganda replaced by subtler and oblique expression, due to political changes, internal reforms within the leftist camp, and political pressure from the HK Government after 1949. This essay explores the revolutionary discourse in these second wave leftist films that deal with internal disagreements, rethinking of revolutionary strategies and directions, and the dissemination of revolutionary discourse, by focusing on the following three films as examples. Loving Father, Faithful Son (1953) is an exposition of the struggles within the revolutionary camp under the disguise of a moral story. A Teacher’s Reward (1954) deals with the more complicated issue of the struggle between different revolutionary directions underneath its surface story on the education for overseas Chinese. And in Rainbow (1960), an adaptation of the eponymous novel by Mao Dun, the revolutionary discourse is told in a more elusive, metaphorical manner, the message of which, however, local audiences have no difficulty in deciphering. Due to factors such as changes in the larger political situation, pressure from the Hong Kong Government, and commercial consideration, the revolutionary discourse is in general expressed in more implicit ways in these second wave leftist films of Hong Kong.

 

◎Keywords:  left-wing films, revolutionary discourse, Loving Father, Faithful SonA Teacher’s RewardRainbow

★Assistant Professor, Department of Literature and Cultural Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education.

秦嘉嫄╱《櫻桃園》漫步:導演詮釋、觀眾反思、空間安棲

《櫻桃園》漫步
導演詮釋、觀眾反思、空間安棲

秦嘉嫄*

摘要

本篇論文試圖以觀眾邊走邊觀戲的「漫步」形式為出發點,討論如何藉由觀眾的身體移動,串連劇本文字、導演詮釋、以及空間歷史,成為過往作品與當代社會反思的動態過程。本文通過一系列概念轉向的分析, 從「凝視」(gaze)、「體現」(embodiment)、再到「安棲」(emplacement),串起漫步形式在劇場美學流變中的位置。本文不僅嘗試閱讀俄國作家契訶夫(Anton Chekhov)的《櫻桃園》是如何被英國當代劇場演出《在我睡著之前》再次詮釋展現,更企圖藉由此推演出一套關於觀眾移動的劇場美學之潛力所在,如何從坐著到走動,挑戰看與被看的固定視線,以身體感受空間、了解空間、並化為空間的一部分,將劇本、創作者、觀眾與場地同時「安棲」。最後將以漫步力量的展現作為本文結論:對鏡框式舞台的屏除,挑戰了觀眾與表演長期以來被看成是固定的、非辯證的、靜止的關係;對身體感知的注重,拓展了文字的詮釋,使得觀眾有了從觀看者轉為參與者的可能;而移動的觀眾身體,彰顯了「創作者+觀眾+空間」的劇場特色,更造就了創作者不斷實驗新型態、重溫劇本的深意;最後,還有那些劇場和地方參與的討論,通過漫步,人們在此與自己的記憶、廢棄的建築、劇本的角色、塵土、鄰居或陌生人相逢。

◎關鍵詞:《櫻桃園》,安棲,漫步劇場,參與式劇場,觀眾研究

★國立東華大學藝術創意產業學系助理教授。

Jia-iuan Chin╱A Promenade through The Cherry Orchard: Directors’ Interpretations, Spectators’ Reflections, and Spatial Emplacement

A Promenade through The Cherry Orchard
Directors’ Interpretations, Spectators’ Reflections, and Spatial Emplacement

Jia-iuan Chin*

Abstract

By taking the site-responsive promenade production Before I Sleep (inspired by The Cherry Orchard) as a point of departure, this article attempts to capture how a collaborative relationship between texts, artists and space is re-stimulated by the moving bodies of the audience. It surveys the path to promenade through the series of focus on gaze, embodiment and emplacement, to map out the shifts of theoretical emphasis on the moving audience. It also analyzes the aesthetic potential of promenade in such shifts and concludes by suggesting the theatrical implications of an inter-subjective relationship in promenade productions: i.e. to challenge the classic study of the gaze which is based on the relationship between seated spectators and staged actors, to explore the found spaces where moving bodies bring the idea of embodiment into practice, to reinterpret the plays along with contemporary issues, and finally to connect the discussions of local engagement with the friends and memories of the moving audience.

◎Keywords: The Cherry Orchard, emplacement, promenade theatre, participatory theatre, audience studies

★Assistant Professor, Department of Arts and Creative Industries, National Dong Hwa University.

顏元叔先生紀念輯
In Memoriam Professor Emeritus Yen Yuan-shu

  • 宋美璍╱逝水年華:憶顏元叔老師
    Mei-hwa Sung╱Remembrances of Things Past: Professor Yen Yuan-shu and DFLL
  • 伍軒宏╱魔鬼代言人:紀念顏元叔老師
    Shuan-hung Wu╱Devil’s Advocate: Remembering Professor Yen
  • 呂正惠╱這是一個真性情的漢子:顏元叔的現實關懷與民族情感
    Zhen-huei Lu╱An Authentic Man: Yen Yuan-shu’s Reality Concerns and Patriotic Sentiments

議題與討論
Polemics and Discussions

  • 呂文翠╱跨文化現代性的構想與途徑:評彭小妍《浪蕩子美學與跨文化現代性:一九三○年代上海、東京及巴黎浪蕩子、漫遊者與譯者》
    Wen Tsuei Lu╱Devising New Approaches to Transcultural Modernity: A Review of Hsiao-yen Peng’s Dandyism and Transcultural Modernity: The Dandy, the Flâneur, and the Translator in 1930s Shanghai, Tokyo, and Paris (The Chinese Edition)
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